TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh. AU - Argos, Maria. AU - Rathouz, Paul J.. AU - Pierce, Brandon L.. AU - Kalra, Tara. AU - Parvez, Faruque. AU - Slavkovich, Vesna. AU - Ahmed, Alauddin. AU - Chen, Yu. AU - Ahsan, Habibul. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Purpose: The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption of naturally contaminated groundwater. Dietary factors influencing the metabolism of ingested arsenic may potentially be important modifiers of the health effects of arsenic in this ...
The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg
Abstract: Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal ...
Gilbert-Diamond, Diane ; Cottingham, Kathryn L ; Gruber, Joann F ; Punshon, Tracy ; Sayarath, Vicki ; Gandolfi, A Jay ; Baker, Emily R ; Jackson, Brian P ; Folt, Carol L ; Karagas, Margaret ...
Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested womens home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ∼0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (μg/d) were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic ( ...
Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Results We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin , 120 g/L) compared to women with normal hemoglobin levels [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.32, 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.29, 8.52] after adjusting for arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75 % of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/L), suggesting that the ...
What is arsenic and where do you find it?. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the earths crust. Arsenic can exist in several oxidation states with other elements as inorganic or organic arsenic. It is a silvery-gray, semimetallic substance that tarnishes in air. Inorganic and organic arsenic compounds are white in color, and have no smell or special taste. Inorganic arsenic occurs naturally in certain types of soils and rock formations. Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used as a preservative in pressure-treated wood to make it resistant to rotting and decay. Organic arsenic compounds are used to make insect killers, weed killers, and fungicides.. Who is exposed to arsenic?. Anyone can be exposed to arsenic since low levels of arsenic are present in soil, water, food, and air. People are primarily exposed to arsenic through eating food (fish and shellfish), drinking water, or breathing air containing arsenic. If wells are drilled in areas where naturally ...
To date, we have analyzed 29668 hand tubewell water samples from 1721 villages / wards in 250 GPs/ Municipal area from all 26 blocks of the district (Table I). Figure I shows the groundwater arsenic situation in each block of Murshidabad with Pie-diagram distribution. We observed arsenic concentration above 10 µg/L in 15953 (53.8%) hand tubewells and in 7911 (26.7%) above 50 µg/L and 1337 (4.5%) of the tubewells had arsenic concentrations above 300µg/L. In Murshidabad the number of villagers where we found arsenic concentration above 10, 50 and 300 µg/L are 1320, 971 and 281 respectively; and 25, 24 and 17 blocks were found to be contaminated with arsenic levels above 10, 50 and 300 µg/L. Arsenic level above 1000µg/L was found in 71 tubewells; the maximum arsenic contamination level found in this district is 3003µg/L in the Nawda and Raghunathganj I blocks. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Arsenic methylation capability and human health. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. AU - Huang, Yung Kai. AU - Chung, Chi Jung. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenic. However, interspecies differences exist according to the efficiency with which inorganic arsenic is metabolized and excreted in urine. Intermediate trivalent methylated arsenic species are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than inorganic compounds. The arsenic methylation profile is influenced by demographic characteristics, lifestyle, diet and genetic susceptibility. Inefficient methylation is related to the risk of cancer and noncancer disease.. AB - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects IV. T2 - Arsenic exposure, null genotypes of glutathione s-transferase m1, t1 and p1, and risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents in the Lanyang Basin of Taiwan. AU - Chappell, W.R.. AU - Abernathy, C.O.. AU - Calderon, R.L.. AU - Chiou, Hung-Yi. AU - Wang, I.H.. AU - Hsueh, Yu-Mei. AU - Chiou, S. T.. AU - Chou, Yi Li. AU - Teh, Hee-Wen. AU - Chen, Chien Jen. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - This collected volume of authoritative articles represents the state-of-the-art in arsenic research. Arsenic experts from around the world, participants in the Fourth International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects organized by the Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health in 2000, present their critical findings.A vital contribution to arsenic study and policy making, this volume examines the global impact of the toxin and discusses arsenic in the environment, mechanisms of arsenic metabolism and carcinogenesis, water treatment ...
To date, we have analyzed 8334 hand tubewell water samples from 1374 villages/Para/wards in 79 GPs/ Municipal area from 17 blocks of this district. Table I shows the distribution of arsenic in tubewell water from South 24 Parganas district. Figure I shows the groundwater arsenic contamination status in 17 blocks of South 24 Parganas with Pie-diagram distribution. Table I shows that arsenic concentration above 10 µg/L in 3500 (42%) hand tubewells and in 2359 (28.3%) above 50 µg/Land 547 (6.6%) had arsenic concentrations above 300µg/L. From the above analysis, it appears that groundwater in 12 block contains arsenic above WHO guideline value of arsenic in drinking water (10 µg/L) and 11 blocks exceeds Indian standard value for As in drinking water (50 µg/L). Arsenic level above 1000µg/L was found in 30 tubewells; the maximum arsenic contamination level found in this district is 3700µg/L in the Baruipur block. In blocks Diamond Harbour, Gosaba, Joynagar II and Thakurpukur all the tubewells ...
Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen that can target the liver, but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still unknown. Global DNA hypomethylation occurs during arsenic-induced malignant transformation in rodent liver cells. DNA hypomethylation can increase gene expression, particularly when occurring in the promoter region CpG sites, and may be a non-genotoxic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study liver samples of male mice exposed to 0 (control) or 45 p.p.m. arsenic (as NaAsO2) in the drinking water for 48 weeks were analyzed for gene expression and DNA methylation. Chronic arsenic exposure caused hepatic steatosis, a lesion also linked to consumption of methyl-deficient diets. Microarray analysis of liver samples showed arsenic induced aberrant gene expression including steroid-related genes, cytokines, apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle-related genes. In particular, the expression of the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and cyclin D1 genes were markedly increased. RT-PCR and ...
Arsenic is carcinogenic, possibly partly through epigenetic mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure and metabolism on DNA methylation. Arsenic exposure and methylation efficiency in 202 women in the Argentinean Andes were assessed from concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine (inorgani
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is recommending that methods to minimise the levels of inorganic arsenic in rice products should be investigated in the light of recent dietary exposure studies in the German population.. Analyses of rice and rice products in Germany have shown that many contain relatively high concentrations of carcinogenic inorganic arsenic. Some products, such as rice cakes, were found to contain more inorganic arsenic than rice grains, but the reason for this is not known.. The BfR has calculated the intake of toxic inorganic arsenic compounds through the consumption of rice and rice products in Germany and concludes that they could make a significant contribution to the overall intake, especially in children. Because inorganic arsenic compounds are classified as carcinogenic for humans, foodstuffs should only contain as little as reasonably achievable, says BfR President Professor Dr Dr Andreas Hensel.. The Institute is advising food manufacturers to ...
Posted on Jul 7, 2013 , 1 comment. By The Editors Despite the high toxicity of arsenic, there are arsenical drugs - in other words, there are drugs that contain arsenic. One of these drugs, roxarsone, is used in chicken feeds to kill intestinal parasites, promote growth (make the chicken grow faster) and improve pigmentation (make meat look pinker). Roxarsone contains organic arsenic, which is much less toxic than inorganic arsenic. However, mounting evidence suggests organic arsenic can change into inorganic arsenic once administered to chickens. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen - This classification is based on extensive population studies of lung cancers that developed following arsenic exposure through inhalation, and skin cancers that developed following ingestion of contaminated drinking water in adults. According to the EPA, arsenic exposure also may be associated with a higher incidence of bladder, liver, kidney, and ...
Studies into arsenic in food have been restricted by a lack of speciation data. Of more than 100,000 arsenic concentrations submitted to EFSA for evaluation, some 98% were reported as total arsenic but only a few broke figures down into organic and inorganic. European authorities have adopted EFSAs 2009 report and maximum limits for inorganic arsenic are planned to be introduced for rice and rice-based infant food. The introduction of maximum limits for cereals, algae and food supplements is also under discussion.. In the US the Food and Drug Administration has been measuring total arsenic concentrations in food products since 1991, but has yet to establish a specific standard. A guideline for arsenic (total) in crustacean and molluscs of 76ppm and 86 ppm respectively, was introduced in 1993, but it is currently examining the risks associated with longterm exposure.. CODEX has a standard for total arsenic in various foods (fats, margarine, olive oil, vegetable oil, mineral water and salt), but ...
Arsenic contamination takes serious turn in Narail. NARAIL June 12 : Arsenic contamination has taken a serious turn in all the three upazilas of the district in recent times, reports BSS. The number of arsenic affected people is increasing in Narail district day by day. Kalia upazila is a severely arsenic affected area in district. About 85 per cent tube-wells in the area are marked with red paint to warn the people that the waters of these tube-wells are contaminated by arsenic, Md Ahsan Habib, Upazila Nirbahi Officer, Kalia said.. In Kalia upazila the waters of 11,304 tube-wells have been tested, of which contamination of arsenic beyond permissible level has been detected in 8,507 tube- wells.In Lohagora upazila, waters of 1,023 tube-wells have been tested, of which contamination of arsenic has been detected in 696 tube-wells. In Narail Sadar upazila the waters of 1,269 tube-wells have been tested and of which contamination of arsenic has been detected in 499 tube-wells.. At least 55 persons ...
Beyond Pesticides, September 20, 2012) Raising questions about the adequacy of pesticide regulation, historically and ongoing, Consumer Reports published a new study yesterday that finds worrisome levels of inorganic arsenic in rice products. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. This new report follows its earlier one that finds high levels of arsenic in apple and grape juice. The report finds elevated arsenic levels across organic and conventional products, raising serious questions about widespread environmental and soil contamination from past and continuing arsenical pesticide use. Although organic arsenic occurs naturally in the environment, it is synthetic inorganic arsenic that poses the biggest health hazards to humans and animals. So, humans are exposed to two kinds of the carcinogen in air, water, soil, and food sources. But unlike organic arsenic, which is found naturally in the environment, inorganic arsenic is present in our food as a result of pesticide application and animal ...
In June 2011, AdEdge Water Technologies was contacted by Sunrise Engineering to design, manufacture, and start up an arsenic removal system for the Spring Creek Utilities Company located in Elko, Nevada. The existing water system consisted of three wells feeding into a centralized distribution system with a maximum capacity of 1950 GPM and serves a population of 1500 residents. The AdEdge treatment system consists of five WaterPOD containerized units each housing an ADGS+ coagulation/filtration arsenic removal system. All five WaterPODs are integrated with an existing chlorine module to oxidize arsenic (III) to arsenic (V) for optimal removal. The units also integrate with an AdEdge ADIN chemical feed module which injects ferric chloride in the raw water to supplement the iron concentration to aid in arsenic removal. A CO2 pH adjustment module is furnished in each WaterPOD to reduce the pH from 7.89 to a neutral pH of 7. AdEdge also provided an H2Zero backwash recycle system that reclaims 100% ...
Silver Spring, MD (TFC) - An approved animal drug known as 3-Nitro® (roxarsone) was added to chicken feed prior to July 2011. This drug was known to contain an organic form of arsenic, which is known to be toxic, but indeed it is less toxic than inorganic arsenic. In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration admitted that roxarsone contained inorganic arsenic, which is a much more toxic compound. After discovering this, the FDAs Center for Veterinary Medicine and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition developed a new analytical method used to detect minute levels of arsenic in animal tissue.. It is important to note that organic arsenic is in the environment as a naturally occurring substance and can also be a contaminant in water, air, soil and various food products. In this case, the cause for concern is the organic arsenic found in 3-Nitro® that could transform into inorganic arsenic found in the chicken feed at high levels.. The FDA made a statement in the Product Safety ...
Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a moderately abundant element in Earths crust, and although many arsenic compounds are often considered highly toxic to most life, a wide variety of organoarsenic compounds are produced biologically and various organic and inorganic arsenic compounds are metabolized by numerous organisms. This pattern is general for other related elements, including selenium, which can exhibit both beneficial and deleterious effects. Arsenic biochemistry has become topical since many toxic arsenic compounds are found in some aquifers, potentially affecting many millions of people via biochemical processes. The evidence that arsenic may be a beneficial nutrient at trace levels below the background to which living organisms are normally exposed has been reviewed. Some organoarsenic compounds found in nature are arsenobetaine and arsenocholine, both being found in many marine organisms. Some ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption. AU - Meharg, A. A.. AU - Williams, P. N.. AU - Deacon, C. M.. AU - Norton, Gareth John. AU - Hossain, Mohammed Kamal. AU - Louhing, D.. AU - Marwa, Ernest Melkiory. AU - Lawgalwi, Y.. AU - Taggart, Mark Antony. AU - Cascio, Claudia. AU - Haris, P.. PY - 2014/11. Y1 - 2014/11. N2 - Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed ...
ARSENIC TREATMENT The 1998 European Drinking Water Directive includes an arsenic standard of 10 ?g/l, reduced from 50 ?g/l in the 1980 Directive. Learn more about ARSENIC TREATMENT on GlobalSpec.
Arsenic is found in multiple forms, some of which are more toxic to humans than others. In Alaska, most arsenic in groundwater is likely derived from inorganic arsenic that occurs naturally in the Earths crust, most commonly as the mineral arsenopyrite. When arsenopyrite oxidizes into its elemental components (similar to the way iron rusts) and those components enter the groundwater system, the resulting arsenic, as pentavalent arsenic [As(V) or arsenate] and trivalent arsenic [As(III) or arsenite], is toxic to humans. Arsenite is both more harmful and more mobile in groundwater than arsenate. Soils in some parts of Alaska have high concentrations of inorganic arsenic, which can leach into groundwater and render private well water unsafe for consumption. Arsenic in surface water, however, tends to bind with iron oxide and organic material, making it less mobile, and therefore, less likely to reach drinking water sources. Arsenic also accumulates in food crops grown in arsenic-rich soil or ...
treatment with 400 micrograms a day of folic acid, the U.S. recommended dietary allowance, reduced total blood arsenic levels in the study population by 14 percent...Folic acid supplementation enhanced the detoxification of arsenic to a form that is more readily excreted in urine, said Mary Gamble...Folic acid increased the methylation or detoxification of arsenic in the body, allowing the body to change some of its more toxic metabolite, or methylarsonic (MMA) acid, to a form that could more easily be excreted from the body, thus lowering the levels of arsenic found in the blood... ...
2000, describes a method for removing arsenic from fly ash, in which arsenic is recovered as scorodite. The first treatment stage of the arsenic-containing material is the oxidation of trivalent arsenic (As(lll)) into pentavalent arsenic (As(V)) with a gas containing sulphur dioxide and oxygen in oxidising conditions, in which arsenic does not precipitate. After this, arsenic is precipitated in atmospheric conditions, in which the Fe(III)/As(V) mole ratio is specified as 1. Precipitation is carried out either in one or several stages, but precipitation as scorodite demands the over-saturation of the solution, which is achieved by recycling scorodite crystals to the first precipitation reactors and simultaneously neutralising the suspension. A beneficial pH range is around 1-2 and this is maintained by feeding a suitable neutralising agent into the precipitation stage. In these conditions, arsenic can be precipitated to the level of 0.5 g/l. The final arsenic removal to a level below 0.1 mg/l is ...
Millions now suffer the effects of chronic arseniasis related to environmental arsenic exposure. The biological mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced toxicity and especially chronic effects, including cancer, are not well known. The U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) is participati …
Arsenic (As) is an ubiquitous chemical element that occurs in nature in the form of organic and inorganic compounds, and its harmful effects are well known and described. It is well known that inorganic arsenic (III and V) compounds are more toxic than organic compounds. Also the bioavailability of arsenic from different chemical compounds varies. Organic forms of arsenic, which are most commonly found in fish and seafood, undergo little biotransformation after consumption and are excreted from the body in virtually unchanged form. On the other hand, inorganic arsenic compounds are well absorbed and metabolized. Adverse effects of inorganic arsenic Long-term exposure to arsenic derived from inorganic compounds results in an increased risk of developing various types of cancer, including skin, bladder, lung, kidney, liver and prostate cancer. In addition, exposure to inorganic arsenic is accompanied by disorders of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, blood, respiratory, neurological, immune, ...
Commonly found arsenic species in human urine are AsIII (arsenite), AsV (arsenate), MMA (monomethyl arsenic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid) and AB (arsenobetaine). Evidence has shown that these species vary in toxicity and have the potential to be used as biomarkers for human exposure. For human exposure assessments in areas that have naturally occurring arsenic contaminated sources, or those who live or work near contaminated environmental sites where arsenic has been used, it is important to fully understand what species of arsenic residents are being exposed to in order to grasp the risk of arsenic exposure. Since it is difficult to determine direct human exposures, a swine model was used as a surrogate. Urine samples from these studies were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LCICPMS) to quantitate arsenic species. There was a range of 64-74% DMA determined in swine urine samples for all test soils where a range of 60-75% ...
Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced
According to recent reports, millions of people across the globe are suffering from arsenic (As) toxicity. Arsenic is present in different oxidative states in the environment and enters in the food chain through soil and water. In the agricultural field, irrigation with arsenic contaminated water, that is, having a higher level of arsenic contamination on the top soil, which may affects the quality of crop production. The major crop like rice (Oryza sativa L.) requires a considerable amount of water to complete its lifecycle. Rice plants potentially accumulate arsenic, particularly inorganic arsenic (iAs) from the field, in different body parts including grains. Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV) is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (AsIII) through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. Researchers and
Inorganic arsenic is used for hardening copper and lead alloys. It also is used in glass manufacturing as a decolorizing and refining agent, as a component of electrical devices, in the semiconductor industry, and as a catalyst in the production of ethylene oxide. Arsenic compounds are used as a mordant in the textile industry, for preserving hides, as medicinals, pesticides, pigments, and wood preservatives. Approximately 90% of the domestic consumption of arsenic is currently used with production of chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a wood preservative, the production of which is currently being phased out. Arsenic is also found naturally in the environment and is typically present in soil and water at detectable levels. Sources of human exposure to inorganic arsenic include drinking water, diet, air, and soils (which can contain naturally occurring arsenic or contamination from anthropogenic sources). This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We exploit recent molecular genetics evidence on the genetic basis of arsenic excretion and unique information on family links among respondents living in different environments from a large panel survey within a theoretical framework incorporating optimizing behavior to uncover the hidden costs of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh. We provide for the first time estimates of the effects of the ingestion and retention of inorganic arsenic on direct measures of cognitive and physical capabilities as well as on the schooling attainment, occupational structure, entrepreneurship and incomes of the rural Bangladesh population. We also provide new estimates of the effects of the consumption of foods grown and cooked in arsenic-contaminated water on individual arsenic concentrations. The estimates are based on arsenic biomarkers obtained from a sample of members of rural households in Bangladesh who are participants in a long-term panel survey following respondents and their
The WHO recommended value of arsenic contamination in water is 0.01 mg/l, while the maximum permissible limit for Bangladesh and India has been fixed at 0.05 mg/l. In the DCH-SOES survey, less than 0.01 mg/l arsenic concentration was detected in 46% or 2803 out of 6101 water samples while above the WHO recommended value (0.01 mg/l) was found in the rest 54% or 3298 samples. On the other hand, arsenic concentration at less than the permissible limit (0.05 mg/l) was detected in 62% or 3783 samples, while above the limit was found in the rest 38% or 2318 water samples. Arsenic contamination at higher level than the WHO recommended value was found in the tube-wells of 52 districts out of the 60 surveyed. Of these, the level of arsenic presence exceeds the maximum permissible limit in the tube-wells water of 41 districts. In 11 districts, the level of arsenic concentration was found more than the WHO recommended value, but less than the maximum permissible limit. That means, highest 0.05 mg/l exist ...
In mammals, methylation occurs in the liver by methyltransferases, the products being the (CH3)2AsOH (dimethylarsinous acid) and (CH3)2As(O)OH (dimethylarsinic acid), which have the oxidation states As(III) and As(V), respectively.[2] Although the mechanism of methylation of arsenic in humans has not been elucidated, the source of methyl is methionine, which suggests a role of S-adenosyl methionine.[25] Exposure to toxic doses begin when the livers methylation capacity is exceeded or inhibited. There are two major forms of arsenic that can enter the body, arsenic (III) and arsenic (V).[26] Arsenic (III) enters the cells though aquaporins 7 and 9, which is a type of aquaglyceroporin.[26] Arsenic (V) compounds use phosphate transporters to enter cells.[26] The arsenic (V) can be converted to arsenic (III) by the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase.[26] This is classified as a bioactivation step, as although arsenic (III) is more toxic, it is more readily methylated.[27]. There are two routes ...
The arsenic speciation and arsenic removal in chitosan packed column were studied. Arsenic removal experiments were carried out with an arsenic standard solution (1.0 mg/l) and drilled well water samples from Limon Mine Community at different pH, water flowrate, and volume of adsorbent material. The simulation of arsenic speciation was carried out at a pH range from 0 to 12, a temperature of 25ºC, a pE equal to 4, and a total arsenic concentration of 1.34 x 10-5 mol kg-1. According to speciation calculations arsenic is found mainly in oxidized form in the conditions of Limon Mines drilled well waters, dihydrogen arsenate ion (H2AsO4-), and hydrogen arsenate ion (HAsO42-) being the major species. The experiments showed that arsenic adsorption depends mainly on the pH as well as the activity of functional groups that compose the chitosan structure. At pH 3 and volume of adsorbent material of 337.8 cm3 an adsorption of 94% was obtained from arsenic standard solution, and the arsenic present in ...
Background Chronic arsenic exposure is definitely associated with an increased risk of skin, bladder and lung cancers. were analyzed using random effects Tobit regression to account for repeated measures and 8-OHdG values below the detection buy 849773-63-3 limit. buy 849773-63-3 Results A consistent negative effect for APE1 was observed across water, toenail and urinary arsenic models. APE1 148 glu/glu + asp/glu genotype was connected with a reduction in logged 8-OHdG of 0.40 (95%CI -0.73, -0.07) in comparison to APE1 148 asp/asp. A link between total urinary arsenic and 8-OHdG was noticed among ladies using the GSTM1 null genotype however, not in ladies with GSTM1 positive. Among ladies with GSTM1 null, an evaluation of the next, third, and 4th quartiles of total urinary arsenic towards the 1st quartile led to a 0.84 boost (95% CI 0.27, 1.42), a 0.98 boost (95% CI 033, 1.66) and a 0.85 boost (95% CI 0.27, 1.44) in logged 8-OHdG, respectively. Zero effects between 8-OHdG and toenail taking in ...
Arsenic toxicity is species-dependent for mammals and is transformed to other metabolites in various organs. In order to understand its metabolism, in-vitro simulation experiments were set up for various organ tissues. As(V) was transformed to As(III), while DMA(V) was changed to DMAS in sheep rumen, but the suspected MA-V) was not formed. This is different for the incubation of seaweed in rumen fluid, which points to a different unknown source for MA(V). In another study, dog MDCK kidney cells showed that inorganic arsenicals were methylated in kidney cells while the exposed DMAS was only oxidized to DMA(V) in kidney cells, and the exposed DMA(V) rarely transformed. The toxicities of arsenicals in dog kidney cells is dependant upon the uptake rates and the transformation of arsenicals. DMAS was as toxic as the inorganic arsenic species and an order to magnitude more toxic than the oxo-species. Methylated arsenic species can accumulate in hair and wool and can be used as a biomarker for arsenic ...
The guideline value for inorganic arsenic in drinking water was reduced from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. Nonetheless, many countries, particularly developing countries, still use the 50 μg/L value as standard for arsenic partially because of lack of adequate analytical instruments for lower arsenic concentrations in water.. Elevated concentrations of arsenic in drinking water (above 50 μg/L) have been reported in several countries, including Argentina, Chile, China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Nepal, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Vietnam, and the USA. Local-scale problems of arsenic contamination of groundwater have been reported by some countries, and new cases are continually discovered - groundwater contaminated by arsenic can be found all over the world.. To date, the globally worst-affected areas are located in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), where arsenic in groundwater has been documented at concentrations up to 3,200 μg/L. Moreover, in some districts of ...
Arsenic concentrations in domestic well-water throughout large regions of Minnesota exceed the public drinking-water standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The frequency of arsenic contamination in domestic wells is a serious and widespread public-health concern; long-term exposure to arsenic is toxic to humans, even at extremely low concentrations. Although the Minnesota well code now requires that each new potable water-supply well be tested for arsenic, the information can come only after the well has been drilled. Although homeowners can purchase arsenic-removal systems, they are expensive, require maintenance, and do not provide alarms for high arsenic concentrations or system failure. It would be preferable if wells could be placed where the risk of arsenic contamination of groundwater is known to be low. This article summarizes the authors collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to ...
Arsenic contamination takes serious turn in Chandpur. CHANDPUR, June 25: Arsenic contamination has taken a serious turn in Chandpur district recently.. This was disclosed by Md. Sadeq Hossain, Executive Engineer of the local Public Health Engineering Department, in an exclusive talk with this correspondent recently.. About 1.25 lakh shallow tube-wells of all the eight upazilas of the district have already been sealed as the waters of those contain arsenic beyond permissible limits which are very much harmful to human body, he added. He disclosed that on an average 98 per cent shallow tube-wells of the district are arsenic contaminated.. A survey shows that 96 per cent tube-wells in Hajiganj, 98 per cent tube-wells in Faridganj, Shahrasti and Kochua, 85 per cent tube-wells in Haimchar and 80 per cent tube-wells in Matlab Sadar and newly created Matlab North upazilas are arsenic contaminated.. It is officially learnt that at present 5,000 people, mostly old men, women and children have been ...
epigenetic alteration behindenhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in chronic arsenic exposure. An extensive case-control study was conducted with 390 study participants (unexposed, exposed without skin lesion, exposed with skin lesion and exposed skin tumour) from highly arsenic exposed areas ofWest Bengal, India. Methylation specific PCRrevealed significant promoter hypomethylation oftwo key biogenesis regulatory genes, PGC1αandTfam in arsenic exposed individuals and also in skin tumour tissues. Linear regression analysis indicated significant negative correlation between urinary arsenic concentration and promoter methylation status. Increased expression of biogenesis regulatory genes wasobtained by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Moreover, altered mitochondrial fusion-fission regulatory gene expression was also observed in skin tumour tissues. miR663, having tumour suppressor gene like function was known to be epigenetically regulated through mitochondrial retrograde signal. Promoter ...
Concomitant exposures to arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are widespread. While BaP acts by binding to and inducing mutations in critical sites on DNA, the mechanism(s) of arsenic carcinogenesis remains unknown. Data from epidemiological studies of arsenic copper smelter workers and arsenic ingestion in drinking water suggest a positive interaction f
Digging of tube wells to provide drinking water in Bangladesh has had the side-effect of exposing people to arsenic which contaminates groundwater in the country. This project investigates (i) how arsenic concentrations that result from the ingestion of arsenic affect the capabilities and productivity of the rural Bangladesh population and (ii) how changes in food consumption, by affecting arsenic ingestion and excretion, affect arsenic concentrations. ...
Ingestion of arsenic is relatively common in the setting of homicide and is occasionally used in deliberate self-poisoning. Arsine gas and CCA exposure are not uncommon industrial exposures. Most organs can be involved and the diagnosis may not be obvious. \\ \\ Arsenic is a classic poison; implicated in the deaths of Tchaikovsky and Napoleon. It has also been used as a therapeutic substance since ancient times. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicines and most recently as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Chronic arsenic poisoning is a major public health crisis and an environmental disaster in Bangladesh and West Bengal, due to the contamination of ground water that affects millions of people. These chronic problems are beyond the scope of this course. \\ \\ Arsenic exists in many forms: arsine gas, elemental arsenic, inorganic oxides and organic arsenic. Acute arsenic poisoning is rare. The elemental form of arsenic is non-toxic but the ...
Compounds of arsenic were recognized as highly toxic long before arsenic was even recognized as an element in 1649 (by Schroeder, a German pharmacist). Nero used arsenic to poison Britannicus in 55 AD to secure the Roman throne. In 17th century France, white arsenic (As2O3) was known as poudre de succession (inheritance powder). Today, approximately 90 percent of all arsenic used in the US is used as a wood preservative. Arsenic is also used in electronics (gallium arsenide) and continues to be used in agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, algaecides, fungicides and growth stimulants for plants and animals). Arsenic, being an element, is never destroyed once released into the environment. It will be with us forever.. Arsenic consumption is linked to a number of adverse health effects including skin, bladder and lung cancer. Oxygenated compounds of arsenic (arsenates: As+5 and arsenites: As+3) are soluble in water and, when ingested, mimic phosphates in the body. They can ...
Arsenic. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website. Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=3. Accessed January 29, 2021. Arsenic and drinking water from private wells. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/private/wells/disease/arsenic.html. Accessed January 29, 2021. Arsenic-ToxFAQs. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website. Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tfacts2.pdf. Accessed January 29, 2021. Acute arsenic poisoning. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114977/Chronic-arsenic-poisoning . Accessed January 29, 2021. Chen Y, Graziano JH, Parvez F, et al. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2011;342:d2431. Chronic arsenic poisoning. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: ...
Exposure to arsenic has been linked to a variety of adverse human health effects, including skin lesions; skin, lung, and bladder cancer; vascular diseases; low birth weight; and potentially diabetes mellitus and increased susceptibility to infection [1-3]. Although human exposure to the more toxic, inorganic forms of arsenic is thought to occur primarily through drinking water [3, 4], elevated concentrations of arsenic in certain foods may pose an additional risk to consumers (e.g., [2]). Foods with particularly high total arsenic concentrations include fish and seafood [5-9]; cereals and cereal products, particularly rice and rice-based products [5-7, 10, 11]; and bran and germ [2]. Using diet data and physiological models to estimate total arsenic exposure, Xue et al. [12] found that fruits and fruit juices, vegetables, and beer and wine also can be important sources of dietary arsenic; more recent studies document high arsenic concentrations in cruciferous vegetables in particular [13]. ...
In 2013 FSANZ released a survey on the levels of inorganic arsenic in a range of seaweed types and products containing seaweed, available in Australia.. The levels in most seaweed tested were below the regulatory limit for inorganic arsenic, with the exception of one hijiki seaweed sample. Because this sample was made up of two individual samples of the same brand of hijiki it may not be representative of all hijiki seaweed available for sale in Australia. Hijiki seaweed is also tested at the border for inorganic arsenic and compliance rates are high.. The New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) has also conducted tests on levels of arsenic in imported hijiki products and found some levels exceeding the regulatory limit for inorganic arsenic.. Using the information collected on the levels of inorganic arsenic in seaweed, dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic was estimated for the Australian population. Using the median inorganic arsenic concentrations in seaweed, the contribution of ...
Background: Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods: As part of a population-based case-control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects.
The relation of mining and smelting exposure to arsenic and lung cancer was studied among tin miners in Yunnan Province in the Peoples Republic of China. Interviews were conducted in 1985 with 107 living tin miners who had lung cancer and an equal number of age matched controls from among tin miners without lung cancer to obtain information on risk factors for lung cancer including detailed history of employment and tobacco use. Occupational history was combined with industrial hygiene data to estimate cumulative arsenic exposure. Similar methods were also used to estimate radon exposure for simultaneous evaluation in this analysis. The results indicate that subjects in the highest quarter of cumulative arsenic exposure have a relative risk of 22.6 compared with subjects without exposure after adjusting for tobacco and radon exposure, and a positive dose response relation was observed. Simultaneous evaluation of arsenic and tobacco exposure indicates a greater risk for arsenic, whereas ...
The influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and chemical species on arsenic accumulation in aquatic floating macrophyte Spirodela polyrhiza L. (duckweed) was investigated. The uptake of inorganic arsenic species (arsenate; As(V) and arsenite; As(III)) into the plant tissue and their adsorption on iron plaque of plant surfaces were significantly (p,0.05) higher than those of organic species (monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)). The addition of EDTA to the culture media increased the uptake of As(V) and As(III) into the plant tissue though the MMAA and DMAA uptake were not affected. About 46% of the inorganic arsenic species were desorbed or mobilized from iron plaque by EDTA. Desorption of organic arsenic species was not affected by EDTA addition because the co-precipitation occurs only with inorganic species. Phosphate uptake was not affected by EDTA though its concentration in citrate-bicarbonate-EDTA (CBE)-extract was much higher than that of plant ...
Arsenic exposure through drinking water is an established lung carcinogen. Evidence on non-malignant lung outcomes is less conclusive and suggests arsenic is associated with lower lung function. Studies examining low-moderate arsenic (| 50 μg/L), the level relevant for most populations, are limited. We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure with respiratory health in American Indians from the Northern Plains, the Southern Plains and the Southwest United States, communities with environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic through drinking water. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective study of American Indian adults. This analysis used urinary arsenic measurements at baseline (1989-1991) and spirometry at Visit 2 (1993-1995) from 2132 participants to evaluate associations of arsenic exposure with airflow obstruction, restrictive pattern, self-reported respiratory disease, and symptoms. Airflow obstruction was present in 21.5% and restrictive pattern was present in 14.4%. The odds ratio (95%
Groundwater samples, taken from 73 wells in 10 counties of southeast Michigan in 1997 had arsenic concentrations in the range of 0.5 to 278 μg/l, the average being 29 μg/l. About 12% of these wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded the current USEPAs maximum contaminant level of 50 μg/l. Most (53-98%) of the arsenic detected was arsenite [As(III)] and other observations supported the arsenic species distribution (low redox potential and DO). In shallow groundwater (15 m), the concentration of arsenic is possibly controlled by reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron hydroxide/oxyhydroxide and dissolution of arsenic sulfide minerals....
Banks and Salt found that the protein encoded by this gene ends up in the membrane of the plant cells vacuole. Salt said the protein acts as a pump, moving arsenic into the cells equivalent of a trashcan.. It stores it away from the cytoplasm so that it cant have an effect on the plant, Salt said.. Banks said understanding how the Pteris vittata functions with arsenic could lead to ways to clean up arsenic-contaminated land.. Potentially you could take these genes and put them in any organism that could suck the arsenic out of the soil, Banks said.. Salt said rice plants could be modified with the gene to store arsenic in the roots of plants - instead of rice grains - in contaminated paddies.. Banks and Salt found another gene in Pteris vittata that looks almost exactly the same as the one that controls arsenic tolerance. When the fern was exposed to arsenic, the confirmed arsenic-tolerance gene increased its expression while the similar gene did not.. Salt said the gene that regulates ...
Background|br /|Arsenic is present in numerous ecosystems and microorganisms have developed various mechanisms to live in such hostile environments. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans, a bacterium isolated from arsenic contaminated sludge, has acquired remarkable capabilities to cope with arsenic. In particular our previous studies have suggested the existence of a temporal induction of arsenite oxidase, a key enzyme in arsenic metabolism, in the presence of As(III).|br /|Results|br /|Microarrays were designed to compare gene transcription profiles under a temporal As(III) exposure. Transcriptome kinetic analysis demonstrated the existence of two phases in arsenic response. The expression of approximatively 14% of the whole genome was significantly affected by an As(III) early stress and 4% by an As(III) late exposure. The early response was characterized by arsenic resistance, oxidative stress, chaperone synthesis and sulfur metabolism. The late response was characterized by arsenic metabolism and associated
Effective and affordable arsenic removal from drinking water has become a significant issue recently. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated a new maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water which will take effect in January 2004. The current arsenic MCL of 50 micrograms per liter (ugll) was set by the United sates Public Health Service in 1943 and has not been reduced in nearly 60 years. Arsenic has been linked to various types of cancers, prompting EPA to change the standard. Due to the fact many water systems, especially small water utilities serving less than 10,000 people, will be impacted by a reduced standard much research is currently being done to fmd treatment technologies affordable enough for small water systems to implement and maintain. Many small water utilities lack the financial and technical resources required to construct and maintain centrally located water treatment facilities capable of removing arsenic. For this reason, many small
Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As1−) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium−iron ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indigenous American Ancestry is Associated with arsenic methylation efficiency in an admixed population of northwest Mexico. AU - Gomez-Rubio, Paulina. AU - Klimentidis, Yann C.. AU - Cantu-Soto, Ernesto. AU - Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.. AU - Billheimer, Dean. AU - Lu, Zhenqiang. AU - Chen, Zhao. AU - Klimecki, Walter T.. N1 - Funding Information: Received 27 May 2011; accepted 1 August 2011. The authors acknowledge Michael Kopplin for performing the arsenic speciation analyses. P.G.-R. was supported by a fellowship from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT) under the UA-CONACyT partnership. This study was supported by the NIEHS Superfund Basic Research Program (ES04940) and a NIEHS Center Grant (ES006694). Address correspondence to Walter T. Klimecki, DVM, PhD, 1657 E Helen St, RM319, Thomas Keating Bldg. Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. E-mail: [email protected] PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Many studies provide evidence relating lower human arsenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Groundwater arsenic contamination and associated health risks in Bihar, India. AU - Singh, S. K.. AU - Ghosh, A. K.. AU - Kumar, A.. AU - Kislay, K.. AU - Kumar, C.. AU - Tiwari, R. R.. AU - Parwez, R.. AU - Kumar, N.. AU - Imam, M. D.. PY - 2014/3/7. Y1 - 2014/3/7. N2 - The extent of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and associated health-risks were studied in the four villages: Chaukia and Terahrasiya (Vaishali); Mamalkha and Masharu (Bhagalpur) in Bihar, India. Groundwater samples were tested using the standard Silverdiethyledithiocarbamate method at 520nm by Thermo UV-1 spectrophotometer. The As levels in both the districts exceeded the WHO standard of 10μg/L for drinking water with a maximum value of 20μg/L in Vaishali and 143μg/L in Bhagalpur. However, the FAO standard of 100μg/L of As for irrigation water was only exceeded in Bhagalpur. The calculated range of the hazard index (HI) for Vaishali was 0.9 to 10, and for Bhagalpur was 10.40 to 40.47. Both ranges ...
It is reported by the wall street journal that in the recent study conducted it is found that 100 broiler chickens have inorganic arsenic at huge levels in the livers. These chickens were treated with 3-Nitro of Pfizer. Thus, the sale and of 3-Nitro was stopped in July and another treatment was suggested for the chickens.. The products with high arsenic were called back from all the stores in US and FDA assets that the chicken consists of arsenic at the safer level and is not dangerous for health anymore.. The production industry of meat wants to hide the truth about the adverse impact of arsenic on the human health. The combination of arsenic, lead and mercury are highly toxic effect on children and fetuses. This fact is backed by the study conducted by the University of South Carolina Department of Environmental Health Services.. The toxic level of arsenic is very high and considered as 4 times more toxic than mercury. The Journal of the American Medical Association has published a study which ...
The technique was evaluated for decomposing biological st … Curatola CJ, Grunder FI, Moffitt AE Jr. A modified hydride generation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method for the analysis of total arsenic in hair has been developed to evaluate occupational exposures to arsenic. Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry is divided into two parts, with the theoretical background and experimental approach covered in Part I. Hydride Generation AAS nptelhrd Loading... Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy/Atomic Absorption Spectrometry/AAS - Duration: … selenium determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) in full blood, blood plasma and serum, the liver, skeletal muscle tissue, the myocardium, and the kidneys after wet mineralization of samples in a closed nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide system Electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) as a sample introduction system for determination of zinc was developed. Change to nitrous oxide/acetylene flame. ...
Until recently, chicken producers would routinely supplement poultry feed with a growth-promoting arsenical drug called roxarsone, which also treats intestinal parasites in the birds and gives their meat an appealing pink color. A study in this issue of EHP shows that inorganic arsenic (iAs) accumulates in the breast meat of broiler chickens, potentially as a result of treatment with roxarsone. In 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that the livers of roxarsone-treated chickens had elevated levels of iAs, a known human carcinogen. In response, roxarsones manufacturer, Pfizer, voluntarily pulled the drug off the U.S. market, although it is still sold overseas, and a similar arsenical drug is still available in the United States. Sampling for the new study took place between December 2010 and June 2011, before Pfizer withdrew roxarsone from the U.S. market. Roxarsone is an organic form of arsenic, which although less toxic to humans than the inorganic species implicated in cancer, has
Intake of certain dietary fats decreases toenail arsenic levels. However, the presence of long chain n-3 fatty acids in the diet corresponds with higher arsenic concentration in toenails.
Theres good news today for parents who give their kids apple juice: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced new draft guidelines that call for no more than 10 parts per billion of inorganic arsenic in apple juice - roughly the same level allowed in tap water.. Although some apple juices have tested high for arsenic, all 95 samples tested by the FDA already fell within the 10 ppb - reassurance that when it comes to arsenic levels, apple juice is safe.. The most important message is we are confident in the safety of our juice supply, said FDA Commissioner Dr. Margaret Hamburg.. Pressure to develop the guidelines stemmed from a 2011 report on the Dr. Oz Show and arsenic testing by Consumer Reports, both of which raised questions about the safety of apple juice.. Arsenic and Apple Juice: New Testing Finds Low Levels In response, the FDA undertook additional testing and commissioned a risk assessment study to determine an arsenic limit based on the amount of juice a child might drink ...
Search Indian Sodium Arsenate Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Sodium Arsenate Exporters in India, Sodium Arsenate Wholesalers, Sodium Arsenate Distributors and Traders from India.
Groundwater in Eastern Croatia contains elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic. The biggest well field in the area has an average arsenic concentration of 200 μg/L and it supplies the population of around 200,000 people with drinking water. Croatian Regulation has adopted guidelines from the European Council Directive for the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 10 μg/L of As in drinking water. However, it has been estimated that almost 120,000 people drink water from that well field with a concentration of arsenic over 10 μg/L. To reduce the health risks associated with arseniccontaminated water intake in Eastern Croatia it is important to develop proper strategies that will use one of the following technologies for arsenic removal: oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange or membrane technologies ...
This summary is derived from an article in Food Production Daily, April 13, 2006 http://www.foodproductiondaily.com and other identified sources (UPC editor). The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) reports that arsenic in chicken meat appears closely linked to the decades-old industry practice of putting arsenic into chicken feed to speed the birds growth artificially. At least 70 percent of US broiler chickens have been fed arsenic, according to IATP estimates. Minneapolis, Minnesota-based IATP tested 155 samples from raw supermarket chicken products and found that 55 percent carried detectable arsenic. Arsenic was more than twice as prevalent in conventional brands of supermarket chicken as in certified organic and other premium brands. All 90 fast food chicken products tested by IATP also contained detectable arsenic. Chicken products were purchased from supermarkets and fast food outlets in Minnesota and California and analyzed for arsenic by a private, independent ...
A process is provided for separation of at least one metal sulfide from a mixed sulfide concentrate. The process may comprise: subjecting the mixed sulfide concentrate to flotation in which at least one sulfide comprising antimony, arsenic and a first metal is floated and at least one sulfide comprising a second metal is depressed. The flotation yields a first metal concentrate having the at least one sulfide comprising antimony, arsenic and the first metal and a second metal concentrate having the at least one sulfide comprising the second metal. The first metal concentrate is leached to yield a further concentrate and a leach solution. The further concentrate comprises the first metal and the leach solution comprises soluble antimony and soluble arsenic. The process may further comprise oxidizing the leach solution to yield an antimony precipitate and an arsenic solution, and forming a stable arsenic compound from the arsenic solution.
Stock Photo 4128R-18191: Download Arsenic trioxide, molecular model. Precursor to arsenic compounds, including organoarsenic compounds. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour_coded: arsenic violet and oxygen red. Stock Photos. Search over 12 million royalty free images and rights managed stock photography
Arsenic in marine oils is mainly present in the form of lipid-soluble compounds; collectively called arsenolipids. Although total arsenic concentrations in marine oils typically range from 0.2 to 16 mg kg-1 [1-3], knowledge regarding the chemical structures and distribution of arsenolipids in oils is limited. The present work describes the development of analytical methods for the determination of arsenolipids, and their application to marine oil, including fish oil and oil of liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua).. In the present work gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) was applied for analysing arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs) in fish oil. The AsHCs were extracted into aqueous methanol, and further subjected to solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis. Reversedphase HPLC-ICP-MS was applied as an analytical technique for analysis of both AsHCs and arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) in methanol phase of marine oil. The ...
Problem: Until the early 2000s, most of the pressure-treated wood used in the United States for outdoor structures such as playground equipment, picnic tables, benches and decks was treated with the preservative, Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). This chemical was the primary preservative used in the pressure-treating process to protect wood against weather, mold and insects. Studies show that CCA-treated wood is continually leaching (releasing) arsenic to the surface of the wood. Arsenic is known to cause cancer in humans: it is a potent skin, bladder and lung carcinogen. Arsenic is also linked to liver and kidney cancer, immune system suppression, increased risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disruption (altering normal hormone levels or activity in the body) and diabetes. Studies have confirmed that high levels of arsenic can be released onto childrens hands by direct contact with arsenic-treated wood. Young children, in particular, are at risk of ingesting ...
Looking for online definition of Arsenic hydride in the Medical Dictionary? Arsenic hydride explanation free. What is Arsenic hydride? Meaning of Arsenic hydride medical term. What does Arsenic hydride mean?
Arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenous (III) acid, arsenic (V) acid. The concentration of speciated arsenics is determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the species coupled to an ICP-DRC-MS to detect the arsenic species. This analytical technique is based on separation by anion-exchange chromatography (IC), followed by detection using quadrupole ICP-MS technology, and includes DRC™ technology (Baranov VI et al., 1999), which minimizes or eliminates many argon-based polyatomic interferences (Tanner S et al., 2000) will require 0.5 mL of urine. Arsenic species column separation is largely achieved due to differences in charge-charge interactions of each negatively-charged arsenic component in the mobile phase, with the positively-charged quaternary ammonium groups bound at the columns solid-liquid interface. Upon exit from the column, the chromatographic eluent goes through a nebulizer, where it is converted into ...
Samples of the edible mushroom Laccaria amethystina, which is known to accumulate arsenic, were collected from two uncontaminated beech forests and an arsenic-contaminated one in Denmark. The total arsenic concentration was 23 and 77 mug As g-1 dry weight in the two uncontaminated samples and 1420 mug As g-1 in the contaminated sample. The...
Arsenic has been found in at least 781 of 1,300 National Priorities List sites (hazardous waste sites) identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A release from an industrial plant, or from a container, does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a chemical only when you come into contact with it. Exposures occur through breathing, eating, or drinking substances containing the chemical, or from skin contact with it. If you are exposed to arsenic, the appearance of symptoms and their seriousness is dependent upon how much, how long and by what way you were exposed. Your sex, age, lifestyle and state of health also contribute. What is arsenic?. Arsenic is a naturally occurring gray metal-like material found in the environment combined with other elements. Most of these combined compounds are white or colorless powders that do not evaporate. They have no smell, and most have no special taste, so you cannot tell if arsenic is present in your food, water, or air. Arsenic is ...
Arsenic and fluoride are major contaminants of drinking water. Mechanisms of toxicity following individual exposure to arsenic or fluoride are well known. However, it is not explicit how combined exposure to arsenic and fluoride leads to cellular and/or DNA damage. The present study was planned to assess (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to arsenic and fluoride in drinking water, (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with cellular and DNA damage and (iii) mechanism of cellular damage using IR spectroscopy. Mice were exposed to arsenic and fluoride (50 ppm) either individually or in combination for 28 weeks. Arsenic or fluoride exposure individually led to a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated oxidative stress in blood, liver and brain. Individual exposure to the two toxicants showed significant depletion of blood glutathione (GSH) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, and single-stranded DNA damage using a comet ...
In the present study, CeO2/Fe2O3 nanocomposite was prepared by co-precipitation method and its application was investigated for arsenic removal from water. Characterization of the nano sized adsorbent particles was carried out using SEM and XRD techniques. Systemic adsorption experiments were performed in batch systems and the optimum conditions were obtained. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent mass, temperature, ionic strength and initial concentration of arsenic were investigated on kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters and adsorption kinetics were studied in detailed to know the nature and mechanism of adsorption. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process followed pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG⁰, ΔS⁰ and ΔH⁰ were calculated, and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. It was observed
Arsenic is toxic to most forms of life, and occurs naturally in soil and ground water in many regions of the world. Chronic exposure to arsenic has been linked to lung, bladder and kidney cancer, and thus there are strict limits on allowable levels or arsenic in drinking water. Chemically similar to phosphorus, arsenic forms arsenate (AsO43-), which closely resembles phosphate (PO43-). Arsenate interferes with many phosphate-requiring metabolic reactions, including synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ubiquitous and essential source of cellular energy. Thus, exposure to even low levels of arsenic can be extremely toxic.
Pilot study indicates that dogs eating rice-based dry dog foods could be at risk for chronic arsenic exposure. Rice-consumption is considered a risk factor for chronic arsenic toxicity in humans. A pilot study conducted within the DogRisk research group at the University of Helsinki found that dogs eating rice-based dry dog foods had higher hair arsenic levels than dogs whose diet did not contain rice. The study compared hair arsenic levels from seven dogs that were eating rice-based (having rice as first or second ingredient) dry dog foods and nine dogs whose diet did not contain any rice. All dogs were of the breed Staffordshire bull terrier and had been eating their diets for a minimum of one year prior to the study.. - Considering that dogs often eat the same food daily for long periods of time, sometimes even their whole lives, we need to acknowledge the risk for long-term accumulation of contaminants such as toxic metals. Arsenic is widespread in the environment and accumulates especially ...
D4606 - 15 Standard Test Method for Determination of Arsenic and Selenium in Coal by the Hydride Generation/Atomic Absorption Method , arsenic, atomic absorption, Eschka mixture, hydride generation, selenium ,,
Hundreds of millions of people world-wide are exposed to unacceptable levels of arsenic in drinking water. This is a public health crisis because arsenic is a Group I (proven) human carcinogen. Human cells methylate arsenic to monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV). Although the liver is the predominant site for arsenic methylation, elimination occurs mostly in urine. The protein(s) responsible for transport of arsenic from the liver (into blood), ultimately for urinary elimination are unknown. Human multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2), are established arsenic efflux pumps, but unlike the related MRP4 (ABCC4), are not present at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. MRP4 is also found at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells making it an ideal candidate for urinary arsenic elimination. In the current study, human MRP4 expressed in HEK293 cells reduced the ...
Arsenic is one of the most ubiquitous toxins and endangers the health of tens of millions of humans worldwide. It is a mainly a water-borne contaminant. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (AsIII) is one of the major species that exists environmentally. The transport of AsIII has been studied in microbes, plants and mammals. Members of the aquaglyceroporin family have been shown to actively conduct AsIII and its organic metabolite, monomethylarsenite (MAsIII). However, the transport of AsIII and MAsIII in in any fish species has not been characterized. In this study, five members of the aquaglyceroporin family from zebrafish (Danio rerio) were cloned, and their ability to transport water, glycerol, and trivalent arsenicals (AsIII and MAsIII) and antimonite (SbIII) was investigated. Genes for at least seven aquaglyceroporins have been annotated in the zebrafish genome project. Here, five genes which are close homologues to human AQP3, AQP9 and AQP10 were cloned from a zebrafish cDNA preparation. These genes were
Mt Sinai School of Medicine Dr Samuel] Waxman was one of the first Western physicians to see promise in the a series of small studies in Chinese medical journals that reported intravenous doses of arsenic trioxide-induced long-term remission in APL [acute promyelocytic leukemia] patients. The medical uses of arsenic reach back at least 2,000 years, but it was political ideology that prompted its modern resurgence, Waxman explained.. Arsenic may never have entered the western pharmacopoeia were it not for the Chinese cultural revolution in the 1960s and 1970s, he said. During that time, Western medicine virtually disappeared in China, and physicians turned to traditional Chinese herbal cures that had sustained the culture for millennia. The Chinese physician Zhang Ting-Dong of Harbin Medical University made the initial breakthrough by formulating a stable, low-dose solution of 1% arsenic trioxide in injectable form. Zhang presented his work at a Chinese medical society meeting in the early 1980s ...
In this study, water stable zirconium metal-organic framework (UiO-66) has been synthesized and for the first time applied as an adsorbent to remove aquatic arsenic contamination. The as-synthesized UiO-66 adsorbent functions excellently across a broad pH range of 1 to 10, and achieves a remarkable arsenate uptake capacity of 303 mg/g at the optimal pH, i.e., pH = 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest arsenate As(V) adsorption capacity ever reported, much higher than that of currently available adsorbents (5-280 mg/g, generally less than 100 mg/g). The superior arsenic uptake performance of UiO-66 adsorbent could be attributed to the highly porous crystalline structure containing zirconium oxide clusters, which provides a large contact area and plenty of active sites in unit space. Two binding sites within the adsorbent framework are proposed for arsenic species, i.e., hydroxyl group and benzenedicarboxylate ligand. At equilibrium, seven equivalent arsenic species can be captured by
Abraham M, McDougald L, Beckstead R. 2013. Blackhead disease: reduced sensitivity of Histomonas meleagridis to nitarsone in vitro and in vivo. Avian Dis 58(1):60-63.. Ahmad SA, Sayed MH, Barua S, Khan MH, Faruquee MH, Jalil A, et al. 2001. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 109:629-631.. Alter v. Pfizer Inc. No. CV-2012-67. (Arkansas County Circuit Court, 24 September 2012). http://www.hwnn.com/images/stories/hwnn/​amended_complaint.pdf [accessed 28 October 2015].. Arai Y, Lanzirotti A, Sutton S, Davis JA, Sparks DL. 2003. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter. Environ Sci Technol 37(18):4083-4090.. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2007. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta, GA:ATSDR. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp2​.pdf [accessed 30 July 2015].. Aubrey A. 2013. How trace amounts of arsenic end up in grocery store meat. National Public Radio, The Salt, 16 May. ...
The naturally occurring aqueous Arsenic (As) and other toxic elements are found around the world. The present study concentrates on arsenic concentrations, speciation and related microbial diversity in a hydrothermal system in Western Turkey. The surface temperatures of hot springs reach up to 90°C and deep well (reservoir) temperatures vary in the range of 40 to 230°C. The elements such as As, B, Br, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, V and Zn are found in high concentration in hydrothermal waters. Hydrogeochemically, Seferihisar hot spring exhibited a Na-Cl water type. On the other hand, Karahayit, Pamukkale, Emirfaki, Alaşehir and Sart exhibit a Ca-HCO 3 water type and Çitgöl exhibited a Na-HCO 3-SO 4 water type. The arsenic (As) concentrations in geothermal waters of Western Anatolia have been detected to range from 0.03 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L, including Buharkent (İnalti) (1.50 ± 0.005 mg/L), Kizildere (1.13 ± 0.005 mg/L), Eynal (0.71 ± 0.005 mg/L) and Sarayköy (0.06 ± 0.004 mg/L). Arsenic (III) is the ...
Ask the Expert Question-and-Answer Archive by Ron Joseph. February, 2009 Arsenic in Paint. Q. Is it possible to have paint tested for arsenic content? Are there any labs in southern California, for example, that might do this?. A.Wow! Why would anybody use arsenic in paint? Im sure you can have the paint tested, but why do you suspect arsenic ...
Press Release issued Mar 1, 2017: Global Market Study Evaluate on Arsenic Removal Industry by Type, Manufacturers, Application, Type, and Regions, Forecast up to 2022.
Arsenic removal from groundwaters containing iron, ammonium, manganese and phosphate: A case study from a treatment unit in northern ...
The SafeWork Australia (SWA) Hazardous Chemicals Information System (HCIS) Consolidated List of Substances includes arsenic, arsenic acid and its salts, arsenic compounds and arsine and these substances are therefore regulated under Part 4 of the consolidated Victorian Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (2017). Employers must, by law, implement these regulations, which means they must first try to eliminate the hazard or the risks associated with the hazard. If this is not practicable, then the employer must reduce the risk, according to the preferred order of hazard control - that is by beginning at the source.. Where, after taking all practicable measures to control the risk at the source, there is still a risk that workers may be exposed to arsenic, the employer must provide adequate information, training and where necessary, personal protective equipment.. The training employers must provide should include the following: personal hygiene and sanitation; the use of personal protective ...
Arsenic(III), As, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and arsenobetaine (AsB) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined on-line by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two forms of HPLC were used: ion pairing and ion exchange, with absolu
Arsenic and cadmium are ranked among the top ten priority hazardous substances by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [1]. Exposure to arsenic and cadmium can lead to adverse health outcomes such as lung and kidney cancers as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes [2, 3]. Further, exposure to these two toxic and well-classified chemicals is of particular interest because of their extensive global impact [4-6]. For example, it is estimated that more than 40 million people worldwide drink water containing arsenic at concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water guideline of 10 ppb [7]. Also, humans are exposed to low levels of cadmium through food consumption, typically ranging between 8 and 25 ug per day [3]. Smoking populations experience higher levels of cadmium exposure, as one cigarette may contain 1-2 ug cadmium [3].. Both arsenic and cadmium are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the ...
Arsenic is a chemical element that can be found naturally in rock formations and volcanic eruptions, but it also ends up in our soil as a result of arsenic-based pesticides. While these pesticides are now banned in the U.S., theyre still present in our soil and globally, theyre still used. Arsenic can also end up in our water supply, so in 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act to regulate its safety. Today, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is 0.010 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) or 10 parts per billion (ppb). ...