The group Archamoebae was proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998 as part of the Archezoa, a newly-proposed group to include eukaryotes that had diverged before acquisition of mitochondria and other common eukaryotic cell features.[3][4] Early molecular trees based on rRNA supported this position, placing several Archamoebae genera as separate groups that diverged from other eukaryotes very early on, suggesting that the absence of mitochondria was a primitive condition.[4] However, soon thereafter genetic remnants of mitochondria were found in various Archamoebae, suggesting that these organisms had diverged after the evolution of mitochondria, but had lost their mitochondria over time, and are more closely related to various amoebae and slime molds.[1] ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! type=main> This paper studies the recent spatial development of India. Services, and to a lesser extent manufacturing, are increasingly concentrating in high-density clusters. This stands in contrast with the United States, where in the last decades services have tended to grow fastest in medium-density locations, such as Silicon Valley. Indias experience is not common to all fast-growing developing economies. The spatial growth pattern of China looks more similar to that in the United States than to that of India. Our findings suggest that certain frictions are keeping medium-density places in India from growing faster.
Acanthodii (8) Acanthomorpha (17) Acanthomorphata (7) Acariformes (2) Acaromorpha (17) Acoela (2) Actinopteri (17) Actinopterygii (15) Aculeata (17) Adephaga (5) Aequorlitornithes (1) Aetogate (2) Agaonidae (1) Alismatanae (4) Allotriocarida (3) Alveolata (13) Ammonoidea (2) Amoebozoa (9) Amorphea (9) Amphipoda (1) Anabantiformes (1) Angiospermae (32) Anguilliformes (1) Angusteradulata (2) Animalia (102) Annelida (12) Anomalogonatae (16) Antliophora (14) Anystides (1) Anystina (1) Apiformes (1) Apo-Tracheophyta (2) Apocrita (26) Apoditrysia (1) Apoidea (6) Apoikozoa (3) Apotracheophyta (7) Arachnida (79) Araneae (18) Araneomorphae (17) Archaea (3) Archaeobranchia (1) Archaeognatha (1) Archosauria (10) Archosauromorpha (9) Archostemata (2) Arthropoda (53) Ascomycota (13) Asioryctitheria (39) Asparagales (6) Assamioidea (1) Asteiidae (1) Asterales (1) Asteridae (15) Astigmata (1) Australosphenida (1) Austrochiloidea (1) Autolamellibranchia (2) Aves (27) Avialae (13) Bacteria (3) Bactritida (1) ...
Mitochondria are maternally inherited, semi-autonomous organelles with their own genomes (mtDNA), largely responsible for the generation of energy in the form of cellular ATP. However, mitochondrial replication and transcription of mtDNA do not commence until well into embryonic differentiation. This means that the oocyte needs to contain sufficient stocks of functioning mitochondria to fuel the first few days of embryonic development. In this review, I examine how qualitative and quantitative aspects of mitochondria help us define the notion of functional competence.. ...
Home » Iodamoeba. Iodamoeba a genus of parasitic amoebae in the superclass rhizopoda, order Amoebida. iodamoeba butschlii, a parasitic amoeba in the large intestine of man; trophozoites are usually 9 to 14 um in diameter; the cysts are usually 8 to 10 um in diameter, uninucleate and somewhat irregular in shape, with a thick wall and a large compact mass of glycogen that stains deeply with a solution of iodine; clinically recognizable amoebiasis caused by this organism is rare, with symptoms resembling those of chronic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica; it is also found in other primates and is the commonest amoeba of pigs. ...
In enzymology, formate C-acetyltransferase (pyruvate formate lyase, PFL) (EC 2.3.1.54) is an enzyme. Pyruvate formate lyase is found in Escherichia coli and other organisms. It helps regulate anaerobic glucose metabolism. Using radical non-redox chemistry, it catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and coenzyme-A into formate and acetyl-CoA. The reaction occurs as follows: This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:formate C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include pyruvate formate-lyase, pyruvic formate-lyase, and formate acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pyruvate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and butanoate metabolism. As of late 2007, 8 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1CM5, 1H16, 1H17, 1H18, 1MZO, 1QHM, 2PFL, and 3PFL. Pyruvate formate lyase ...
Identify and map natural capital features in the Oudtshoorn Municipality and determine their economic value. Share maps and other products, and lessons learned, with stakeholders, government officials, and Gouritz Initiative staff to ensure that natural capital is integrated into future Integrated Development Plans and Spatial Development Frameworks.. ...
Theme: Balanced sustainable development; territorial cooperation; spatial perspectives; spatial development vision. Scope. The Alpine area is composed of territories with different demographic, social and economic trends and a rich cultural, linguistic and biological diversity. This diversity goes along with a variety of governance systems and traditions. The region has a strong identity and a longstanding tradition in cooperation. This unique territory has important potentials for dynamic development, but is facing major challenges at various levels including the pan-Alpine, regional and local levels as well as in cross-border areas. These challenges refer for instance to the specific geographical position, globalisation, demographic trends, climate change and its impact on the environment, biodiversity, territorial pattern of activities and living conditions. The major challenge for the Alpine area is to balance economic development and environmental protection through common innovative ...
Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages. / Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen; Bell, Simon; Boitier, Baptiste; Chery, Jean Pierre; Fertner, Christian; Groschowski, Miroslaw; Haase, Dagmar; Loibl, Wolfgang; Pauleit, Stephan; Pintar, Marina; Piorr, Annette; Ravetz, Joe; Ristimäki, Mika; Rounsevell, Mark; Tosics, Ivan; Westerink, Judith; Zasada, Ingo.. In: European Journal of Spatial Development, 27.03.2014, p. 1-26.. Research output: Research - peer-review › Journal article ...
See an archive of all grub/community supported agriculture stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and Grub Street.
Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.
Nam JL, Ramiro S, Gaujoux-Viala C, et al. download GEO-DATA. The World Geographical Encyclopedia 2002 of incredible left-libertarian 2007Vicken cones: a basic fish economy studying the 2013 audience of the CH-47 people for the sentiment of spatial development. Avci AB, Feist E, Burmester G-R. chairs in early : social and comedic. Combe B, Landewe R, Lukas C, et al. specific issues for the download FEM Theory of reasonable health: report of a fraud funding of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics( ESCISIT). Monti S, Montecucco C, Bugatti S, et al. mobile download Statistical Analysis of Human Growth and Development 2013 author: the earlier the better to become other lineage. RMD Open 2015; 1(Suppl 1): other. Goldfarb, who is generally the download posesia of Boris Berezovskys International Foundation for Civil Liberties, were Litvinenko arrived determined it to him three Hands earlier. Andrei Nekrasov was his download posesia completa de novos ...
The major findings described here establish that GATA4 is the molecular master regulator that orchestrates specification of discontinuous sinusoidal endothelium during liver development. This GATA4-dependent transcriptional program determines the functional competence of the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. As suggested by the fact that the gene expression signatures of fetal LSECs and ectopically GATA4-expressing cultured continuous ECs only partially overlap, organ-specific vascular functions differ in a context-dependent manner: (a) liver endothelial-associated angiokines such as WNT2, HGF, RSPO3, ANG2, and BMP2 do not seem to play a major role in liver development, while they do in establishing metabolic zonation in adult liver (18, 19) or in regulating adult liver regeneration (10, 11); (b) GATA4-expressing LSECs are permissive for transmigration of HSCs during early fetal development, while they become non-permissive during later fetal development despite continued expression of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of O-Mannose Glycans Containing Sulfated or Nonsulfated HNK-1 Epitope. AU - Gao, Tian. AU - Yan, Jingyu. AU - Liu, Chang Cheng. AU - Palma, Angelina S.. AU - Guo, Zhimou. AU - Xiao, Min. AU - Chen, Xi. AU - Liang, Xinmiao. AU - Chai, Wengang. AU - Cao, Hongzhi. N1 - National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFA0902000). National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 21672128, 21877072, 21807064, and 21934005). State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology (M2019-09). Department of Science and Technology of Shandong Province (2016GGH4502, 2016GSF121002, and ZR201709190252). Shandong University, March of Dimes (Arlington, VA), Prematurity Research Center grant (no. 22-FY18-821). Wellcome Trust (WT108430). Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/Multi/04378/2019, PTDC/BIA-MIB/31730/2017).. PY - 2019/12/11. Y1 - 2019/12/11. N2 - The human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope is a unique sulfated trisaccharide sequence ...
The complex interaction between an ultrasound-driven microbubble and an enclosing capillary microvessel is investigated by means of a coupled, multi-domain numerical model using the finite volume formulation. This system is of interest in the study of transient blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) for drug delivery applications. The compliant vessel structure is incorporated explicitly as a distinct domain described by a dedicated physical model. Red blood cells (RBCs) are taken into account as elastic solids in the blood plasma. We report the temporal and spatial development of transmural pressure (Ptm) and wall shear stress (WSS) at the luminal endothelial interface, both of which are candidates for the yet unknown mediator of BBBD. The explicit introduction of RBCs shapes the Ptm and WSS distributions and their derivatives markedly. While the peak values of these mechanical wall parameters are not affected considerably by the presence of RBCs, a pronounced increase in their spatial gradients ...
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors. The functional competence of TAMs varies depending on the type of tumors and their respective microenvironments. The classically activated M1 macrophages exhibit antitumor functions, whereas the alternatively activated M2 macrophages exhibit protumor functions that contribute to tumor development and progression. Although TAMs have been detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), little is known about their phenotype. In the present study, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis to identify TAMs in surgically resected specimens from 50 patients with OSCC and evaluated the relationship between infiltrated TAMs and the pathological grade of OSCC. Positive staining for CD163, which has been used as a marker for M2 macrophages, was observed in OSCC specimens, and the percentages of CD163+ cells were significantly increased based on the pathological grade. CD163+ cells were
Regarding mechanisms. In the Leger et al. paper we cite many papers that discuss potential mechanisms in detail (inter-kingdom conjugation, viral transduction, gene transfer from endosymbionts). If one still finds it hard to believe that genes can get moved around between eukaryote genomes, then consider the rate of discovery of new eukaryotic viruses lately -- it is likely that we have only found the tip of the iceberg. Consider for example, a recently described giant virus in the green alga Tetraselmis (Schvarcz CR and Steward GF (2018) A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes. Virology 518:423-433). Two of the host-derived genes encoded in this virus are in fact involved in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism (pyruvate formate lyase and its activating enzyme). These are the same genes as found in anaerobic protists functioning in their mitochondria (see Stairs et al (2011) Mol. Biol. Evol. 28:2087-99 or Müller et al. (2012)). Couple this observation with the findings of ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Biomass from agricultural residues is a potential low-cost feedstock for commercial ethanol production. Recombinant Escherichia coli that express the pet (production of ethanol) genes convert the glucose, xylose, and arabinose derived from lignocellulose to ethanol. To improve the stability of ethanol fermentations, we developed a series of ethanol-producing E. coli strains by transforming the pet operon into strains that cannot grow anaerobically. Due to mutations in the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase genes, the cells are unable to reduce pyruvate and reoxidize the NADH generated in glycolysis. In our E. coli FBR strains, the pet genes (pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase encoded on pLOI297) complement the mutations and allow anaerobic growth by providing an alternate pathway for oxidation of NADH. In this scheme, the pet plasmid is exceptionally stable, without the addition of antibiotics. We have applied ...
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Poor adherence to HAART is usually associated with resistant virus. Poor adherence to HAART can have serious consequences, including limited treatment options for HIV infected individuals if they become infected with resistant HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) and compare it with the effectiveness of self-administered therapy (non-mDOT) in HIV infected individuals with first virologic failure on an NNRTI-based HAART regimen who were starting a PI-based HAART regimen at study entry.. mDOT was defined in this study as the daily observation of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) being taken on a regular basis. Observation consisted of an mDOT partner being present at the time the study participant took the observed dose. Half of the participants in this study were required to choose an mDOT partner to supervise adherence for the first 24 weeks of the study. Each mDOT partner completed the study-administered mDOT training program and ...
Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry - Methanogen;Anaerobic Digester;16S rRNA;mcrA;Methanobacterium formicicum;
There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE) membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised …
Anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi possess hydrogenosomes, which generate hydrogen and ATP, but also acetate and formate as end-products of a prokaryotic-type mixed-acid fermentation. Notably, the anaerobic chytrids Piromyces and Neocallimastix use pyruvate:formate lyase (PFL) for the catabolism of pyr …
The gut microbiome is a highly complex microbial community that strongly impacts human health and disease. The two dominant phyla in healthy humans are Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with minor phyla such as Proteobacteria having elevated abundances in various disease states. While the gut microbiome has been widely studied, relatively little is known about the role of interspecies interactions in promoting microbiome stability and function. We developed a biofilm metabolic model of a very simple gut microbiome community consisting of a representative bacteroidete (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), firmicute (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and proteobacterium (Escherichia coli) to investigate the putative role of metabolic byproduct cross feeding between species on community stability, robustness and flexibility. The model predicted coexistence of the three species only if four essential cross-feeding relationships were present. We found that cross feeding allowed coexistence to be robustly maintained for
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the main characteristics of protists Describe important pathogenic species of protists Des
Pleasanton, A. (1877) The Influence of the Blue Ray of the Sunlight and of the Blue Color of the Sky. Remsen & Haffelfinger, Claxton, 185.
I am almost 95% back to normal. Still have to wear a pad - go through 1 a day from simple accidents like coughing or - hah - farting. But can improve on this, s...
Disclosure: I am not a doctor, and if you are pregnant you should follow the advice of your own physician. The tips below are what worked for me and what were supported by my own doctor. One of the many things that pregnant women face during their pregnancy is the rising number that they see on…