Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
We analyzed length differences of eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal proteins in relation to function, conservation and environmental factors. Comparing Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, we found that the greater length of eukaryotic proteins is pervasive over all functional categories and involves the va …
Thermococcus kodakarensis is a species of thermophilic archaea. The type strain T. kodakarensis KOD1 is one of the best studied members of the genus. T. kodakarensis was isolated from a solfatara near the shore of Kodakara Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The isolate was originally named Pyrococcus kodakarensis KOD1, but reclassified as a species of Thermococcus, based on 16S rRNA sequence. Early research with T. kodakarensis was directed mostly at its thermostable enzymes, but its relative ease of handling and genetic manipulation facilitated by natural competence has made it an attractive system for the study of several biological processes. T. kodakarensis cells are irregular cocci 1-2 μm in diameter, often occurring in pairs, and are highly motile by means of lophotrichous archaella. The cell wall consists of a layer of di-ether and tetra-ether lipids, and an outer glycoprotein coat. T. kodakarensis is an obligate anaerobe, and a heterotroph, growing rapidly on a variety of organic substrates in ...
Kirkland, P. A. and Maupin-Furlow, J. A. (2009), Stabilization of an archaeal DNA-sliding clamp protein, PCNA, by proteasome-activating nucleotidase gene knockout in Haloferax volcanii. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 294: 32-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01547.x ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure and activity of a novel archaeal β-CASP protein with N-terminal KH domains. AU - Silva, Ana P G. AU - Chechik, Maria. AU - Byrne, Robert T.. AU - Waterman, David G.. AU - Ng, Chyan Leong. AU - Dodson, Eleanor J.. AU - Koonin, Eugene V.. AU - Antson, Alfred A.. AU - Smits, Callum. PY - 2011/5/11. Y1 - 2011/5/11. N2 - MTH1203, a β-CASP metallo-β-lactamase family nuclease from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, was identified as a putative nuclease that might contribute to RNA processing. The crystal structure of MTH1203 reveals that, in addition to the metallo-β-lactamase nuclease and the β-CASP domains, it contains two contiguous KH domains that are unique to MTH1203 and its orthologs. RNA-binding experiments indicate that MTH1203 preferentially binds U-rich sequences with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. In vitro nuclease activity assays demonstrated that MTH1203 is a zinc-dependent nuclease. MTH1203 is also shown to be a dimer ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
RN [1] RM PMID:12562787 RT CDP-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. RA Morii H, Koga Y RL J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb;185(4):1181-9 ...
The majority of cells in nature probably exist in a stationary-phase-like state, due to nutrient limitation in most environments. Studies on bacteria and yeast reveal morphological and physiological changes throughout the stationary phase, which lead to an increased ability to survive prolonged nutrient limitation. However, there is little information on archaeal stationary phase responses. We investigated protein- and lipid-level changes in Thermococcus kodakarensis with extended time in the stationary phase. Adaptations to time in stationary phase included increased proportion of membrane lipids with a tetraether backbone, synthesis of proteins that ensure translational fidelity, specific regulation of ABC transporters (upregulation of some, downregulation of others), and upregulation of proteins involved in coenzyme production. Given that the biological mechanism of tetraether synthesis is unknown, we also considered whether any of the protein-level changes in T. kodakarensis might shed light ...
Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Digoxin Inhibited Sodium Potassium ATPase Mediated ATP Synthesis and Archaeal Ectoatpases Produce Neuro-Immuno- Metabolic-Endocrine/Cell Cycle Regulation
View Notes - chapter+19 from BIOL 2051 at LSU. Chapter 19 Archaeal Diversity Archaeal Traits and Diversity Widest temperature range 2C121C Widest range of environments pH 0, high pressure,
Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. We sampled 15 genomes that improve resolution of a new phylum within the TACK superphylum and 119 DPANN genomes that highlight a major subdivision within the archaeal domain that separates DPANN from TACK/Euryarchaeota lineages. Within the DPANN superphylum, which lacks any isolated representatives, we defined two new phyla using sequences from 100 newly sampled genomes. The first new phylum, for which we propose the name Woesearchaeota, was defined using 54 new sequences. We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an ...
Relative abundance of archaeal OTUs defined using the 16S rRNA gene hyper-variable region V3V4. The bar chart shows the diversity of Archaea at the lowest relia
1J22: X-Ray and Biochemical Anatomy of an Archaeal XPF/Rad1/Mus81 Family Nuclease. Similarity between Its Endonuclease Domain and Restriction Enzymes
By employing next generation DNA sequencing of genomes isolated from single cells, great strides are being made in the monumental task of systematically bringing to light and filling in uncharted branches in the bacterial and archaeal tree of life.
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Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, of which the alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha) plays a crucial role in regulation of protein synthesis through phosphorylation at Ser51. All three subunit genes are conserved in Archaea. To examine the properties of archaeal initiation factor 2 alpha (aIF2 alpha), three genes encoding alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of aIF2 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the resulting proteins, aIF2 alpha, aIF2 beta, and aIF2 gamma, were characterized with reference to the properties of eIF2. aIF2 alpha preferentially interacts with aIF2 gamma, but does not interact with aIF2 beta, which is consistent with data obtained with eIF2, of which eIF2 gamma serves as a core subunit, interacting with eIF2 alpha and eIF2 beta. It was found that aIF2 alpha was, albeit to a lower degree, phosphorylated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
The cytoplasmic hydrogenase (SHI) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent heterotetrameric enzyme that contains a nickel-iron catalytic site, flavin, and six iron-sulfur clusters. It has potential utility in a range of bioenergy systems in vitro, but a major obstacle in its use is generating sufficient amounts. We have engineered P. furiosus to overproduce SHI utilizing a recently developed genetic system. In the overexpression (OE-SHI) strain, transcription of the four-gene SHI operon was under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and a Strep-tag II was added to the N terminus of one subunit. OE-SHI and wild-type P. furiosus strains had similar rates of growth and H 2 production on maltose. Strain OE-SHI had a 20-fold higher transcription of the polycistronic hydrogenase mRNA encoding SHI, and the specific activity of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase was ∼10-fold higher when compared with the wild-type strain, although the expression levels of genes
cansSAR 3D Structure of 1S3Q_D | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q
cansSAR 3D Structure of 1S3Q_B | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q
Adenylylsulphate (adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate, APS) reductase from the extremely thermophilic sulphate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus is an iron-sulphur flavoprotein containing one non-covalently bound flavin group, eight non-haem iron and six labile sulphide atoms per molecule. Re-evaluation of the enzyme structure revealed the presence of two different subunits with molecular masses of 80 and 18.5 kDa. The subunits are arranged in an α2β subunit structure. We have cloned and sequenced a 2.7 kb segment of DNA containing the genes for the α and β subunits, which we designate aprA and aprB, respectively. The two genes are separated by 17 bp and localized in the order aprBA. While a putative promoter could not be identified in the vicinity of aprBA a probable termination signal was found just downstream of the translation stop codon of aprA. The codon usage for aprBA shows strong preferences for G and C in the third codon position. aprA encodes a 73.3 kDa polypeptide, which shows
Hydrolytic deamination of DNA cytosine residues results in U/G mispairs, pre-mutagenic lesions threatening long-term genetic stability. Hence, DNA uracil repair is ubiquitous throughout all extant life forms and base excision repair, triggered by a uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), is the mechanistic paradigm adopted, as it seems, by all bacteria and eukaryotes and a large fraction of archaea. However, members of the UDG superfamily of enzymes are absent from the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Delta H. This organism, as a hitherto unique case, initiates repair by direct strand incision next to the DNA-U residue, a reaction catalyzed by the DNA uridine endonuclease Mth212, an ExoIII homologue. To elucidate the detailed mechanism, in particular to identify the molecular partners contributing to this repair process, we reconstituted DNA uracil repair in vitro from only four purified enzymes of M. thermautotrophicus Delta H. After incision at the 5-side of a ...
T. kodakarensis MNase digestion. T. kodakarensis strain KOD1 [22] was cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 85 °C and an insoluble unfixed chromatin fraction prepared from cells at the late‐log/stationary‐phase transition [10]. Chromatin was digested with 1 unit/ml of MNase, or 0.1 units/ml of DNase I for 1 h at 37 °C in the presence of 10 μg/μl RNase A. De‐proteinized genomic DNA was digested with 0.03 units/ml of MNase [10].. S. cerevisiae MNase digestion. EUROSCARF wild‐type reference strain BY4742 was grown and chromatin digestion (pooled triplicate samples) performed as described [11], with chromatin in unfixed detergent‐permeabilised yeast spheroplasts incubated with 600 units/ml of MNase for 3 min at 37 °C. Illumina DNA sequencing. NEBNext DNA sample prep master mix set 1 was used for Illumina adaptor ligation. Adaptor ligates were size selected on polyacrylamide gels to preserve the size distribution of the fragments before sequencing in 100 nucleotide paired end mode ...
RNase P, a ribozyme-based ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that catalyzes tRNA 5′-maturation, is ubiquitous in all domains of life, but the evolution of its protein components (RNase P proteins, RPPs) is not well understood. Archaeal RPPs may provide clues on how the complex evolved from an ancient ribozyme to an RNP with multiple archaeal and eukaryotic (homologous) RPPs, which are unrelated to the single bacterial RPP. Here, we analyzed the sequence and structure of archaeal RPPs from over 600 available genomes. All five RPPs are found in eight archaeal phyla, suggesting that these RPPs arose early in archaeal evolutionary history. The putative ancestral genomic loci of archaeal RPPs include genes encoding several members of ribosome, exosome, and proteasome complexes, which may indicate coevolution/coordinate regulation of RNase P with other core cellular machineries. Despite being ancient, RPPs generally lack sequence conservation compared to other universal proteins. By analyzing the relative
The coordinated activities of AlaAT and GDH have been proposed to play an important role in the maintenance of the redox balance during fermentative growth of P. furiosus(19). These activities result in a change in the relative flux of pyruvate to acetate formation toward alanine formation. Pyruvate is therefore used as a catabolic electron sink. Due to the important role AlaAT plays in this pathway, this enzyme was purified from P. furiosus and represents the first AlaAT purified from either an archaeon or a hyperthermophile.. Similar to the AlaAT from mesophilic sources, the active form of the enzyme was found to be a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 43.5 kDa (22, 34, 36). It has been reported that the AlaATs have a high substrate specificity and are only able to transaminate alanine or glutamate (22, 34, 36). The P. furiosus enzyme, however, was capable of utilizing aspartate and, to a much lesser extent, the branched-chain amino acids with α-ketoglutarate as the amino acceptor, ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Within the e:Bio - Innovationswettbewerb Systembiologie (Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)), the SulfoSYSBIOTECH consortium (10 partners), aim to unravel the complexity and regulation of the carbon metabolic network of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (optimal growth at 80°C and pH 3) in order to provide new catalysts extremozymes for utilization in White Biotechnology. Based on the available S. solfataricus genome scale metabolic model (Ulas et al., 2012 ...
Within the e:Bio - Innovationswettbewerb Systembiologie (Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)), the SulfoSYSBIOTECH consortium (10 partners), aim to unravel the complexity and regulation of the carbon metabolic network of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (optimal growth at 80°C and pH 3) in order to provide new catalysts extremozymes for utilization in White Biotechnology. Based on the available S. solfataricus genome scale metabolic model (Ulas et al., 2012 ...
Living organisms rely on many different mechanisms to adapt to changes within their environment. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events are one such way cells can communicate to generate a response to environmental changes. In the Kennelly laboratory we hope to gain insight on phosphorylation events in the domain Archaea through the study of the acidothermophilic organism Sulfolobus solfataricus. Such findings may provide answers into evolutionary relationships and facilitate an understanding of phosphate transfer via proteins in more elaborate systems where pathway disturbances can lead to disease processes. A λ-phage expression library was generated from S. solfataricus genomic DNA. The immobilized expression products were probed with a purified protein kinase, SsoPK4, and radiolabeled ATP to identify potential native substrates. A protein fragment of the ORF sso0563, the catalytic A-type ATPase subunit A (AtpA), was phosphorylated by SsoPK4. Full length and truncated forms of ...
Archaea is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, including environmental adaptation, enzymology, genetics and genomics, metabolism, molecular biology, molecular ecology, phylogeny, and ultrastructure. Published since 2002, Archaea provides a unique venue for exchanging information about these extraordinary prokaryotes.
cytosol, phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase activity, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase activity, purine nucleotide biosynthetic process
1. Godfroy, A., Meunier, J., Guezennec, J., Lesongeur, F., Raguenes, G., Rimbault, A., and Barbier, G. 1996. Thermococcus fumicolans sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent in the North Fiji Basin. Int. J. Systematic Bacteriology 46: 1113-1119 2. Thermococcus fumicolans genome sequence. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 3. Cambon-Bonavita, M., Schmitt, P., Zieger, M., Flaman, J., Lesongeur, F., Raguenes, G., Bindel, D., Frisch, N., Lakkis, Z., Dupret, D., Barbier, G., and Querellou, J. 2000. Cloning, expression and characterization of DNA polymerase I from the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus fumicolans. Extremophiles 4: 215-225 4. Raffin, J., Henneke, G., and Dietrich, J. 2000. Purification and characterization of a new DNA polymerase modulator from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus fumicolans. Comp. Bioc. & Physiol. Part B 127: 299-308 5. Lloyd, K. G., Edgcomb, V. P., Molyneaux, S. J., Boer, S., Wirsen, C. O., Atkins, M. S., and Teske, ...
Methanosarcina mazei ATCC ® BAA-159D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Methanosarcina mazei strain DSM 3647 TypeStrain=False Application:
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the SSV type and pNOB8 type. The former carries a smaller N-terminal and a larger C-terminal integrase gene fragment, and the latter an intact integrase gene. All integrated elements overlap tRNA genes that were target sites for integration. It has been demonstrated that SSV (Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. Thus we infer that site-specific integration constitutes an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution.. ...
View Notes - 22 from BIOL 4125 at LSU. PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 22 Hyperthermophilic Archaea Part II The early overview of archaeal diversity was exemplified by a
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Constant relative rate of protein evolution and detection of functional diversification among bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Prosser , J I & Nicol , G W 2012 , Archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidisers in soil : the quest for niche specialisation and differentiation Trends in Microbiology , vol 20 , no. 11 , pp. 523-531 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2012.08. ...
Eight of Fourteen gvp Genes Are Sufficient for Formation of Gas Vesicles in Halophilic Archaea: The minimal number of genes required for the formation of gas ve
A long-standing question is how chromosomal DNA is packaged in Crenarchaeota, a major group of archaea, which synthesize large amounts of unique small DNA-binding proteins but in general contain no archaeal histones. In the present work, we tested our hypothesis that the two well-studied crenarchaeal chromatin proteins Cren7 and Sul7d compact DNA by both DNA bending and bridging. We show that the two proteins are capable of compacting... ...
Nunoura, T.; Takaki, Y.; Kakuta, J.; Nishi, S.; Sugahara, J.; Kazama, H.; Chee, G.J.; Hattori, M.; Kanai, A.; Aatomi, H.; Takai, K. and akami, H. 2011: Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 3204-3223. doi: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1228 ...
Typical growth inhibition of S. solfataricus on plates due to infectious virus. Lawns of S. solfataricus strain GΘ were prepared as in Stedman et al. (2003). T
Thermococcus pacificus ATCC ® 700653D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Thermococcus pacificus DSM 10394 TypeStrain=True Application:
Structure of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10 from Methanococcus jannaschii reveals a specific piece of the archaeal ribosomal ...
Human ferritins have been extensively studied to be used as nanocarriers for diverse applications and could represent a convenient alternative for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging agents. However, the most relevant limitation to their applications is the need for highly acidic experimental c
I m looking for any info avaliable concerning maintenance of S. solfataricus. Please e-mail : dhatzini at orfeas.chemeng.ntua.gr ...
Some Archaea thrive in extreme places such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.
Read about how mammalian plasmids differ from their bacterial counterparts, including how replication occurs and whether selection is necessary for transfected cells.
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قَالَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ : لَوْ رَأَيْتُ رَجُلاً مَعَ امْرَأَتِي لَضَرَبْتُهُ بِالسّيْفِ غَيْرُ مُصْفِحٍ عَنْهُ ، فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ رَسُولَ اللّهِ صلى الله عليه على آله وسلم فَقَالَ : أَتَعْجَبُونَ مِنْ غَيْرَةِ سَعْدٍ ؟ فَوَ الله لأَنَا أَغْيَرُ مِنْهُ ، وَالله أَغْيَرُ مِنّي ، مِنْ أَجْلِ غَيْرَةِ الله حَرّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَن. ...
The genes encoding the three subunits of the primary ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 were cloned in an expression vector (pBAD24) and transformed into the glycine betaine transport-negative mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. Ota was produced as demonstrated by Western blotting. Uptake studies revealed that Ota catalyzed the transport of glycine betaine in E. coli MKH13(pBAD-Ota) with a Km of 10±5 μM and a maximal velocity of 1.5±0.5 nmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹. Transport was ATP dependent. Ota was activated by salinity gradients, but only marginally by sugar gradients across the membrane. Glycine betaine transport was inhibited to a small extent by an excess of dimethylglycin or proline betaine, but not by sarcosine or glycine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant superoxide dismutase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum aerophilum. AU - Whittaker, Mei M.. AU - Whittaker, James W.. PY - 2000/6/1. Y1 - 2000/6/1. N2 - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (a facultative aerobe) has been cloned and expressed in a mesophilic host (Escherichia coli) as a soluble tetrameric apoprotein. The purified apoprotein can be reconstituted with either Mn or Fe by heating the protein with the appropriate metal salt at an elevated temperature (95 °C). Both Mn- and Fe-reconstituted P. aerophilum SOD exhibit superoxide dismutase activity, with the Mn-containing enzyme having the higher activity. P. aerophilum SOD is extremely thermostable and the reconstitution with Mn(II) can be performed in an autoclave (122 °C, 18 psi). The Mn(III) optical absorption spectrum of Mn-reconstituted P. aerophilum SOD is distinct from that of most other MnSODs and is unchanged upon addition of NAN3. The ...
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The central metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the citric acid cycle (Fig. 1). Conversion of glucose to pyruvate via the nonphosphorylating Entner-Doudoroff pathway produces no net energy (19). Genes for most enzymes, except gluconate dehydratase, are present (Sso3204, 3197, 3194, 0666, 0913, 0981). Conversion of pentose substrates (xylose, arabinose) is predicted to proceed via the pentose phosphate pathway, or a variant thereof. However, only genes encoding ribose-5-P isomerase (Sso0978) and transketolase (Sso0297 and 0299) are assigned. In contrast, all citric acid cycle genes are present (Sso1077, 1095, 2182, 2356 to 2359, 2482, 2483, 2585, 2589, 2815, 2816, 2863).. It is striking that NAD+ is used rarely as an electron acceptor in some central metabolic redox reactions. Both glucose dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase are reported to reduce NADP+ specifically. Moreover, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ...
Homologous recombination plays a central role in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, the restart of stalled replication forks and the generation of genetic diversity. Regulation of recombination is essential since defects can lead to genome instability and chromosomal rearrangements. Strand exchange is a key step of recombination - it is catalysed by RecA in bacteria, Rad51/Dmc1 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea. RadB, a paralogue of RadA, is present in many archaeal species. RadB has previously been proposed to function as a recombination mediator, assisting in RadA-mediated strand exchange. In this study, we use the archaeon Haloferax volcanii to provide evidence to support this hypothesis. We show that RadB is required for efficient recombination and survival following treatment with DNA-damaging agents, and we identify two point mutations in radA that suppress the ΔradB phenotype. Analysis of these point mutations leads us to propose that the role of RadB is to act as a recombination ...
The two transducers in the phototaxis system of the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, HtrI and HtrII, are methyl-accepting proteins homologous to the chemotaxis transducers in eubacteria. Consensus sequences predict three glutamate pairs containing potential methylation sites in HtrI and one in HtrII. Mutagenic substitution of an alanine pair for one of these, Glu265-Glu266, in HtrI and for the homologous Glu513-Glu514 in HtrII eliminated methylation of these two transducers, as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autofluorography. Photostimulation of the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) induced reversible demethylation of HtrII, while no detectable change in the extent of methylation of HtrI was observed in response to stimulation of its cognate sensory rhodopsin, the attractant receptor SRI. Cells containing HtrI or HtrII with all consensus sites replaced by alanine still exhibited phototaxis responses and behavioral adaptation, and methanol ...
Empadinhas, N., Marugg, J.D., Borges, N., Santos, H. and da Costa, M.S. (2001). "Pathway for the synthesis of mannosylglycerate in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. Biochemical and genetic characterization of key-enzymes". J. Biol. Chem. 276: 43580-43588. PMID 11562374. ...
The single cubane cluster ferredoxin (Fd) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) possesses several unique properties when compared even to Fds from other hyperthermophilic archaea or bacteria. These include an equilibrium molecular heterogeneity, a six- to seven-residue increase in size, an Asp rather than the Cys as one cluster ligand, and a readily reducible disulfide bond. NMR assignments and determination of both secondary structure and tertiary contacts remote from the paramagnetic oxidized cluster of Pf 3Fe Fd with an intact disulfide bond reported previously (Teng Q., Zhou, Z. H., Smith, E. T., Busse, S.C., Howard, J. B. Adams, M. W. W., and La Mar, G. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 6316-6328) are extended here to the 4Fe oxidized cluster WT (1H and 15N) and D14C (1H only) Fds with an intact disulfide bond and to the 4Fe oxidized WT Fd (1H and 15N) with a cleaved disulfide bond. All forms are shown to possess a long (13-member) α-helix, two β-sheets (one double-, one triple
2W8L: Versatility of Y-Family Sulfolobus Solfataricus DNA Polymerase Dpo4 in Translesion Synthesis Past Bulky N2-Alkylguanine Adducts.
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway ...
Author: Kliefoth, Michael et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2012-02; Keywords: Methanosarcina acetivoran; Carbon monoxide; Acclimation; Aldehyde dehydrogenase; Sensing; Regulation; Title: Genetic analysis of MA4079, an aldehyde dehydrogenase homolog, in Methanosarcina acetivorans
Enzymatic Degradation of PrPSc by a Protease Secreted from Aeropyrum pernix K1. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Persister cells are phenotypic variants within a microbial population, which are dormant and transiently tolerant to stress. Persistence has been studied extensively in bacteria, and in eukaryotes to a limited extent, however, it has never been observed in archaea. Using the model haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii DS2, we demonstrated persister cell formation in this domain, with time-kill curves exhibiting a characteristic biphasic pattern following starvation or exposure to lethal concentrations of various biocidal compounds. Repeated challenges of surviving cells showed that, as with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was not heritable. Additionally, as previously shown with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was suppressed by exogenous indole. The addition of spent culture media to assays conducted on planktonic cells showed that H. volcanii-conditioned media stimulated persistence, whereas conditioned media of other haloarchaea or halophilic bacteria did not, suggesting the
The archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 is an extreme halophile that thrives in saturated brine environments such as the Dead Sea and solar salterns. It offers a versatile and easily assayed system for an array of well-coordinated physiologies that are necessary for survival in its harsh environment [1]. It has robust DNA repair systems that can efficiently reverse the damages caused by a variety of mutagens including UV radiation and desiccation/re-hydration cycles [2, 3]. Halobacterium NRC-1 adapts its metabolism to anaerobic conditions with the synthesis of bacterorhodopsin, which facilitates the conversion of energy from light into ATP. The completely sequenced genome of Halobacterium NRC-1 (containing ~2,600 genes) has provided insights into many of its physiological capabilities, however nearly half of all genes encoded in the halobacterial genome have no known function [4-7].. This work is intended to be a prototype for the development of a biological data integration system with a focus on ...
In constrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarise current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S
A flavoprotein. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of bound ferric iron in a variety of iron chelators (siderophores), resulting in the release of ferrous iron. The enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus is not active with uncomplexed Fe(III). cf. EC 1.16.1.7, ferric-chelate reductase (NADH) and EC 1.16.1.9, ferric-chelate reductase (NADPH ...
Sako, Y., Nomura, N., Uchida, A., Ishida, Y., Morii, H., Koga, Y., Hoaki, T., and Maruyama, T. 1996. Aeropyrum pernix gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon growing at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:1070-1077 ...
Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. In the 1970s Carl Woese sequenced ribosomal RNAs of prokaryotic organisms and discovered two different types of rRNA sequences. Because of this discovery Woese proposed that the prokaryotic domain has to be subdivided into two separate domains, namely Bacteria and Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. Initially people thought that archaea are freaks living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in normal environments. Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? ...
PDCD5蛋白質是個最早被發現在人類體內細胞用來上調節的細胞凋亡蛋白。PDCD5蛋白質可從細胞質向細胞核迅速的通過並與Tip60蛋白結合於DNA造成乙醯化,進而傳遞細胞凋亡訊息,其重要性為調節第五型賴氨酸乙酰轉化酶抑制其蛋白酶體相關的降解(參與轉錄、DNA損傷反應和細胞週期控制蛋白)。我們從KEGG數據分析庫確定了SSO0352基因為PDCD5蛋白在古生菌Sulfolobus solfataricus的同源基因,由於目前在古生菌Sulfolobus solfataricus的功能仍然還是未知,為了研究是否有相似的作用及結構。我們表現在質體pET-21a上和找到適合生產PDCD5蛋白質的方法,並表現於大腸桿菌(RIL)菌株,找到其純化條件。利用陽離子交換樹脂和膠體交換法純化出蛋白並使用X-ray繞射與單重原子異常散射(SAD)得知PDCD5蛋白的結構。Sso-PDCD5晶體在X-ray的繞射數據為Space group=C2, a = 100.34 Å, b = 39.71 Å, c = 77.57 ...
Lübben, M. , Güldenhaupt, J. , Zoltner, M. , Deigweiher, K. , Haebel, P. , Urbanke, C. and Scheidig, A. J. (2007): Sulfate Acts as Phosphate Analog on the Monomeric Catalytic Fragment of the CPx-ATPase CopB from Sulfolobus solfataricus , Journal of Molecular Biology ...
So, first a bit of biology. This will make more sense to you if you are not a creationist. Somewhere back in the mists of time -- long before the universe was created 6,000 years ago -- actually somewhere around 2 billion years ago, it seems that 2 (or possibly 3) simple prokaryotic cells entered into an endosymbiotic relationship. We dont know exactly how this happened. Prokaryotic cells dont have a nucleus and are otherwise relatively simple in their internal structure. There are two major kinds, called archaea and bacteria. The most straightforward explanation of the origin of the eukaryotes is that an archaeal cell somehow engulfed a bacterium, but didnt digest it. Instead, the bacterium reproduced and its progeny started living happily within the cytoplasm of the archaea and its descendants. The endosymbiotic bacteria gradually lost most of their DNA -- they didnt need it because their environment was properly managed by the archaeal DNA, which is now our nuclear DNA -- and they settled ...
Their phytanyl tails are primarily hooked to their glycerols using ether, not ester, linkages (see 2, above), which resist destruction better than esters. And their glycerols have opposite handedness to the glycerols in our membrane lipids (note mirror orientation in the bacterial and archaeal lipids in figure).. Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively "left-handed". Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago.. Some archaeal lipids have a property that is rarely or never seen in bacteria or eukaryotes. Bacteria and eukaryotes have ...
Jung J-H, Seo D-H, Holden JF, Park C-S. 2014. Maltose-forming α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04.. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 98(5):2121-31. ...
Archaeal flagellum. The flagellum of Archaea is a long hair-like cell surface appendage made of polymerized flagellin with an attached hook. This rotating structure with switches propels the cell through a liquid medium. The archaeal flagellum is distinct from its bacterial equivalent in terms of architecture, composition and mechanism of assembly. Thinner (10-15 nm) compared to the bacterial flagellum (18-24 nm), it is usually composed of several types of flagellins and is glycosylated. The archeal flagellum is considered as a type IV pilus-like structure.. Category: Cellular component ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Methanothermobacter wolfeii.
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (Na+/Ca2+-exchange protein 1). The cardiac isoform, CAX1.1, like the archaeal homologues for which high resolution 3-d structures are available (TC#s 2.A.19.5.3 and 2.A.19.8.2), have two aqueous ion permeation channels with cavities that can face the cytoplasm or the external medium (John et al. 2013). It exchanges one Ca2+ ion against three to four Na+ ions, and thereby contributes to the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and Ca2+-dependent cellular processes (Komuro et al. 1992; , Van Eylen et al. 2001; Kofuji et al. 1992). It also contributes to Ca2+ transport during excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. In a first phase, voltage-gated channels mediate the rapid increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels due to release of Ca2+ stores from the endoplasmic reticulum. SLC8A1 mediates the export of Ca2+ from the cell during the next phase, so that cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels rapidly return to baseline. It is also required for normal embryonic heart development and the ...
Sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (Na+/Ca2+-exchange protein 1). The cardiac isoform, CAX1.1, like the archaeal homologues for which high resolution 3-d structures are available (TC#s 2.A.19.5.3 and 2.A.19.8.2), have two aqueous ion permeation channels with cavities that can face the cytoplasm or the external medium (John et al. 2013). It exchanges one Ca2+ ion against three to four Na+ ions, and thereby contributes to the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and Ca2+-dependent cellular processes (Komuro et al. 1992; , Van Eylen et al. 2001; Kofuji et al. 1992). It also contributes to Ca2+ transport during excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. In a first phase, voltage-gated channels mediate the rapid increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels due to release of Ca2+ stores from the endoplasmic reticulum. SLC8A1 mediates the export of Ca2+ from the cell during the next phase, so that cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels rapidly return to baseline. It is also required for normal embryonic heart development and the ...
This archaeal enzyme differs from EC 2.7.1.26, riboflavin kinase, in using CTP as the donor nucleotide. UTP, but not ATP or GTP, can also act as a phosphate donor but it is at least an order of magnitude less efficient than CTP ...
Introduction: Archaea comes from the greek word, archaio, meaning ancient (billions of years, and if you dont call that old, then I dont know what is). In order to fully understand the origins of Archaea, we must look at evolutionary history. From what we understand, all living forms have descended from a Universal ancestor, which appeared through spontaneous generation. The term spontaneous generation is generally used to explain what Europeans before 1668 believed to be the cause of life, indicating that every day, living organisms were created by non living things (such as mud). This should not be confused with the modern theory of the origin of life, that abiotic amino acids were generated in the primordial soup and spontaneously joined together to form LUCA ...
This model describes the bacterial and organellar branch of the ribosomal protein S7 family (includes prokaroytic S7 and eukaryotic S5). The eukaryotic and archaeal branch is described by model TIGR01028 ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingprotein translocase SEC61 complex gamma subunit, archaeal and eukaryotic (TIGR00327; HMM-score: 8.1) ...
Archea (or Ancient) Messene was the most fascinating place we saw, even more than the Acropolis. Its huge, there are lots of remains, especially columns. and the stadium area is simply marvellous.
CRP se određuje kada postoji sumnja na zapaljenje, kod praćenja efikasnosti terapije i kod praćenja napredovanja nekih bolesti.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hyperthermophilic cystathionine c-synthase from the aerobic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. T2 - Expression, purification, crystallization and structural insights. AU - Sato, Dan. AU - Shiba, Tomoo. AU - Mizuno, Sae. AU - Kawamura, Ayaka. AU - Hanada, Shoko. AU - Yamada, Tetsuya. AU - Shinozaki, Mai. AU - Yanagitani, Masahiko. AU - Tamura, Takashi. AU - Inagaki, Kenji. AU - Harada, Shigeharu. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS; EC 2.5.1.48), a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the formation of cystathionine from an l-homoserine derivative and l-cysteine in the first step of the transsulfuration pathway. Recombinant CGS from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii (StCGS) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by heat treatment followed by hydroxyapatite and gel-filtration column chromatography. The purified enzyme shows higher enzymatic activity at 353 K under basic pH conditions compared ...
43] Kouril T, Wieloch P, Reimann J, Wagner M, Zaparty M, Albers SV, Schomburg D, Ruoff P, Siebers B (2012). Unraveling the function of the two Entner-Doudoroff branches in the thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. FEBS J. 2012 Dec 24. doi: 10.1111/febs.12106. PMID:23279921. [42] Peetsch A, Greulich C, Braun D, Stroetges C, Rehage H, Siebers B, Köller M, Epple M (2012). Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013 Feb 1;102:724-9. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.09.040. Epub 2012 Oct 6. PMID:23107950. [41] Ulas T, Riemer SA, Zaparty M, Siebers B, Schomburg D (2012). Genome-scale reconstruction and analysis of the metabolic network in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43401. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043401. Epub 2012 Aug 31. PMID:22952675. [40] Esser D, Pham TK, Reimann J, Albers SV, Siebers B, Wright PC (2012). ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of temperature on the production of archaeal thermoactive alcohol dehydrogenases from Pyrococcus furiosus with recombinant E. coli. AU - Kube, J.. AU - Brokamp, C.. AU - Machielsen, M.P.. AU - van der Oost, J.. AU - Markl, H.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The heterologous production of a thermoactive alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhC) from Pyrococcus furiosus in Escherichia coli was investigated. E. coli was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor in minimal medium to high cell densities (cell dry weight 76 g/l, OD600 of 150). Different cultivation strategies were applied to optimize the production of active AdhC, such as lowering the cultivation temperature from 37 to 28°C, heat shock of the culture from 37 to 42°C and from 37 to 45°C, and variation of time of induction (induction at an OD600 of 40, 80 and 120). In addition to the production of active intracellular protein, inclusion bodies were always observed. The maximal activity of 30 U/l (corresponding to 6 mg/l active ...
Project 1: Bipolar Tetraether Lipid Membranes: Physical Properties, and Technological Applications. The long-term goals of this research are to understand how the Archaea live in extreme environments and to use the Archaeal bipolar tetraether lipids for technological applications. The Archaea are curious and remarkable organisms; and, their lipids are structurally distinctly different from their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. The native habitat of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, which is the focus of this research, is hot (65-80 oC) and acidic (pH 2-3) sulfur springs. The plasma membrane of S. acidocaldarius not only serves as a barrier between the low pH extracellular environment and the neutral pH intracellular compartment (pH 6.5), but also performs proton pumping and other cellular activities at high temperatures. The ability of the plasma membrane to achieve these goals in extreme environments is not clearly understood, although there is evidence suggesting ...
The ribosome consists of small and large subunits each composed of dozens of proteins and RNA molecules. However, the functions of many of the individual protomers within the ribosome are still unknown. In this article, we describe the solution NMR structure of the ribosomal protein RP-L35Ae from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. RP-L35Ae is buried within the large subunit of the ribosome and belongs to Pfam protein domain family PF01247, which is highly conserved in eukaryotes, present in a few archaeal genomes, but absent in bacteria. The protein adopts a six-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel analogous to the tRNA binding motif fold. The structure of the P. furiosus RP-L35Ae presented in this article constitutes the first structural representative from this protein domain family.
Reproduction among Haloferax volcanii occurs when two cells fuse, establish cytoplasmic bridges, and exchange genetic information, forming two daughter cells. While this practice may sound similar to the mating habits of eukaryotes, Haloferax volcanii appears to be indiscriminatory when it comes to choosing prospective reproductive partner cells. They appear to be capable of fusing with the cells of any species within the Haloferax genus; their methods of specificity are virtually unknown. Haloferax volcanii processes carbohydrates for energy. Their cell wall S-layer, like all halobacteria, is made up of a glycoprotein. And in keeping with their halophilic categorization, Haloferax volcanii cells contain proteins to allow them to maintain balance between the cell material and the hypersaline environment. ...
XPB helicase is an integral part of transcription factor TFIIH, required for both transcription initiation and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Along with the XPD helicase, XPB plays a crucial but only partly understood role in defining and extending the DNA repair bubble around lesions in NER. Archaea encode clear homologues of XPB and XPD, and structural studies of these proteins have yielded key insights relevant to the eukaryal system. Here we show that archaeal XPB functions with a structure-specific nuclease, Bax1, as a helicase-nuclease machine that unwinds and cleaves model NER substrates. DNA bubbles are extended by XPB and cleaved by Bax1 at a position equivalent to that cut by the XPG nuclease in eukaryal NER. The helicase activity of archaeal XPB is dependent on the conserved Thumb domain, which may act as the helix breaker. The N-terminal damage recognition domain of XPB is shown to be crucial for XPB-Bax1 activity and may be unique to the archaea. These findings have implications ...
Phylogenetic distribution analyses of the trm5 genes revealed that three Trm5 subfamilies exist in archaea, and they are subsequently named Trm5a, Trm5b, and Trm5c. Recently, Trm5a from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) has been identified and characterized (9). PaTrm5a, but not PaTrm5b, is a unique enzyme in that it catalyzes two methyltransfer reactions on G37 for the tRNAPhe hypermodifications: In the first reaction, it transfers a methyl group to the N1 atom of G37 to produce m1G, whereas in the second reaction, it further methylates the C7 atom of imG-14 to generate imG2, an intermediate along the pathway (Fig. 1A) (12). Therefore, PaTrm5a replaces the enzyme Tyw2 in eukarya and plays double roles in the mimG biosynthesis. The structural basis of the bifunctional substrate specificity of PaTrm5a is of interest but unclear at present.. The first crystal structures of Trm5 were of the Trm5b subfamily, from the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii (MjTrm5b). MjTrm5b in complex ...
A new type of metal centre was detected in the membranes of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus. This centre has an S = 1/2 ground state in the oxidised form, yielding an axial EPR signal with g values at 2.035 (g(parallel)) and 1.97
Pyrococcus furiosus PfuCP carboxypeptidase: metallocarboxypeptidase isolated from Pyrococcus furiosus; activated by cobalt; amino acid sequence in first source
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Hyperthermophiles grow optimally at 80 ºC and above, and many of them have the ability to utilize various carbohydrates as carbon source and produce ethanol as an end product. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a key enzyme responsible for alcohol production, catalyzing interconversions between alcohols and corresponding ketones or aldehydes. ADHs from hyperthermophiles are of great interests due to their thermostability, high activity and enantioselectivity. The gene encoding ADH from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed. DNA fragments of the genes encoding the ADHs were amplified directly from the corresponding genomic DNA by combining the use of conventional and inverse PCRs. The entire gene was detected to be 1092 bp and the deduced amino acid sequence had a total of 364 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 39463 Dalton. The enzyme belonged to the family of zinc-containing ADHs with catalytic zinc only. It was verified that the ...