Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important human pathogens for which there are no specific antiviral medicines. The abundance of genetically distinct arbovirus species, coupled with the unpredictable nature of their outbreaks, has made the development of virus-specific treatments challenging. Instead, we have defined and targeted a key aspect of the host innate immune response to virus at the arthropod bite that is common to all arbovirus infections, potentially circumventing the need for virus-specific therapies. Using mouse models and human skin explants, we identify innate immune responses by dermal macrophages in the skin as a key determinant of disease severity. Post-exposure treatment of the inoculation site by a topical TLR7 agonist suppressed both the local and subsequent systemic course of infection with a variety of arboviruses from the Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera. Clinical outcome was improved in mice after infection with a model alphavirus. In the ...
Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease, however no specific treatment or vaccine is available for them. In addition, ocular manifestations of these diseases have become more prevalent over the past few years. This review highlights the current understanding on the pathogenesis, systemic changes and ocular findings, emphasizing the retinal manifestations related to dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses.
Arboviruses (or arthropod-borne viruses) are a heterogeneous group of viruses that share the same usual route of entry into humans: via the bite of an infected mosquito, tick, sandfly, or other arthropod.1,2 The life cycle of most arboviruses is characterized by the ability of the virus to replicate in both an arthropod vector and a vertebrate "natural" host (usually birds or small mammals) and by transmission between these two organisms at the time of the arthropods bite (eFig. 305.1). This cycle leads to establishment or maintenance of the virus in a given ecosystem. Humans or domestic animals are only "incidental" hosts for many species of arboviruses, as infection in such hosts (although capable of causing disease) is often a dead-end for the virus due to viremia being too low or too transient to contribute to maintenance of the cycle of transmission. Some viruses are specific to a single genus or species of insect, while others are transmissible by multiple vectors. In addition, some ...
Summary Cell lines of baby hamster kidney (BHK 21), green monkey kidney (Vero, MA 134), rhesus monkey kidney (MA 104), and rabbit kidney (MA 111) were found suitable for titration and multiplication of arboviruses. Plaque characteristics of 52 arboviruses and 20 virus strains and titres of some of them in BHK 21 and other cell lines were established, using one type of serum-free standard overlay and standard maintenance medium. However, the addition of cortisol or other compounds was necessary to prolong survival of BHK 21 cell sheets, and induce or improve plaque formation.
Extrinsic and environmental factors are known to affect the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including variations in the arthropod vector populations. Differences among these factors have been associated with differential transmission and are sometimes used to control the spread of an arbovirus through a vertebrate population in an effort to prevent or disrupt an outbreak. However, diversity in intrinsic viral populations, such as genetic and phenotypic variability, is not often accounted for when considering alterations in transmission. Presented in this dissertation are four experimental studies that explore the contribution of viral intrinsic factors, especially phenotypic variability, to the transmission potential of arboviruses as judged by modeling parameters such as vectorial capacity (VC) and the basic reproductive number (R0). The overall hypothesis of this research is that phenotypic differences of arboviruses alter the transmission potential of these arboviruses by
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. All arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. Viruses such as dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) that have lost the requirement for enzootic amplification now produce extensive epidemics in tropical urban centers. Many arboviruses recently have increased in importance as human and veterinary pathogens using a variety of mechanisms. Beginning in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion into the Americas. High amplification associated with avian virulence coupled with adaptation for replication at higher temperatures in mosquito vectors, has caused the largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis ever reported in the Americas. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the most frequent arboviral cause of encephalitis worldwide,
Flaviviruses show cross-reactivity in conventional serological tests, and are therefore not fully reliable. This project aims to develop a microarray to improve serological diagnostics. This microarray enables us to test seropositivity for the following arboviruses. ...
Emeritus Professor Duane Gubler is an international expert on vector borne-infectious diseases and a go-to spokesperson for the media for all things infectious disease-related. This year alone he has been interviewed by The New York Times, The Straits Times, and Vox, among other media outlets.. "Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control on arboviruses", a well-received book edited by Prof Gubler, looks at viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks and mites. Since Zika was declared a major global emergency last year, and dengue remains a consistent health threat and concern, the text is a much welcome contribution to the literature on these groups of viruses.. Microscope caught up with Prof Gubler for more on his book and his thoughts on global health concerns:. How did you come up with the concept for this book?. I was approached by several publishers to edit and compile a book that looked at arboviruses. In the past ...
Key Public Risk Communication Messages for the Week of Sept 24, 2012:. 1. Day time and early evening temperatures are still warm enough for continued mosquito activity. Mosquito activity drops off when temperatures are below 60 but some mosquitoes will be active even down to 52 degrees.. 2. At this time of year, the mosquitoes that remain are older adults; as mosquitoes age, they are more likely to have picked up either EEE or WNV so a greater proportion of them are probably infected. Because of cooler temperatures, mosquito trapping is less effective and the increased infection rates are not always obvious based on mosquito testing results.. 3. Communities at high or critical risk for EEE are urged to consider rescheduling outdoor, evening events that occur between the hours of dusk and dawn. Communities at high or critical risk for WNV should consider outreach to residents over the age of 50 with information about peak mosquito activity hours.. ...
Overview: Epidemiology of arthropod-borne and other zoonotic viral diseases. Research Interests. My primary research interests are on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of arthropod-borne and zoonotic viral diseases. Most of my work involves field studies of the ecology of the viruses and laboratory investigations on their pathology in animals. I am also director of the World Reference Center of Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses. This is a large collection, which includes most of the known arboviruses as well as reagents (antibodies and antigens) for them. These are distributed at no cost to qualified investigators throughout the world. The Reference Collection is an invaluable resource for persons interested in comparative studies of viral interrelationships and pathogenicity. We also receive unknown virus samples for identification and characterization. Recent Publications. Search PubMed Database for Publications SciVal Publications Overview ...
This study is, to the authors knowledge, the first survey of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. This work has demonstrated the presence of several mosquito species that are candidate vectors of pathogens affecting horses. Commonly found mosquito species on equine premises during this study included Oc. detritus, Oc. caspius, Cs. annulata, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. torrentium, An. claviger, An. plumbeus and Oc. punctor. Although mosquito density could be considered low at most of the sites sampled, this could be partly explained by the fact that the months of March, April and May in 2015 were relatively dry for all of the regions except the northwest (Met Office 2016). Climate change predictions suggest increased temperature and potential for flooding events in the UK (Met Office 2010, Caminade and others 2012, Medlock and Leach 2015), which are likely to increase the abundance of native mosquito species. It therefore seems likely that in the future there may be significantly increased ...
Stagnant and warmer waters are conducive to the proliferation of arboviruses, these diseases transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks, which like humidity and heat.. Currently, worldwide, arboviruses (diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks) represent more than 40% of infectious and emerging diseases. They include dengue fever which has the highest prevalence in the world, with 390 million persons infected a year, chikungunya, zika virus, yellow fever, etc. The mosquito would thus be responsible for more than 750,000 deaths per year. It remains public enemy number one in many countries, especially as it adapts quickly. Humans cannot completely control the Nature and they are only part of a vast living ecosystem… ...
Diagnostic and epidemiologic virology laboratories have in large part traded conventional techniques of virus detection and identification for more rapid, novel, and sensitive molecular methods. By doing so, useful phenotypic characteristics are not being determined. We feel that the impact of this shift in emphasis has impaired studies of the biology of viruses. This position paper is a plea to the scientific and administrative communities to reconsider the importance of such information. We also suggest a revised paradigm for virus isolation and characterization and provide a rationale for accumulating biologic (phenotypic) information ...
Public Health Ontario (PHO) is a Crown corporation dedicated to protecting and promoting the health of all Ontarians and reducing inequities in health. PHO links public health practitioners, front-line health workers and researchers to the best scientific intelligence and knowledge from around the world.
Summary Sera collected from 60 selected South Florida patients with undiagnosed infectious disease in 1961, 1962, and 1963 were studied in hemagglutination-inhibition tests with 22 selected arboviruses. This was done in order to determine whether or not any one of the viruses caused the disease of each patient and to determine the HI antibody status of representative South Florida residents against a spectrum of arboviruses. Among the 60 patients, 11 had encephalitis, 39 had aseptic meningitis, and the illnesses of the remaining 10 were characterized as undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies were observed to 10 arboviruses in one or more of the late sera from nine patients: three were cases of encephalitis, three were aseptic meningitis and three were classified as undifferentiated febrile illnesses. The antibodies were to eight Group B viruses including bat salivary gland, Bussuquara, dengue type 2, Ilheus, Modoc, MVE, Powassan, and SLE, as well as Bunyamwera, Guaroa
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented ...
Abstract. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. At least one arbovirus was detected in 51.3%, and exposure to more than one arbovirus was identified in 17.6% of the white-tailed deer sampled.
Arboviruses, or arthropod-borne viruses, affecting humans are RNA viruses that are biologically transmitted to vertebrate hosts by the bite of arthropod vectors. There are more than 500 arboviruses which are grouped in at least seven families; Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, and Asfarviridae.. About 100 arboviruses cause illness in humans and through investigation of travel history and exposures laboratory and clinical diagnosis can be simplified. The majority of arboviruses result in simple febrile illness that is not uncommon to symptoms of common viral or bacterial infections. Typically clinical features of "acute arboviral fevers usually include a sudden onset of debilitating symptoms, such as malaise, extreme headache, myalgia, lumbar pain, and sometimes nausea, vomiting, and dizziness" (Lanciotti & Tsai, 2007, p. 1486). Given the large number of arboviruses there is a broad range of symptoms that may also occur including aseptic ...
The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view,
Arbovirus is a term used to refer to any viruses that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The word arbovirus is an acronym (ARthropod-BOrne virus). The word tibovirus (TIck-BOrne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods. Arboviruses can affect both animals, including humans, and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3-15 days after exposure to the virus and last 3 or 4 days. The most common clinical features of infection are fever, headache, and malaise, but encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever may also occur. Arboviruses were not known to exist until the rise of modern medicine, with the germ theory and an understanding that viruses were distinct from other microorganisms. The connection between arthropods and disease was not postulated until 1881 when Cuban doctor and scientist Carlos Finlay proposed that yellow fever may be transmitted by mosquitoes instead of human contact, a reality ...
Arboviruses (arthropod-borne virus) cause viral infections that are spread by mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects, such as ticks. Arbovirus testing can help diagnose the cause of meningitis or encephalitis and distinguish an arbovirus infection from other conditions causing similar symptoms.
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
The details of bibliography - Surveys of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to arboviruses in Aborigines and other population groups in Northern and Eastern Australia, 1966-1971
VIRUS DISEASES : Arboviral infections of the central nervous system = MALADIES À VIRUS : Infections à arbovirus du système nerveux ...
ajmst37 at vms.cis.pitt.edu wrote: ,hello, ,just doing some reading on arboviruses, and I was wondering just how ,worried people in the U.S. should be. Depends on where in the US you are. Obviously the southern states are more of a worry than northern ones. The US has a HUGE arbovirus research team, operating mainly out of CDC Atlanta , Is it true that the Aedes Aegyptes ,(sp?) mosquito is in the U.S.? Is this not the same mosquito that carries ,yellow fever and Dengue fever? Yes, but arbovirus ecology depends on more than just a moquito vector. You also need mosquito breeding grounds, a suitable vertebrate host that the mozzie usually bites, and a high enough level of viraemia in the usual hosts to allow spill over into the human population. , Since the attempted malaria eradication, ,are all mosquitos immune to most pesticides, or is that still the best way ,to prevent arbovirus outbreaks? It is not so much mosquito immuity but rather any kind of pesticide spraying has limited efficiency when ...
Looking for arbovirus? Find out information about arbovirus. Small, arthropod-borne animal viruses that are unstable at room temperature and inactivated by sodium deoxycholate; cause several types of encephalitis.... Explanation of arbovirus
Arbovirus: Arbovirus, acronym derived from arthropod-borne virus, a group of viruses that develop in arthropods (chiefly blood-sucking mosquitoes and ticks), in which they cause no apparent harm, and are subsequently transmitted by bites to vertebrate hosts, in which they establish infections and complete
Curated by Journal of General Virology Editor Dr Eng Eong Ooi (Duke NUS Medical School) and Advisory Board Member Dr Esther Schnettler (Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine), this collection presents the latest advances in arbovirus research. This collection was launched in conjuction with IMAV 2017 and in line with IMAV 2019 welcomes submissions of original research articles, Insight Reviews and full-length Reviews.Find out more about how to submit to the collection here.
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Do You Have Encephalitis, Arbovirus? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Encephalitis, Arbovirus group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. Encephalitis, Arbovirus anonymous support gro...
Background , Models of arbovirus transmission are useful in estimating the burden of Dengue, forecasting areas of risk for the emergence of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika in non-endemic areas, and in assessing the potential of control interventions. The utility of these models relies on their grounding in empirical data at multiple scales describing the disease transmission process. The aims are to (i) model the dynamics of viruses in their invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as well as the movement of these hosts viz ...
The arbovirus transmission project in ABADRU and KSU will aim to understand the biological processes associated with establishment of infection in vectors, transmission of virus, establishment of mammalian infection as well as disease pathogenesis and immunity that could impact the domestic feral and commercial swine. A multidisciplinary approach combining genetics, microbiology, vector ecology, insect physiology, ecology, virology, pathology and immunology and other sub-disciplines will be used to address this research objective described above. Specifically, this agreement will establish funding to support two Ph.D. graduate students for four years to work with the principle investigators (ARS ABADRU and KSU) to fulfill these objectives. Trainees will be selected based upon previous experience, accomplishments and interests to participate in projects and be trained in techniques related to research on vector-borne viruses. The goal is to add to the collective expertise in the U.S. and enhance ...
Professor Immunology & Haematology, Central Queensland University - Cited by 3,335 - Infectious disease immunology and epidemiology - mosquito-borne diseases including malaria - dengue & other arboviruses - otorhinol
Encephalomyelitis disease is mainly caused by childhood viruses, arboviruses, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Colorado tick fever virus ATCC ® VR-1233CAF™ Designation: Colorado tick fever control ascitic fluid [V-506-401-562] Application:
Background: The global distribution and disease burden of arboviral diseases have increased over recent years. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the epidemiology of arboviruses remains poorly characterized. Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across the WHO, World Bank, and UNAIDS-defined MENA region describing the human, animal, and vector prevalence for six arboviruses which were selected based on their known endemicity in the region and broader global importance: chikungunya virus (CHIKV), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), dengue virus (DENV), rift valley fever virus (RVFV), west nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever (YFV). Geospatial prevalence maps were generated using ArcGIS software. Results: We screened 2,090 reports and identified 586 prevalence measures for the arboviruses of interest in humans (40%) and animals (60%) in MENA. Countries with no published prevalence data were Algeria, Bahrain, Palestine, ...
Colorado tick fever (CTF) is a disease caused by an RNA virus, Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV). Symptoms, which are often non-specific, begin 3 to 5 days after the bite with an abrupt onset of fever and any of these: headaches, chills, malaise, photophobia, myalgias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In 5 to 15% of cases a rash occurs. Neurologic complications may also occur. 50% of patients have single recurrence of fever ("saddleback" fever).. IFA titers for diagnosis. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is the test most often used to diagnose the disease. CTF is transmitted by Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mt. wood tick) which causes illness from the Western Black Hills to the West Coast in the USA. Some cases of transmission through blood transfusion have been reported. Treatment consists of supportive care.. ©LDA. 2014. 2015. This web site provides practical and useful information on the subject matters covered. It is distributed with the understanding that LDA is not engaged in ...
Additional Information and References:. Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals, Second Edition. Edited by William M. Samuel, Margo J. Pybus, A. Alan Kocan. 2001. Chapter 4-Ticks. Artsob H. 1989. Powassan encephalitis, p. 29-49 In T. P Monath (ed.), The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology, vol. IV. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.. Bishopp FC and CN Smith. (1937). A new species of Ixodes from Massachusetts. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 39: 133-138.. Bowen GS. (1989). Colorado tick fever virus, In: T. P. Monath (ed.), The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Vol. II. pp. 159-176. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.. Bowen GS, McLean RG, Shriner RB, Francy DB, Pokorny KS, Trimble JM, Bolin RA, Barnes AM, Calisher CH, and Muth DJ. (1981). The ecology of Colorado tick fever in Rocky Mountain National Park in 1974. II. Infection in small mammals. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30: 490-496.. Calisher CH. 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 7(1): 89-116.. Carey ...
Colorado Tick Fever. In: Hay, Jr WW, Levin MJ, Deterding RR, Abzug MJ. Hay, Jr W.W., Levin M.J., Deterding R.R., Abzug M.J. Eds. William W. Hay, Jr, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accesspediatrics.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2196§ionid=166956538. Accessed January 20, 2018 ...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
All the Dogs owners asked this common question as to how can we identify the Dog Tick Fever? No worries, we will help you. If a dog has tick fever which appears in acute, sub-clinical and chronic stages. Acute will experience symptoms such as respiratory troubles, swollen lymph nodes, loss of weight, fever, bleeding problems, and neurological issues. It appears in the beginning stages of tick fever. In fact, sub-clinical stage of Dog Tick Fever, display zero indication of the disease. So that dont exhibit symptoms and the dog possesses a good immune system, they could potentially fight off tick fever during the sub-clinical period. In the chronic stages, they might display severe symptoms such as anemia, vision difficulties, eye hemorrhaging is one example and lameness, uncontrollable bleeding, limb swelling, and failure of the bone marrow. Then their health condition characterized by low blood-platelet counts. So that chronic ehrlichiosis sometimes succumbs to the ailment.. Beyond that, After ...
Survey for antibodies against arthropod-borne viruses in man and animals in Italy. 3. Serologic status of human beings and animals in a southern Italian region
We found this interesting information on the internet and thought you would like to be aware of the symptoms of Zika…especially since its so new here in the US.. Symptoms of Zika virus in most people are similar to other arboviruses such as Chikungunya (fever, headache, fatigue primarily). The recent epidemic in Brazil, however, has been distinctively marked by detection of the disease in fetal amniotic fluid and an elevated reporting of cases of microcephaly (small head size) in newborns.. Given the virus recent introduction to the Americas, some epidemiologists have expressed concern that resistance may be low, leading to increased transmission rates and severity of symptoms. In rare cases, Zika symptoms have been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome, which causes the bodys immune system to attack its neurological system and can lead to paralysis.. Because no Zika vaccine yet exist, the response to the outbreak involves stepped-up public health efforts, including vector control of ...
We found this interesting information on the internet and thought you would like to be aware of the symptoms of Zika…especially since its so new here in the US.. Symptoms of Zika virus in most people are similar to other arboviruses such as Chikungunya (fever, headache, fatigue primarily). The recent epidemic in Brazil, however, has been distinctively marked by detection of the disease in fetal amniotic fluid and an elevated reporting of cases of microcephaly (small head size) in newborns.. Given the virus recent introduction to the Americas, some epidemiologists have expressed concern that resistance may be low, leading to increased transmission rates and severity of symptoms. In rare cases, Zika symptoms have been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome, which causes the bodys immune system to attack its neurological system and can lead to paralysis.. Because no Zika vaccine yet exist, the response to the outbreak involves stepped-up public health efforts, including vector control of ...
Encephalitis is generally a viral illness. Viruses such as those responsible for causing cold sores, mumps, measles, and chickenpox can also cause encephalitis. A certain family of viruses, the Arboviruses are spread by insects such as mosquitoes and ticks. The equine (meaning horse), West Nile, Japanese, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses are all mosquito-borne. Although viruses are the most common source of infection, bacteria, fungi, and parasites can also be responsible ...
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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts skin to consume blood. The word "mosquito" (formed by mosca and diminutive -ito) is Spanish for "little fly." Thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes also attack invertebrates, mainly other arthropods. Though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In passing from host to host, some transmit extremely harmful infections such as malaria, yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile virus, dengue fever, filariasis, Zika virus and other arboviruses, rendering it the deadliest animal family ...
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies, which comprise the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts skin to consume blood. The word "mosquito" (formed by mosca and diminutive ito) is Spanish for "little fly".[2] Thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes also attack invertebrates, mainly arthropods. Though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In passing from host to host, some transmit extremely harmful infections such as malaria, yellow fever, Chikungunya, west Nile virus, dengue fever, filariasis, Zika virus and other arboviruses, rendering it the deadliest animal family in ...
Dr. Beasleys research currently focuses on the molecular basis of virulence and antigenic variations between strains of West Nile virus. His labs wider research activities include studies related to the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic reagents and vaccines for flaviviruses and other arboviruses. Dr. Beasley is Co-Director of the Keiller/GNL BSL3 laboratories, Director of the GNL Regulatory Services Core, and directs research activities associated with an NIH-sponsored animal models contract to undertake GLP compliant animal and in vitro studies ...