The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase genome and extend into centromeric regions. …
Genetic transformation is often associated with different rearrangements of the plant genome at the site of insertion. Therefore the question remains weather these T-DNA insertion sites are more prone to genotoxic stresses. Here, we studied the impact of propagation through generations, the influence of gene stacking and of photo oxidative stress caused by high light intensity on the stability of the transgene and its flanking regions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Conformational Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE), RFLP and sequencing were deployed in this analysis in order to study the proximal 100 bp and the long range T-DNA flanking sequences. By screening seven transgenic lines no evidence for occurrence of mutation events were found, implying that the flanking regions of the studied T-DNA insertion events are relatively stable ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Zea mays MATH-BTB protein (ZmMAB1) has been shown to have a role in regulation and proper asimetric cell divisions during the male and female gametophyte development. Its role has been demonstrated in proteasomal degradation as part of a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. ZmMAB1 gene expression in Zea mays is precisely regulated, and the protein product is a short-lived protein. Therefore ZmMAB1 gene expression research in a homolougus system is difficult. Cullin is a structural component of many E3 ligases. It has been shown that Cul3a protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. forms complexes with MAB1 from Zea mays, so Arabidopsis thaliana has been chosen for expression regulation research of MAB1 in a heterologous system. For the cause of better understanding the role and regulation of ZmMAB1 protein, GFP florescent protein labeled ZmMAB1 protein has been inserted in the genome of A. thaliana with bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Goal of this thesis was to determine on which level of ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh and Oryza sativa L., a large number of genes encode proteins of unknown functions, whose characterization still remains one of the major challenges. With an aim to characterize these unknown proteins having defined features (PDFs) in plants, we have chosen to work on proteins having a cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain. CBS domain as such has no defined function(s) but plays a regulatory role for many enzymes and thus helps in maintaining the intracellular redox balance. Its function as sensor of cellular energy has also been widely suggested. Our analysis has identified 34 CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs) in Arabidopsis and 59 in Oryza. In most of these proteins, CBS domain coexists with other functional domain(s), which may indicate towards their probable functions. In order to investigate the role(s) of these CDCPs, we have carried out their detailed analysis in whole genomes of Arabidopsis and Oryza, including their classification, nomenclature, sequence
calphotos.berkeley.edu. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6814/full/408796a0.html). ...
For genetic analysis of mechanisms of leaf morphogenesis, we chose Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. as a model for leaf development in dicotyledonous plants. Leaves of the angustifolia mutant were the same length as but narrower and thicker than wild-type leaves. The total number of cells in leaf blades of angustifolia plants was the same as in the wild type. At the cellular level in the angustifolia mutant it was found that the cells were smaller in the leaf-width direction and larger in the leaf-thickness direction than in wild type, revealing the function of the ANGUSTIFOLIA gene, which is to control leaf morphology by regulating polarity-specific cell elongation. The existence of similar genes that regulate leaf development in the length direction was, therefore, predicted. Three loci and several alleles associated with short-leaved mutants were newly isolated as rotundifolia mutants. The rotundifolia3 mutant had the same number of cells as the wild type, with reduced cell elongation in the ...
Gene expression profiling studies are usually performed on pooled samples grown under tightly controlled experimental conditions to suppress variability among individuals and increase experimental reproducibility. In addition, to mask unwanted residual effects, the samples are often subjected to relatively harsh treatments that are unrealistic in a natural context. Here, we show that expression variations among individual wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions contain as much information on the underlying gene network structure as expression profiles of pooled plant samples under controlled experimental perturbations. We advocate the use of subtle uncontrolled variations in gene expression between individuals to uncover functional links between genes and unravel regulatory influences. As a case study, we use this approach to identify ILL6 as a new regulatory component of the jasmonate response pathway. ...
The simultaneous analysis of multiple genomic loci is a powerful approach to studying the effects of population history and natural selection on patterns of genetic variation of a species. By surveying nucleotide sequence polymorphism at 334 randomly distributed genomic regions in 12 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined whether a standard neutral model of nucleotide sequence polymorphism is consistent with observed data. The average nucleotide diversity was 0.0071 for total sites and 0.0083 for silent sites. Although levels of diversity are variable among loci, no correlation with local recombination rate was observed, but polymorphism levels were correlated for physically linked loci ...
The other IBA-response mutants utilize stored fatty acids during germination normally (Figure 3, Table 2). Because these mutants are generally as resistant to IBA as the putative peroxisomal mutants (Figure 2), we do not believe that they are simply extremely leaky peroxisomal mutants. These nonperoxisomal mutants can be further subdivided into three classes. The class 2 mutants (ibr1-1, ibr1-2, ibr2, and ibr3) are resistant to the auxin effects of IBA on both root elongation and lateral root proliferation, but have wild-type responses to other auxins (IAA and 2,4-D) and auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA, and HFCA). The class 2 mutants could be defective in enzymes that convert IBA to IAA but are not necessary for the β-oxidation of seed storage lipids. Alternatively, these mutants may be defective in an IBA receptor, signaling pathway, or response factor. If these mutants have normal IBA to IAA conversion, it will suggest that IBA plays at least two roles in the promotion of lateral roots, ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - GLOBAL TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS AND THE CONTROL OF SEED DORMANCY CYCLING IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH. AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE. AU - Finch-Savage, W.E.. AU - Footitt, S.. AU - Cadman, C.S.C.. AU - Dent, K.C.. AU - Toorop, P.E.. AU - Lynn, J.R.. AU - Hilhorst, H.W.M.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Abstract. SP - 42. BT - 9th ISSS Conference on Seed Biology, Olsztyn, Poland, 6 - 11 July, 2008. ER - ...
In the year 2000, the first complete nuclear genome of a plant species - Arabidopsis thaliana - was released into the wild (a.k.a to bunch of salivating scientists). Less than twenty years later, we had a total of 1135 genomes… for Arabidopsis alone! Today were talking about Arabidopsis races, and how they are a powerful tool for unravelling plant secrets.. Arabidopsis likely diverged from its closest relative about 10 million years ago, and the invasive weed has since spread through Northern Eurasia. In the literally millions of years following, the species diversified into hundreds of race-like ecotypes: populations of plants that have settled in, and then adapted to, certain geological areas. While there has been some cross-talk (i.e, cross breeding) between the ecotypes, there has also been a whole lot of time spent alone - leading to evolution of traits that can differ from one ecotype to the next. Arabidopsis ecotypes (also called accessions) can differ from each other in their size, ...
Purpose and Methodology: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of DRG and GFP in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis by examining whether any DRG mutant combination inhibits the formation of heat stress granules (HSGs) following exposure of plants to heat stress. Methods utilized in the experimentation include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis to screen for plants containing the desired combination of genes, a root-growth assay to study the relationship between phenotype and genetic composition, and confocal microscopy to observe the formation of HSGs in root tips. Findings: The genetic composition of DRG genes and GFPs does have an effect on the phenotype of Arabidopsis. Conversely, the presence of a wild type DRG gene fused to GFP (DRGI-GFP or DRG2-GFP) does not complement the non-functional DRG genes ...
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
Thale cress flowers from April to May and again from September to October, although it may be found in flower throughout the year. Some populations require vernalisation before flowering is initiated others do not. The flowers are automatically self-pollinated but can be cross-pollinated. Plants have been known to produce seeds just 4 weeks after emergence. Seed pods contain an average of 33 seeds. The average seed number per plant is 2,739.. Light quality during seed development can influence the level of seed dormancy. Plants grown under a higher ratio of red to far red light produce non-dormant seed. In the field, light and nitrate levels are limiting factors for field germination of some strains of thale cress but others are indifferent to light. Germination levels are much lower under a canopy of leaves. Some forms of thale cress are short-day plants others do not respond to daylength. In the UK, thale cress may appear to behave as a winter annual but winter and summer races are thought to ...
Phytohormones auxins play an important role in plant growth development and abiotic stress responses. The active auxin may be released from the amino acid conjugates by the action of auxin-amidohydrolase enzymes, which thereby participate in the auxin homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of auxin-amidohydrolase AtILL2 from Arabidopsis thaliana in the plant response to salinity and osmotic stress. Four homozygous lines of A. thaliana ecotypes Ws of potential overexpressors for AtILL2 fusion protein with GFP and / or His tags were analyzed. The presence of transgene was verified as insertion into DNA, RNA transcript, and recombinant protein by using PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, affinity chromatography and western-hybridization assay. In three lines, the presence of transgene in genomic DNA and RNA transcript was confirmed, although the recombinant protein was not demonstrated in any of the lines. Root growth bioassay confirmed the increased resistance of one line to the ...
We investigated the role of membrane fatty acids in basal proton leaks and uncoupling protein (UCP)-dependent proton conductance in Arabidopsis mitochondria. Using wild-type cells, cold-sensitive fad2 mutant cells, deficient in ω-6-oleate desaturase, and cold-tolerant FAD3+ transformant cells, overexpressing ω-3-linoleate desaturase, we showed that basal proton leak in the non-phosphorylating state was dependent on lipid composition. The extent of membrane proton leak was drastically reduced in the fad2 mutant, containing low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, this proton leak was higher in FAD3+ mitochondria that exhibit a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content and high protein to lipid ratio. The dependency of membrane leaks upon membrane potential was higher in FAD3+ and lower in fad2. UCP content was higher in both the fad2 mutant and FAD3+ transgenic lines compared with wild-type cells and so was the UCP activity, assayed by the reduction of phosphorylation yield ...
A prime example of across organisms and borderless scientific activities in IIGB was achieved by Thomas Eulgem and Karine Le Roch, with a well-executed collaboration bringing together researchers working in very different areas of genome biology. The project was initiated in Thomas Eulgems lab as the PI on the critical roles of the chromatin-associated Arabidopsis thaliana protein EDM2 in coordinating plant immune responses. Karine Le Rochs group contributed expertise and experience on epigenome profiling to the study.. The PLOS Genetics paper, The Arabidopsis PHD-finger protein EDM2 has multiple roles in balancing NLR immune receptor gene expression, can be viewed here.. ...
Author Summary During growth and development, all plants and animals must replicate their DNA. This process is regulated to ensure that all sequences are completely and accurately replicated and is limited to S phase of the cell cycle. In the cell, DNA is packaged with histone proteins into chromatin, and both DNA and histones are subject to epigenetic modifications that affect chromatin state. Euchromatin and heterochromatin are chromatin states marked by epigenetic modifications specifying open and closed conformations, respectively. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the time at which a DNA sequence replicates is influenced by the epigenetic modifications to the surrounding chromatin. DNA replication occurs in two phases, with euchromatin replicating in early and mid S phase and heterochromatin replicating late. DNA replication time has been linked to gene expression in other organisms, and this is also true in Arabidopsis because more genes are active in euchromatin when
It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (Provart et al., 2016). Due to an extremely well-annotated genome and advances in high-throughput sequencing, our understanding of this organism and other plant species has become even more intricate and complex. Computational resources, including CyVerse,3 Araport,4 The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR),5 and BAR,6 have further facilitated novel findings with just the click of a mouse. As we move toward understanding biological systems, Arabidopsis researchers will need to use more quantitative and computational approaches to extract novel biological findings from these data. Here, we discuss guidelines, skill sets, and core competencies that should be considered when developing curricula or ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. The specifics of BR mechanisms involving miRNAs are unknown. Using customized miRNA array analysis, we identified miRNAs from A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) regulated by 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR). We found that miR395a was significantly up-regulated by EBR treatment and validated its expression under these conditions. miR395a was over expressed in leaf veins and root tissues in EBR-treated miR395a promoter::GUS plants. We integrated bioinformatics methods and publicly available DNA microarray data to predict potential targets of miR395a. GUN5-a multifunctional protein involved in plant metabolic functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway-was identified as a possible target. ABI4 and ABI5, both genes
We have previously shown that changes in gene expression occur in Arabidopsis thaliana. L. (Heyn) during cold acclimation (SJ Gilmour, RK Hajela, MF Thomashow [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 745-750). Here we report the isolation of cDNA clones of four cold-regulated (cor) genes from Arabidopsis and examine their expression in response to low temperature, abscisic acid (ABA), water stress, and heat shock. The results of Northern analysis indicated that the transcript levels for the four cor genes, represented by clones pHH7.2, pHH28, pHH29, and pHH67, increased markedly between 1 and 4 hours of cold treatment, reached a maximum at about 8 to 12 hours, and remained at elevated levels for as long as the plants were kept in the cold (up to 2 weeks). Returning cold acclimated plants to control temperature resulted in the levels of the cor transcripts falling rapidly to those found in nonacclimated plants; this occurred within 4 hours for the transcripts represented by pHH7.2 and pHH28, and 8 hours for ...
The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral
Read Isolation and Gene Expression Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants With Constitutive Expression of ATL2, an Early Elicitor-Response RING-H2 Zinc-Finger Gene, Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Plant cell suspension cultures are invaluable models for the study of cellular processes. Here we develop the recently described Arabidopsis suspension culture MM2d as a transcript profiling platform by means of Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays. Analysis of gene expression profiles during normal culture …
Regulation of gene expression is crucial for organism growth, and it is one of the challenges in systems biology to reconstruct the underlying regulatory biological networks from transcriptomic data. The formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana is stimulated by a cascade of regulators of which only the interactions of its initial elements have been identified. Using simulated gene expression data with known network topology, we compare the performance of inference algorithms, based on different approaches, for which ready-to-use software is available. We show that their performance improves with the network size and the inclusion of mutants. We then analyze two sets of genes, whose activity is likely to be relevant to lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, and assess causality of their regulatory interactions by integrating sequence analysis with the intersection of the results of the best performing methods on time series and mutants. The methods applied capture known interactions ...
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The ability of the AtERFs to regulate transcription in plant cells was tested by using transient assays (Figure 5). A luciferase (LUC)-encoding reporter gene, 4×HLS, which contains four copies of the GCC box sequence from the Arabidopsis HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) promoter (Lehman et al., 1996) fused to LUC, and an effector plasmid consisting of each AtERF under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (Figure 5A) were delivered to Arabidopsis leaves by particle bombardment. LUC activity increased at least 12-fold when the reporter plasmid was coexpressed with AtERF1, AtERF2, or AtERF5 effector plasmids (Figure 5B). No such increase in LUC activity by the AtERFs was detected when a LUC reporter plasmid containing a mutated GCC box (ATCCTCC) was used (data not shown). These data indicate that AtERF1, AtERF2, and AtERF5 are able to function as GCC box sequence-specific transactivators in Arabidopsis leaves.. Some genes containing the GCC box in their promoter region are known to be ...
Our knowledge of natural genetic variation is increasing at an extremely rapid pace, affording an opportunity to come to a much richer understanding of how effects of specific genes are dependent on the genetic background. To achieve a systematic understanding of such GxG interactions, it is desirable to develop genome editing tools that can be rapidly deployed across many different genetic varieties. We present an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox of super module (SM) vectors. These vectors are based on a previously described fluorescence protein marker expressed in seeds allowing identification of transgene-free mutants. We have used this vector series to delete genomic regions ranging from 1.7 to 13 kb in different natural accessions of the wild plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on results from 53 pairs of sgRNAs targeting individual nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes, we provide a comprehensive overview of obtaining heritable deletions. The SM series of CRISPR/Cas9 vectors enables
Size limits on molecular movement among female gametes. Cellular decisions can be influenced by information communicated from neighboring cells. Communication can occur via signaling or through the direct transfer of molecules. Movement of RNAs and proteins has frequently been observed among symplastically connected plant cells. In flowering plants, the female gametes, the egg cell and central cell, are closely apposed within the female gametophyte. Here we investigated the ability of fluorescently labeled dyes and small RNAs to move from the Arabidopsis thaliana central cell to the egg apparatus following microinjection. These results define a size limit of at least 20 kDa for symplastic movement between the two gametes, somewhat larger than that previously observed in Torenia fournieri. Our results indicate that symplastic connectivity in Arabidopsis thaliana changes after fertilization and suggest that prior to fertilization mechanisms are in place to facilitate small RNA movement from the central
Environmental stresses, including ammonium (NH4 +) nourishment, can damage key mitochondrial components through the production of surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, alternative electron pathways are significant for efficient reductant dissipation in mitochondria during ammonium nutrition. The aim of this study was to define the role of external NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDB1) during oxidative metabolism of NH4 +-fed plants. Most plant species grown with NH4 + as the sole nitrogen source experience a condition known as ammonium toxicity syndrome. Surprisingly, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants suppressing NDB1 were more resistant to NH4 + treatment. The NDB1 knock-down line was characterized by milder oxidative stress symptoms in plant tissues when supplied with NH4 +. Mitochondrial ROS accumulation, in particular, was attenuated in the NDB1 knock-down plants during NH4 + treatment. Enhanced antioxidant defense, primarily concerning the ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Thale cress, native to Eurasia, annual, 5 to 30cm, flower IV to VI, plant community ruderal, sandy meadow, weight of 1 000 seeds 0,01 gram|br /|
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative investigations of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system in Arabidopsis suspension cells and hypocotyls. AU - Alvarez, Sophie. AU - He, Yan. AU - Chen, Sixue. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr. Robert J. Ferl and Ms. Beth Laughner for generating Arabidopsis suspension cells, Dr. Charles Guy and Mr. Dale Haskell for providing access to a lyophilizer, Dr. Ikuko Hara-Nishimura for providing antibodies against the myrosinase TGG1 and TGG2, Dr. Lloyd Sumner and David Huhman for assistance in glucosinolate identification, Dr. Catherine Benedict for critical reading of the manuscript, and Mr. Mark Jackson and other members in the Chen lab for assistance. The work was supported by faculty startup funds from University of Florida and a grant for Outstanding Young Scholar Overseas from the National Science Foundation of China to S Chen (No. 30528013).. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Upon hydrolysis by ...
New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. HTG; HTGS_PHASE1. ATF11C1 AL132976 105644bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F11C1 ATF15G16 AL132959 104868bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F15G16 ATF18N11 AL132953 91275bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F18N11 ATF1P2 AL132955 101154bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F1P2 ATF24B22 AL132957 100285bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24B22 ATF24M12 AL132980 129515bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24M12 ATF2A19 AL132962 95993bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2A19 ATF2K15 AL132956 130956bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2K15 ...
In a previous transactivation screen, two Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factors, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29, along with the already characterized HAG1/MYB28, were identified as putative regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Molecular and biochemical characterization of HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 functions was performed using transformants with increased or repressed transcript levels. Real-time PCR assays, cotransformation assays and measurements of glucosinolate contents were used to assess the impact of both MYB factors on the steady-state level of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates. Both HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 were shown to be positive regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Expression of promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions indicated GUS activities in both vegetative and generative organs, with distinct characteristics for each MYB factor. HAG1/MYB28, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 reciprocally transactivated ...
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Here, we report our effort in generating an ORFeome collection for the Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) genes. In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. All the ORFeome inserts have also been mobilized into a yeast expression destination vector, with an estimated 85% rate of expressing the respective proteins. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed that 34 of them did not match with either the reported cDNAs or current predicted open-reading-frame sequences. Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. However, those alternative splicing events do not appear to be differentially regulated among distinct Arabidopsis tissues examined. Lastly, expression of those TF genes in 17 distinct Arabidopsis organ types and the cultured cells was profiled using a ...
Sappl P.G., Onate-Sanchez L., Singh K.B., Millar A.H.. Plant glutathione S -transferases (GSTs) are a large group of multifunctional proteins that are induced by diverse stimuli. Using proteomic approaches we identified 20 GSTs at the protein level in Arabidopsis cell culture with a combination of GST antibody detection, LC-MS/MS analysis of 23-30 kDa proteins and glutathione-affinity chromatography. GSTs identified were from phi, tau, theta, zeta and DHAR sub-sections of the GST superfamily of 53 members. We have uncovered preliminary evidence for post-translational modifications of plant GSTs and show that phosphorylation is unlikely to be responsible. Detailed analysis of GST expression in response to treatment with 0.01-1 mM of the plant defence signal salicylic acid (SA) uncovered some interesting features. Firstly, GSTs appear to display class-specific concentration-dependent SA induction profiles highlighting differences between the large, plant specific phi and tau classes. Secondly, ...
ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4) is necessary and sufficient for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Root hair length is determined by the duration for which RSL4 protein is present in the developing root hair. The aim of this research was to identify genes regulated by RSL4 that affect root hair growth. To identify genes regulated by RSL4, we identified genes whose expression was elevated by induction of RSL4 activity in the presence of an inhibitor of translation. Thirty-four genes were identified as putative targets of RSL transcriptional regulation, and the results suggest that the activities of SUPPRESSOR OF ACTIN (SAC1), EXOCSYT SUBUNIT 70A1 (EXO70A1), PEROXIDASE7 (PRX7) and CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE11 (CPK11) are required for root hair elongation. These data indicate that RSL4 controls cell growth by controlling the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cell signalling, cell wall modification and secretion.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inter-cell-layer signalling during Arabidopsis ovule development mediated by the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. AU - Fulton, Lynette. AU - Vaddepalli, Prasad. AU - Yadav, Ram. AU - Batoux, Martine. AU - Schneitz, Kay. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Plant organs, such as ovules and flowers, arise through cellular events that are precisely co-ordinated between cells within and across clonally distinct cell layers. Receptor-like kinases are cell-surface receptors that perceive and relay intercellular information. In Arabidopsis the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) is required for integument initiation and outgrowth during ovule development, floral organ shape and the control of the cell division plane in the first subepidermal cell layer of floral meristems, among other functions. A major goal is to understand SUB-mediated signal transduction at the molecular level. Present evidence suggests that SUB affects neighbouring cells in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. ...
Studies on epidermal cell fate determination have been important for gaining insight into the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to the differentiation and patterning of cells. In Arabidopsis, the organization and development of many epidermal characters including trichomes, root hairs and the seed coat have been found to be controlled by a single combinatorial transcription factor complex consisting of a WD-repeat containing protein, Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1), and various MYB and bHLH proteins. The work here consists of identification of Glabra2 (GL2) and Transparent Testa Glabra2 (TTG2) as direct transcriptional targets of the TTG1 combinatorial complex, further characterization of GL2 function, and identification of transcriptional targets of GL2 and TTG2. Both GL2 and TTG2 are important in the regulation of trichomes, root hairs and seed coat development. vii GL2 has been identified as an important regulator of epidermal cell fate for over fifteen years yet there is little ...
Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered
The Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulator, APRR1, has a unique structural design containing a pseudo-receiver domain and a C-terminal CONSTANS motif. This protein was originally characterized as a presumed component of the His-to-Asp phosphorelay systems in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recently, it was reported that APRR1 is identical to the TOC1 gene product, a mutational lesion of which affects the periods of many circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis plants. TOC1 is believed to be a component of the presumed circadian clock (or central oscillator). Based on these facts, in this study four more genes, each encoding a member of the APRR1/TOC1 family of pseudo-response regulators were identified and characterized with special reference to circadian rhythms. It was found that all these members of the APRR1/TOC1 family (APRR1, APRR3, APRR5, APRR7, and APRR9) are subjected to a circadian rhythm at the level of transcription. Furthermore, in a given 24 h period, the APRR-mRNAs started accumulating sequentially ...
FUNCTIONS IN MOLECULAR_FUNCTION UNKNOWN INVOLVED IN BIOLOGICAL_PROCESS UNKNOWN EXPRESSED IN 18 PLANT STRUCTURES EXPRESSED DURING 9 GROWTH STAGES CONTAINS INTERPRO DOMAIN/S PROTEIN OF UNKNOWN FUNCTION DUF618 (INTERPROIPR006903) REGULATION OF NUCLEAR PRE-MRNA PROTEIN (INTERPROIPR006569) ENTH/VHS (INTERPROIPR008942) BEST ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PROTEIN MATCH IS UNKNOWN PROTEIN (TAIRAT5G100601) HAS 3523 BLAST HITS TO 3241 PROTEINS IN 333 SPECIES ARCHAE - 25 BACTERIA - 251 METAZOA - 1575 FUNGI - 421 PLANTS - 142 VIRUSES - 17 OTHER EUKARYOTES - 1092 (SOURCE NCBI BLINK ...
FUNCTIONS IN MOLECULAR_FUNCTION UNKNOWN INVOLVED IN UBIQUITIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN CATABOLIC PROCESS LOCATED IN CHLOROPLAST EXPRESSED IN CULTURED CELL CONTAINS INTERPRO DOMAIN/S MOV34/MPN/PAD-1 (INTERPROIPR000555) BEST ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PROTEIN MATCH IS UNKNOWN PROTEIN (TAIRAT4G161441) HAS 753 BLAST HITS TO 752 PROTEINS IN 167 SPECIES ARCHAE - 0 BACTERIA - 0 METAZOA - 359 FUNGI - 199 PLANTS - 115 VIRUSES - 0 OTHER EUKARYOTES - 80 (SOURCE NCBI BLINK ...
Leung, J., M. Bouvier-Durand, P.C. Morris, D. Guerrier, F. Chefdor, and J. Giraudat. 1994. Arabidopsis ABA-response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Science 264: 1448-1452.. Leung, J., S. Merlot, and J. Giraudat. 1997. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Plant Cell 9: 759-771.. Meyer, K., M.P. Leube, and E. Grill. 1994. A Protein Phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 264: 1452-1455.. Morris, E.C. 1999. Effect of localized placement of nutrients on root competition in self-thinning populations. Ann. Bot. 78: 353-364.. Niklas, K.J. 1994. Plant Allometry. Chicago: Chicago University Press, pp. 101-125.. Pei, Z.M., M. Ghassemian, C.M. Kwak, P.M. Court, and J.I. Schroeder. 1998. Role of farnesyktransferase in ABA regulation of guard cell anion channel and plant water loss. Science 282: 287-290.. Thomas, S.C. ...
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that ...
The availability of the complete genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana together with those of other organisms provides an opportunity to decipher the genetic factors that define plant form and function. To begin this task, we have classified the nuclear protein-coding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana on the basis of their pattern of sequence similarity to organisms across the three domains of life. We identified 3,848 Arabidopsis proteins that are likely to be found solely within the plant lineage. More than half of these plant-specific proteins are of unknown function, emphasizing the general lack of knowledge of processes unique to plants. Plant-specific proteins that are membrane-associated and/or targeted to the mitochondria or chloroplasts are the most poorly characterized. Analyses of microarray data indicate that genes coding for plant-specific proteins, but not evolutionarily conserved proteins, are more likely to be expressed in an organ-specific manner. A large proportion (13%) of plant
Title:Biosynthesis and Metabolic Engineering of Anthocyanins in Arabidopsis thaliana. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Ming-Zhu Shi and De-Yu Xie. Affiliation:Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.. Keywords:Anthocyanins, Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthetic pathway, structural diversity, transcriptional regulation.. Abstract:Arabidopsis thaliana is the first model plant, the genome of which has been sequenced. In general, intensive studies on this model plant over the past nearly 30 years have led to many new revolutionary understandings in every single aspect of plant biology. Here, we review the current understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in this model plant. Although the investigation of anthocyanin structures in this model plant was not performed until 2002, numerous studies over the past three decades have been conducted to understand the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. To date, it appears that all pathway genes of anthocyanins ...
Despite the importance of secondary growth in plants, relatively few genes regulating this process have been identified to date. By using data from detailed transcript profiling of the poplar wood-forming tissues, 150 genes that are differentially expressed within the zone of secondary growth were identified. In order to determine the possible function of these poplar genes, potential Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs were identified and gene knockout lines analysed. Three selection filters were used to identify the most likely orthologous genes using poplar and Arabidopsis sequence comparisons, expression profiling in secondary thickened Arabidopsis hypocotyls and global expression analysis of Arabidopsis tissues. Three genes encoding AtCSLA2 (At5g22740), the AtGUT1 GT47 glycosyltransferase (At1g27440) and a protein with no proposed function AtUNKA (At4g27435) were selected for further detailed analysis of their role in secondary growth in Arabidopsis. The presented genome-based approach using ...
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. In addition,
Dear Colleagues, JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net/) is the open access reference database for transcription factor (TF) DNA binding profiles. Its used in major projects such as ENCODE or FANTOM or tools such as the MEME suite. Plants are underrepresented in the current Jaspar version and I am currently collecting information to include as many Arabidopsis TF as possible in the next Jaspar release. This effort will be useful for the Arabidopsis community as many tools using Jaspar will become available for Arabidopsis in the future if the database is populated with Arabidopsis TF. The TF specificity can be derived from ChIP-chip, ChIP-Seq, Selex/BSSA, Protein binding microarray. I have collected from the literature but I might have missed some factors. If you have generated such data in the past, or if such data exists for TF youre working on, it would be very helpful if you could send me a short mail indicating the TF name and the reference. You can also share unpublished ChIP or Selex data ...
Water stress has been shown to cause root hairs to become short and bulbous. Because abscisic acid (ABA) mediates a variety of water-stress responses, we investigated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs to ABA. When wild-type root hairs were treated with ABA, they exhibited the water-stress response. The Arabidopsis mutants abi1 and abi2, which are insensitive to ABA at the seedling stage, did not display the root hair response. These data suggest that ABA may mediate the response of root hairs to water stress. The drought response of root hairs resulting in an inhibition of tip growth will provide an easy screen to select mutations that are insensitive to ABA and/or involved in tip growth.
Also known as: IN Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis., Arabidopsis At, Arabidopsis AS, Arabidopsis, Ara-bidopsis, ARABIDOPSIS In, ARABIDOPSIS ...
The pathosystem of Arabidopsis thaliana and diploid biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) has been a model for investigating the molecular basis of Flors gene-for-gene hypothesis. The isolates Hpa-Noks1 and Hpa-Cala2 are virulent on Arabidopsis accession RMX-A02 whilst an F1 generated from a cross between these two isolates was avirulent. The F2 progeny segregated 3,1 (avirulent, virulent), indicating a single major effect AVR locus in this pathogen. SNP-based linkage mapping confirmed a single AVR locus within a 14 kb map interval containing two genes encoding putative effectors. The Hpa-Cala2 allele of one gene, designated H. arabidopsidis cryptic1 (HAC1), encodes a protein with a signal peptide and an RxLR/dEER motif, and triggers a defense response in RMX-A02. The second gene is heterozygous in Hpa-Cala2. One allele, designated Suppressor of HAC1Cala2 (S-HAC1Cala2) encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a dKEE motif with no RxLR motif; the other allele (s-hac1 Cala2) ...
The removal of Mg,Superscript,2+,/Superscript, is an important step in the chlorophyll degradation pathway and extracts from senescent and presenescent ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis thaliana,/Emphasis, leaves were analyzed for Mg-dechelatase activity, using chlorophyllin, an artificial derivative of the natural substrate, chlorophyllide. The optimum temperature and pH for this reaction were determined to be at approximately 50 °C and 7.2, respectively. Mg-dechelatase activity was enhanced by addition of EDTA and inhibited by MgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript,, HgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript, and reduced glutathione, indicating phenomenons such as retroinhibition by reaction products and dependence on the redox state of the mixture. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis,/Emphasis, leaf extracts, and Mg-dechelatase activity was found in the fraction corresponding to molecular mass of about 42 kDa, which indicates that the Mg-dechelating compound in ...
We have previously described the phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations at the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) locus (Clark, S. E., Running, M. P. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1993) Development 119, 397-418). Our investigations demonstrated that clv1 plants develop enlarged vegetative and inflorescence apical meristems, and enlarged and indeterminate floral meristems. Here, we present an analysis of mutations at a separate locus, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), that disrupt meristem development in a manner similar to clv1 mutations. clv3 plants develop enlarged apical meristems as early as the mature embryo stage. clv3 floral meristems are also enlarged compared with wild type, and maintain a proliferating meristem throughout flower development. clv3 root meristems are unaffected, indicating that CLV3 is a specific regulator of shoot and floral meristem development. We demonstrate that the strong clv3-2 mutant is largely epistatic to clv1 mutants, and that the semi- dominance of clv1 alleles is enhanced by double ...
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites present in Brassicaceae plants such as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Intact glucosinolates are believed to be biologically inactive, whereas degradation products after hydrolysis have multiple roles in growth regulation and defense. The degradation of glucosinolates is catalyzed by thioglucosidases called myrosinases and leads by default to the formation of isothiocyanates. The interaction of a protein called epithiospecifier protein (ESP) with myrosinase diverts the reaction toward the production of epithionitriles or nitriles depending on the glucosinolate structure. Here we report the identification of a new group of nitrile-specifier proteins (AtNSPs) in A. thaliana able to generate nitriles in conjunction with myrosinase and a more detailed characterization of one member (AtNSP2). Recombinant AtNSP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to test its impact on the outcome of glucosinolate hydrolysis using a gas chromatography-mass ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - AtJ6, a unique J-domain protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Kroczyńska, Barbara. AU - Coop, Nichole E.. AU - Miernyk, Jan A.. PY - 2000/2/7. Y1 - 2000/2/7. N2 - An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding a protein, AtJ6, related to Escherichia coli DnaJ was sequenced. Translation of the At J6 nucleotide sequence yields a protein with an N-terminal J-domain, but which lacks the G/F, and C-rich domains characteristic of DnaJ. In addition to the J-domain, one region of the sequence has homology with the prokaryotic FtsA protein. The remainder of the At J6 sequence is not notably related to anything in the sequence databases. The At J6 sequence represents a unique member of the A. thaliana J-domain protein family. The results of Northern analysis revealed that the At J6 mRNA is expressed in all organs of A. thaliana; expression was high in leaves, flowers, and siliques, and low in roots. The results of Southern analysis are consistent with a single unique gene.. AB - An Arabidopsis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - O-Acetylation of glucuronoxylan in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and its change in xylan biosynthesis mutants. AU - Chong, S L. AU - Virkki, L. AU - Maaheimo, Hannu. AU - Juvonen, M. AU - Derba-Maceluch, M. AU - Koutaniemi, S. AU - Roach, M. AU - Sundberg, B. AU - Tuomainen, P. AU - Mellerowicz, E J. AU - Tenkanen, M. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - O-Acetylglucuronoxylans (AcGX) in Arabidopsis thaliana carry acetyl residues on the 2-O and/or 3-O positions of the xylopyranosyl (Xylp) units, but the distribution of different O-acetylated Xylp units is partly unclear. We studied a possible correlation of xylan acetylation and the activities of different glycosyltransferases involved in xylan biosynthesis by analyzing the distribution of O-acetyl substituents on AcGX from Arabidopsis wild-type and mutants irx7, irx9-1, irx10, irx14 and gux1gux2. The relative contents of the Xylp structural units were determined with quantitative two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence ...
The WD motif (also known as the Trp-Asp or WD40 motif) is found in a multitude of eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Where studied, repeated WD motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD repeats (WDRs) are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, members of this superfamily are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events. We analyzed the predicted complement of WDR proteins from Arabidopsis, and compared this to those from budding yeast, fruit fly and human to illustrate both conservation and divergence in structure and function. This analysis identified 237 potential Arabidopsis proteins containing four or more recognizable copies of the motif. These were classified into 143 distinct families, 49 of which contained more than one Arabidopsis member. Approximately 113 of
Background: Plants have developed a variety of mechanisms to counteract aphid attacks. They activate their defences by changing the expression of specific genes. Previously we identified an activation tag mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana on which Myzus persicae population development was reduced. Activation tag mutants are gain-of-function in which the expression ... read more of a gene is increased by the insertion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer that acts on the natural promoter. By further characterizing this previously identified mutant we identified a gene that reduces performance of M. persicae and also provided clues about the mechanism involved.Results: We show that SKU5 SIMILAR 13 (SKS13), a gene whose expression in wild type plants is restricted to pollen and non-responsive to M. persicae attack, is overexpressed in the A. thaliana mutant showing reduced performance of M. persicae. Monitoring M. persicae feeding behaviour on SKS13 overexpressing plants indicated that M. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vernalization sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). T2 - The effects of latitude and FLC variation. AU - Stinchcombe, John R.. AU - Caicedo, Ana L.. AU - Hopkins, Robin. AU - Mays, Charlotte. AU - Boyd, Elizabeth W.. AU - Purugganan, Michael D.. AU - Schmitt, Johanna. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Latitudinal variation in climate is predicted to select for latitudinal differentiation in sensitivity to the environmental cues that signal plants to flower at the appropriate time for a given climate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, flowering is promoted by exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization), and several vernalization pathway loci are known. To test whether natural variation in vernalization sensitivity could account for a previously observed latitudinal cline in flowering time in A. thaliana, we exposed 21 European accessions to 0, 10, 20, or 30 d of vernalization and observed leaf number at flowering under short days in a growth chamber. We observed a ...
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