1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR , 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR , 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR , 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR , 1 condition, but a ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants
This article seeks to understand the e-journal search patterns of STM (science, technology, and medicine) researchers from the French academic network by studying how researchers seek, read, and use articles on the ScienceDirect platform. The methodology combines two approaches. The first approach is quantitative and is based on statistical data concerning search activities on ScienceDirect between January 2008 and April 2009. The second approach is qualitative and is based on semi-directed interviews of researchers authorized to access ScienceDirect. The researchers information-seeking activities on ScienceDirect follow two complementary usage logics. On the one hand, they follow search and discovery itineraries, and, on the other hand, they implement continuous and recurrent access mechanisms. In both cases, the researchers searching behaviours on ScienceDirect are similar to their behaviours on the Web. This study concerns a previously unpublished large-scale analysis of STM searching behaviours.
The single training session appetitive LTM assay provides a unique advantage for the study of memory consolidation because one can manipulate the brain immediately after training during the initial period of memory formation. In contrast, 10 cycles of aversive spaced training takes 150 min to complete (Tully et al., 1994), and therefore one cannot perturb neural processing during this period without also interfering with acquisition. Using cold-shock anesthesia, we found that appetitive memory is quickly, and perhaps entirely, consolidated to anesthesia-resistant forms within 2 h after training.. Previous work in flies suggests that cold shock-resistant memory can be broken into two independent components, ARM that depends on the rsh gene and is resistant to CXM and LTM that is unaffected by rsh and is sensitive to CXM (Tully et al., 1994; Isabel et al., 2004). Feeding flies CXM disrupted appetitive LTM and produced a statistically significant defect 6 h after training, suggesting that protein ...
Summary: Alarms serve to focus attention and prioritize individual concerns. In honey bees, social alarm impairs appetitive learning. Here, we show that the effect on aversive learning depends on social role and signal intensity. ...
A quantitative interresponse-time analysis of DRL performance differentiates similar effects of the antidepressant desipramine and the novel anxiolytic gepirone
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem.. Plant Structure Worksheet - Leya Joykutty ...
A summary of Leaf in s Plant Structures. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Plant Structures and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
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... structures to survive, grow, and reproduce. The following chart illustrates how humans possess certain structures to carry out these critical functions. Fill in the plant structures that correspond to the human structures listed in the chart ...
The Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor NeuronsThe Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor Neurons ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
In order to appreciate the unique role that plants play in the worlds ecosystems, it is important to understand plant structure and development. This sequence allows students to consider plants from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue and organ level. It illustrates how evolutionary forces have resulted in exquisite adaptations in plant form and function.. 1. BIO/MBI 116 Biological Concepts: Structure, Function (4) (MPF), ...
Contributions to http://og-science.wikispaces.com/ are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. ...
Throughout his career, Prof. Craig Brodersen has explored the fundamental relationships between plant structure and function, and how different species have adapted to utilize limited resources.
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
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Background:The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.Methods:This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion o
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PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
Circuits for use with a receiver which notify the operator of a receiving station by means of an audio tone when an opposite station is calling or has ceased transmission. The transition of an opposite station from its transmitting to receiving state or vice versa is detected and a specific change-over sound based upon the detector output is introduced into the principal stations receiver audio amplifier circuits.
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Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Chris Sherman is the moderator of this session. He introduces this as a unique panel, compared to the others. Recently, he said, we have real metrics on search behavior. That is the whole focus of this panel. Gord Hotchkiss is up...
This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine-induced depletion of brain serotonin on retrieval of appetitive and aversive memories. AU - Kumar, K. B.. AU - Nalini, K.. AU - Karanth, K. S.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - This study examined whether depletion of central serotonin produces an improved retrieval of aversive memories in the same way as pre-exposure to inescapable footshocks, in rats. Animals conditioned in a T-maze with appetitive (10% sucrose) and aversive (2.0 mA footshock) events were given ICV 24 hr later a single dose of p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) (100, 200, 400 μg/rat) or drug vehicle. The retention performance and activity were assessed 48 hr after treatment with this depletor. While lower doses of p-CPA selectively reduced serotonin levels in striatum and anterior cortex, higher doses reduced both serotonin and norepinephrine levels in hippocampus in a dose-dependent fashion. The depletor however, failed to produce a differential improvement of aversive memory ...
Psyche is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis...
Linked employer-employee data for Brazil over a period of large-scale trade liberalization document two salient workforce changeovers. Within the traded-goods sector, there is a marked occupation downgrading and a simultaneous education upgrading by which employers fill expanding low-skill intensive occupations with increasingly educated jobholders. Between sectors, there is a labor demand shift towards the least and the most skilled, which can be traced back to relatively weaker declines of traded-goods industries that intensely use low-skilled labor and to relatively stronger expansions of nontraded-output industries that intensely use high-skilled labor. Whereas these observations are broadly consistent with predictions of Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory for a low-skill abundant economy, classic trade theory is a less useful guide to the observed reallocation pattern. Establishment-level regressions show that exporters exhibit significant employment downsizing. Workforce changeovers are neither ...
Abstract: Many organisms locate resources in environments in which sensory signals are rare, noisy, and lack directional information. Recent studies of search in such environments model search behavior using random walks (e.g., Levy walks) that match empirical movement distributions. We extend this modeling approach to include searcher responses to noisy sensory data. The results of numerical simulation show that including even a simple response to noisy sensory data can dominate other features of random search, resulting in lower mean search times and decreased risk of long intervals between target encounters. In particular, we show that a lack of signal is not a lack of information. Searchers that receive no signal can quickly abandon target-poor regions. On the other hand, receiving a strong signal leads a searcher to concentrate search effort near targets. These responses cause simulated searchers to exhibit an emergent area-restricted search behavior similar to that observed of many ...
Netherlands: Revenue in the Online Food Delivery segment amounts to US$1,368m in 2020. The eServices market segment Online Food Delivery contains the user and revenue development of two different delivery service solutions for prepared meals: (1) Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery and (2) Platform-to-Consumer Delivery.
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence ...
Food delivery has swelled to a more than $10 billion industry in America. For the first time, restaurants are projected to make more money from food consumed outside their doors than inside in 2020. Thats partly thanks to ordering apps such as Door Dash, Grubhub, Uber Eats, and many others. Brook Silva-Braga explains how the billion-dollar trend started.
So if you are looking for additionally help I always added to my question on Google "Debian". And that was a good one. I changed my search behavior and first looked at debian.org or superuser. The answers were most reliable. Beside that I am following the Beagleboard groups on Google were new development is discussed. And it is a fast changing world. In the last days there were alone over 60 mails with Robert Nelson concerning the new Debian image. That is also the reason why I will not post a step by step instruction. It will be outdated when I have finished my post. And one last advice: Your system will look for it, but when you want to download pre-compiled software you have to get software for the armhf environment. All other will fail. That is the reason why you have to compile most of the software by yourself. But that should not be a problem ...
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Immunocytochemistry revealed that synapsin I is preferentially (and possibly exclusively) associated with small (40- to 60-nanometer) synaptic vesicles and not with large (greater than 60-nanometer) dense-core vesicles in bovine hypothalamus. These observations may explain why synapsin I is found exclusively in neurons, since small synaptic vesicles are specific to neurons whereas large dense-core vesicles in neurons may be considered the equivalent of secretory organelles in endocrine cells. ...