article{931223, abstract = {Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and ...
Zucchiniyellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an important non- persistent virus causing high squashproduction losses in Egypt. Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicaeSulazer insects have high efficiency of ZYMV transmission from infected squashplants to healthy ones in Egypt,in advance of their rapid spreading. ZYMV was isolated fromnaturally infected squash plants collected from two locations (Sennoris &Fayoum), at Fayoum governorate. Virus identification was done byserological tests (ELISA) using four different antiserums. Virus wastransmitted to healthy squash plants by mechanical transmission and by using thetwo aphid insects. Fecundity and life span of two aphids andforms (alate and apterous) were studied. ELISA test had relay that the viruswas ZYMV. Typical symptoms of virus were observed by mechanical and aphidinsects inoculation,yellowmosaic, necrosis, leaf curling, blisters stunting, deformation, reduction inleaf size and knobbed fruits (sever malformation).Fecundity and life span ofAphis gossypii
Yvan Rahbé, Nicolas Sauvion, Gérard Febvay, W.J. Peumans, A.M.R. Gatehouse. Toxicity of lectins and processing of ingested proteins in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Wiley, 1995, 76, pp.143-155. ⟨hal-02701887⟩ ...
Damage from aphids to wheat plants is noticeable from a distance and can result in water stress, reduced plant growth and wilting. Different aphids are said to cause different colorations when damaging the plants. The comparison of aphid performance on a set of closely related species can help identify traits related to plant defense and aphid performance. Such studies can help inform future experiments that study specific mechanisms of plant resistance. Its important to know what causes aphids to damage some plants more than others so we can find ways to prevent it. I observed the effects that wheat, barley and sorghum have on the population growth rate of corn leaf aphids and green bugs. Also, the effect the aphids have on the plants and how much they damage each type. Will one aphid species have an exceptionally higher rate of reproduction on a specific plant? Is aphid population growth affected by competition between species? I found the green bug population grew faster than the corn leaf ...
Sampling. Day-degree models using a developmental threshold of 4°C can be used to predict various phenological events such as egg hatch and immigration of alate aphids. Yellow traps, particularly water pan traps, are commonly used for population monitoring. Sequential sampling plans for green peach aphid on potato were developed by Hollingsworth and Gatsonis (1990). Sampling of aphid natural enemies in this crop was studied by Mack and Smilowitz (1980). Insecticides. Despite the numerous options potentially available, many producers are dependent on insecticides for suppression of green peach aphid abundance. Systemic insecticide applications are especially popular at planting time, most of which provide long-lasting protection against aphid population buildup during the critical and susceptible early stages of plant growth (Powell 1980) and some of which provide protection for 3 months (Palumbo and Kerns 1994). Green peach aphid is often a pest of cold-weather crops such as spinach. Aphids are ...
Reared as a single genotype, green pea aphid populations decreased in response to elevated CO2 concentrations, but not in response to elevated CO2 + O3 concentrations. Pink pea aphid populations reared as a single genotype were unaffected by augmented CO2 or O3. Populations of mixed genotypes, however, were reduced under elevated CO2 concentrations, irrespective of O3 concentrations ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments generated by PCR with general eubacterial primers. By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial taxa were also detected in all aphid lines except one of A. pisum. These latter bacteria, collectively known as secondary symbionts or accessory bacteria, comprised three taxa of -proteobacteria (R-type [PASS], T-type [PABS], and U-type [PAUS]) and a rickettsia (S-type [PAR]). Complementary analysis of aphids from natural populations of four aphid species (A. pisum [n 74], Amphorophora rubi [n 109], Aphis sarothamni [n 42], and Microlophium carnosum [n 101]) from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera ...
Background |p|In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid |i|Acyrthosiphon pisum|/i| exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs.|/p| Results |p|The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the
Crop Advisory Team Alerts. Check the label of any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is included. Onion thrips populations remain high in many onion fields due to the high temperatures. (view image) Numbers are decreased somewhat, but heavy rainfall, but can quickly rebound. Carzol appears to be working well to control thrips (See the July 19 issue of the Vegetable CAT Alert.). We have received reports of high populations of corn leaf aphids in sweet corn. Corn leaf aphids are about a sixteenth of an inch long, blue-green and have short black cornicles (stovepipes). Like other aphids, females give live birth to offspring (all of which are also females) without fertilization. Also, like other aphids, populations can build very rapidly, especially in hot weather. High corn leaf aphid populations can reduce yield in drought-stressed plants. Of more significance is the honeydew they produce while feeding. The honeydew accumulates on the plant and promotes the growth of sooty mold. Sweet corn ...
Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean cultivar Dowling was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of soybean aphid in Ohio was reported to proliferate on soybeans with the Rag1 gene. The objective was to survey the occurrence of virulent aphid populations on soybean indicator lines across geographies and years. Nine soybean lines were identified on the basis of their degree of aphid resistance and their importance in breeding programs. Naturally occurring soybean aphid populations were collected in 10 states (Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) and the Canadian province of Ontario. The reproductive capacity of field-collected soybean aphid populations was tested on soybean lines; growth rates were compared in ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Site-specific management of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in seed potato. AU - Carroll, Matthew W. AU - Radcliffe, Edward. AU - Macrae, Ian. AU - Olson, Kent. AU - Ragsdale, David. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Chapter. BT - Proc 7th Internat. Conf. on Precision Agric. & Precision Res. Mgmt. PB - Univ. of Minnesota Precision Ag. center. CY - Minneapolis, USA. ER - ...
Aphid-resistant soybean varieties with Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes are promising tools for the management of soybean aphid. Intriguingly, there are soybean aphid populations that can overcome such genetic resistance (i.e. virulent aphids) and cause yield losses. Previous research suggests refuge with aphid-susceptible soybean has the potential to control virulent aphid populations, but it is not clear whether it can reverse the proliferation of virulent aphid populations. Seed treatment has shown improvement of soybean aphid control on Rag soybean. To date, however, it is unknown whether refuge strategy and seed treatment combined could improve soybean aphid virulence management. Therefore we evaluated aphid virulence management by planting refuge soybean in a 1:3 aphid-susceptible:Rag-soybean ratio. Seed treatment was applied to either the aphid-susceptible and/or Rag-soybean. All soybean plants were infested with both avirulent (i.e. biotype 1) and virulent (i.e. biotype 4) ...
Number of days in May and June with temperature inducing the change in the life-cycle of Rhopalosiphum padi, daily mean ≥ 25°C in 2005-2010 in diverse regions (A-F) of Poland Table 2. Vol. Virus management in cereals and oilseed rape. The life cycle, genetic diversity, and genetic structure of R. padi populations throughout China remain unclear. Leather SR; Lehti JP, 1981. Emigrants of the host‐alternating bird cherry‐oat aphid fly from the primary host to various grasses before the end of June, even in the absence of natural enemies on bird cherry. Cereal volatiles were identified by GC-MS and olfactometer tests were performed with each compound. Holocyclic individuals of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis, while anholocyclic individuals are obligate parthenogens. In their native range, rice root aphids have a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle. 1971 Jul;68(2):135-47. Plant Dis. Gebrüder, Borntraeger, Berlin, Germany, 44 pp. Dynamics of aphid seasonal ...
On rape, in the autumn the generalist aphids like the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) can provoke yield losses due to virus transmission. The most widespread virus is the beet western yellow virus (BWYV), transmitted through the persistent mode. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and the turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) are less frequent. In spring, the aphids can also cause direct damage if strong outbreaks occur: failure of flowers to develop and leaf scald owing to the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and leaf deformation due to Myzus persicae and Aphis fabae. In autumn, large colonies of turnip aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) can also jeopardize the plants growth.. These kinds of damage can be shown by yield losses of 5-8 q (500-800kg)/ha. The presence of aphids on winter rape will signal the need for close surveillance right from early sprouting. The earliest attacks are the most harmful so rapid action is essential. Treatments using insecticides are ...
Anyone who has grown anything has at one time or another come in contact with some type of Aphid. There are over 4,400 species of Aphids worldwide, and are affectionately termed plant lice. Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. They can take out a crop within a series of weeks due…
Transmission. The virus is believed to have spread worldwide through the exchange of infected seed. Seed transmission rates of up to 100% in field peas and up to 44% in lentils have been reported. In Victoria, the DEPI has detected PSbMV at low levels in commercial chickpea seedlots (0.4% of seed) and at higher levels in field pea and lentil seedlots (greater than 2% of seed).. In the USA, PSbMV infection has been reported in pea seedlots (3%) and in lentil seedlots (32-40%). Research at the International Centre for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) found PSbMV was transmitted through lentil seeds at rates of up to 44%. PSbMV is also transmitted in a non-persistent manner by more than 20 aphid species, and by mechanical means.. The most efficient vector of PSbMV worldwide is the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). DEPI surveys of Victorian pulse crops have found cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani), and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) to be important vectors ...
Our results confirmed that there were significant differences between the two strains of apterous A. pisum in host relocation. Some biological differences were observed between the two aphid strains. These two A. pisum strains were identified by COI sequences (primers shows in Table S1) and confirmed as the same species. Our preliminary tests also showed that the two A. pisum strains could mate and produce normally. The LZ strain was superior at host seeking and leaf identification under starvation, but the movement ability of the YL strain was actually stronger than the LZ strain. Considering the relationship between energy reserves and movement ability of the two aphid strains, this phenomenon was probably caused by higher glycogen reserves that provide more energy for walking a longer distance and spreading out a wider range. We found that the key enzyme activities between the two strains were not significantly different, and the differences in glycogen reserves between the two strains might ...
Aphis gossypii Glover is a major pest of cotton and can severely affect cotton yield and lint quality. In this study, the efficacy of sulfoxaflor applied via drip irrigation and foliar spray on controlling cotton aphids was evaluated in 2016 and 2017 in Xinjiang, China. The distribution of sulfoxaflor in cotton roots, stems, leaves, and aphids, as well as its effects on two natural enemies of aphids, were also investigated. Results showed that sulfoxaflor applied through drip irrigation mainly concentrated in leaves and provided effective control of cotton aphids for 40 days, compared to 20 days when applied through foliar spray. Furthermore, drip application resulted in much lower sulfoxaflor concentrations in aphids than foliar spray. As a result, ladybird beetle and lacewing populations were higher in drip applied plants than in foliar sprayed plants. Additionally, the cost of drip irrigation was lower than foliar spray as cotton plants are commonly irrigated via drip irrigation in Xinjiang. Our
Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500. Chevignon, Germain et al. Culture-Facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Genome Biology and Evolution vol. 10,3 (2018): 786-802. doi.:10.1093/gbe/evy036 Degnan, Patrick H et al. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 106,22 (2009): 9063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900194106 Dykstra, Hannah R et al. Factors Limiting the Spread of the Protective Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa in Aphis craccivora Aphids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80,18 (2014): 5818-27. doi:10.1128/aem.01775-14. Moran, Nancy A et al. ...
Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500. Chevignon, Germain et al. Culture-Facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Genome Biology and Evolution vol. 10,3 (2018): 786-802. doi.:10.1093/gbe/evy036 Degnan, Patrick H et al. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 106,22 (2009): 9063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900194106 Dykstra, Hannah R et al. Factors Limiting the Spread of the Protective Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa in Aphis craccivora Aphids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80,18 (2014): 5818-27. doi:10.1128/aem.01775-14. Moran, Nancy A et al. ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
The City uses Lady Beetles to handle aphid infestations. Learn more about aphid infestations, and how the City is taking action without using pesticides.
The high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. The genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (SUC1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), and aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of the Drosophila integral protein (DRIP) family of aquaporins. Here, we describe molecular analysis of GH13 and AQP genes in phloem-feeding representatives of the four phloem-feeding groups: aphids (Myzus persicae), coccids (Planococcus citri), psyllids (Diaphorina citri, Bactericera cockerelli) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED). A single candidate GH13-SUC gene and DRIP-AQP gene were identified in the genome/transcriptome of most insects tested by the criteria of sequence motif and gene expression in the gut. Exceptionally, the psyllid Ba. cockerelli transcriptome included a ...
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a significant soybean pest in the north central United States. Insecticidal seed treatments and host plant resistance are two commercially available management tools. Here we investigate the efficacy of both management tools throughout the season. Soybean lines containing the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, or both Rag1 + Rag2 were compared with a near-isogenic aphid-susceptible line. Each line was grown in field plots both with and without thiamethoxam applied to the seed. Individual plants from each plot were caged and infested with soybean aphids to measure the efficacy and potential interaction of aphid resistance and thiamethoxam. Aphid population growth rate was measured for each caged plant for 9‐12 d after infestation. New cages were established each week from 34 d after planting (dap) to 92 dap to track seasonal variations in efficacy. Thiamethoxam reduced population growth only at the 42 dap time point and only
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
Several species of aphids attack brassicas in East Africa:. The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae). The false cabbage aphid (Lipaphis erysimi). The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). In particular the cabbage aphid is a major pest in the region. Cool, dry weather is most favourable for aphid development. Large numbers of aphids may kill small plants. Their feeding can distort leaves of older plants and causes leaf curl.. Often, the most serious problem associated with aphids is virus transmission. The cabbage aphid and the false cabbage aphid are vectors of virus diseases such as cabbage black ring spot, cabbage ring necrosis, and mosaic diseases of cauliflower, radish and turnip. ...
Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is an important pest on spring-sown cereals. The aphid reduces yield and can act as a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus. R. padi does not give visible symptoms, but heavy infestation can reduce the yield substantially. R. padi is one of the most important pests of barley, which has the fourth rank among the cereals in global production. In order to overcome this problem, the plants are treated with pesticides. However, some of the pesticides are no longer permitted to use due to their negative environmental effects. Another problem is that the aphids develop resistance against them. Therefore, a new approach is to identify genetic factors that could be used in breeding host plants for resistance. There are many examples of successful plant breeding for resistance to aphids, but in the case of R. padi and barley, no resistant cultivar is commercially available. The aim of this thesis was to identify and characterise aphid resistance and ...
A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production ...
The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of nucleotidic composition and codon usage in the pea aphid genome (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A collection of 60,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the pea aphid has been used to automatically reconstruct 5809 coding sequences (CDSs), based on similarity with known proteins and on coding style recognition. Reconstructions were manually checked for ribosomal proteins, leading to tentatively reconstruct the nea-complete set of this category. Pea aphid coding sequences showed a shift toward AT (especially at the third codon position) compared to drosophila homologues. Genes with a putative high level of expression (ribosomal and other genes with high EST support) remained more GC3-rich and had a distinct codon usage from bulk sequences: they exhibited a preference for C-ending codons and CGT (for arginine), which thus appeared optimal for translation. However, the discrimination was not as strong as in drosophila, suggesting a reduced degree of translational
In accordance with studies on pea aphids (Henter & Via 1995; Ferrari et al. 2001), we detected significant clonal variation for susceptibility to parasitoids in the peach potato aphid, M. persicae. In aphids, reduced susceptibility to parasitoids can be conferred by the endosymbiotic bacteria H. defensa and S. symbiotica (Oliver et al. 2003), yet neither of these secondary symbionts was detected in our collection of clones. Instead, we found that the one entirely resistant clone harboured R. insecticola. This secondary endosymbiont has so far not been implicated in defence against parasitoids, but it was shown to decrease susceptibility to a fungal pathogen and to affect host plant specialization in the pea aphid (Tsuchida et al. 2004; Scarborough et al. 2005). Our finding suggests that certain strains of R. insecticola may also provide protection against parasitoids, although the critical experiments of curing clone 5.15 from R. insecticola and/or transferring the symbiont to susceptible M. ...
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important genetic marker in population and evolutionary biology. To test the feasibility of two mitochondrial gene markers (COI and Cytb) for Rhopalosiphum padi, we collected 275 individuals of the insect species from 15 locations, which cover most of the species distribution range in China, and analyzed the diversity of the two genes. Seven COI haplotypes and 15 Cytb haplotypes were identified by 13 and 36 polymorphic sites, respectively. Across the entire samples, the average haplotype diversities (Hd) of COI and Cytb were 0.491 and 0.607, and the nucleotide diversities (π) of COI and Cytb were 0.147% and 0.160%, respectively. Relatively low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were observed among all R. padi populations based on the two genes. Moreover, parsimony networks of the COI and Cytb haplotypes of R. padi all supported a single clade. Although the nucleotide variation of mitochondrial genes has been used in other insect species, reviewing
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important genetic marker in population and evolutionary biology. To test the feasibility of two mitochondrial gene markers (COI and Cytb) for Rhopalosiphum padi, we collected 275 individuals of the insect species from 15 locations, which cover most of the species distribution range in China, and analyzed the diversity of the two genes. Seven COI haplotypes and 15 Cytb haplotypes were identified by 13 and 36 polymorphic sites, respectively. Across the entire samples, the average haplotype diversities (Hd) of COI and Cytb were 0.491 and 0.607, and the nucleotide diversities (π) of COI and Cytb were 0.147% and 0.160%, respectively. Relatively low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were observed among all R. padi populations based on the two genes. Moreover, parsimony networks of the COI and Cytb haplotypes of R. padi all supported a single clade. Although the nucleotide variation of mitochondrial genes has been used in other insect species, reviewing
The infestation of the cultivated grain crops by phloem feeding aphids has generated a great deal of interest over the years, due to the serious damage they cause to the crops and yield losses that result. The mechanism of the interaction between aphids and host plants remains largely unknown in spite of efforts to understand the basis of aphid feeding on grain crops. Greater efforts are required to explain the mechanism(s) of this interaction in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. This thesis focused on an investigation of the mechanism of feeding by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko (RWA) and the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (BCA) on barley and wheat cultivars. These two aphids co-occur naturally, but they inflict very different feeding effects on host plants. Structural and functional approaches were employed to investigate their feeding habits and these were then related to the observed differences in their host plants. Transmission electron microscopy ...
AANAT gene / Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) / Aphididae (aphids) / biological rhythm / central nervous system / circadian clock / clock gene / GT2. Adaptation of phytophagous species, their natural enemies and symbionts / Insecta / insulin-like peptide / life cycle / melatonin / parthenogenetic organism / photoperiodism / prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) / seasonality / sexual morph / signalling pathway ...
We determined the chlorophyll a and b levels (SPAD readings) in uninfested leaves and in leaves after 7 and 17 days of aphid infestation in four Fabaceae species (Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Trifolium pretense L, Medicago sativa L.). Feeding by pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) caused significant loss of chlorophyll a and b in the infested plants. Uninfested leaves ...
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance. The pea aphid is a model organism for biological study whose genome has been sequenced and annotated. In the autumn, female pea aphids lay fertilized eggs overwinter that hatch the following spring. The nymphs that hatch from these eggs are all females, which undergo four moults before reaching sexual maturity. They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. Each adult female gives birth to four to 12 female nymphs per day, around a hundred in her lifetime. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. The life span of an adult is about 30 days. Population ...
1. Facultative endosymbiotic bacteria of insects are known to affect life-history traits of their hosts, and can provide important fitness benefits under certain environmental conditions. While several distinct endosymbiont-induced effects have been reported, there is no data on whether heritable facultative endosymbionts in any species affect their hosts performance at low temperatures, something that could have a major effect on insect physiology and survival, and thus population structure and distribution. 2. The original facultative endosymbionts were experimentally removed from five clonal genotypes of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fab., which were then exposed to frost. 3. Aphid genotypes differed considerably in survival following the exposure and in fecundity of the survivors. However, the presence of the facultative symbionts had no overall effect on the studied traits. 4. The results suggest that the facultative symbionts have limited effects on the cold hardiness of their grain aphid
The availability of genomic data in the last decade relating to different aphid species has allowed the analysis of the genomic variability occurring among such species, whereas intra-specific variability has hitherto very largely been neglected. In order to analyse the intra-genomic variability in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, comparative analyses were performed revealing several clone-specific gene duplications, together with numerous deletions/rearrangements. Our comparative approach also allowed us to evaluate the synteny existing between the two M. persicae clones tested and between the peach potato aphid and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Even if part of the observed rearrangements are related to a low quality of some assembled contigs and/or to the high number of contigs present in these aphid genomes, our evidence reveals that aphid clones are genetically more different than expected. These results suggest that the choice of performing genomes sequencing combining different
Phytophagous insects with wide host ranges often exhibit host-associated genetic structure. We used microsatellite analysis to assess the population structure of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a serious pest on many economically important crops worldwide. We sampled aphids from five host plant species in Iran and detected strong population subdivision, with an overall multilocus FST of 0.191. The matrix of pairwise FST values indicated that differentiation between populations collected from different hosts was significantly stronger than between populations from the same hosts. Host-associated differentiation was further supported by Bayesian clustering analyses, which grouped all samples from cotton together with aubergine, and all samples from cucumber together with pumpkin and hibiscus. This adds to the growing body of evidence that many seemingly generalist aphids are in fact an assemblage of host-specialized lineages. Although we detected a clear genetic ...
Since the most recent issue (No. 17, July 18, 2003) of the Bulletin was printed and mailed, there has been considerable telephone and e-mail traffic regarding soybean aphids in northern Illinois. We have received numerous reports regarding insecticide applications to control the aphids in soybean fields. Although some fields still do not have densities of aphids large enough to warrant control, the densities in a fairly large number of fields have exceeded economic thresholds. In addition, some people are finding very few natural enemies in some fields, so aphid population densities have increased rapidly.. Drs. David Voegtlin (Illinois Natural History Survey) and David Onstad (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences) recently visited several soybean fields in Kendall County. They have studying soybean aphid populations there since 2001. In fact, one of the first fields of soybeans Dave Voegtlin visited in 2000 was in Kendall County. They have provided an overview of the ...
This thesis examines effects of plant fertilisation regime on herbivore and parasitoid performance for two aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae, and one parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. Herbivore performance was measured as adult fresh weight and intrinsic rate of increase. Parasitoid performance was measured as length of hind tibia, sex ratio, and in a series of choice experiments also parasitoid development time and parasitization rate was measured. Comparisons were made between the performance of M. euphorbiae on two different plant species, petunia and sweet pepper, between the performance of the aphids M. euphorbiae and M. persicae on sweet pepper, and between the performance of A. ervi in M. euphorbiae and in M. persicae on sweet pepper. The performance of M. euphorbiae was better on petunia than on sweet pepper. On petunia a positive effect of plant content of potassium and indications of a positive effect of nitrogen fertilisation were found while on sweet pepper both ...
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This species mainly occurs on wild roses such as dog rose (Rosa canina) and harsh downy rose (Rosa tomentosa). Libreoffice Outline Template, The blue tit, for example, is known to predate rose aphids (see rose aphid predation by blue tits). The alate (see second picture above) has the head and thoracic lobes black and the abdomen pale greenish white with a brown-black dorsal patch. Wahlgreniella nervata is considered an invasive species, having been reported from Damask rose in Turkey (Barjadze, 2011), and as a new pest of rose in India (Joshi et al., 2014). The intention is that the natural enemies become established and maintain long-term sustainable control. macrosiphum rosae killer. You may have noticed that we have not mentioned what is possibly the aphid most noticed in gardens - the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae). Effect of different temperatures on the biological parameters of Macrosiphum rosae (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). They are green or pink with long black siphunculi. at times ...
Soybean aphids in Nebraska usually reach the economic threshold and require treatment in late July through August, with a few fields requiring treatment earlier in July. Treatment during this period usually is enough to keep aphid populations from resurging because there is not enough time for populations to build-up before they would naturally leave the fields in late August and early September. The earlier a field is treated, the greater the chance that any surviving aphids can later reproduce or new aphids can repopulate the field. And remember, insecticide treatment also kills many natural enemies, so any aphids that do re-infest a field are not constrained by predators and other natural controls. Even insecticides with a relatively long residual cannot last when insecticide treatment is done in early or mid-July, particularly during a year when aphid populations are thriving. If one has to treat early, make sure to closely monitor the field until early September.. Another practice that can ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
Resistance of nine cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars, Big cropper, Cape Spitz, Copenhagen Market, Conquistador, Drumhead, Giant Drumhead, Glory of Enkhuizen, Grandslam and Hercules to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) was studied in greenhouse experiments conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Cabbage aphids caused 85 % leaf damage on the most susceptible cultivar, Drumhead, and only 30.9 and 44.6 % on the more resistant cultivars, Grandslam and Copenhagen Market, respectively. Drumhead had the lowest number of aphids per leaf, showing the antibiosis mechanism of resistance to B. brassicae and yet it suffered the most severe damage. Although Copenhagen Market was resistant to cabbage aphid damage, it had the greatest abundance of aphids per leaf, showing that it used the tolerance resistance mechanism against cabbage aphids. Conquistador, Glory of Enkhuizen, Grandslam and Hercules, which gave the lowest combined effect of number of aphids multiplied
Poster (2012, May 22). The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an ... [more ▼]. The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an intraguild predator, consuming other aphids natural enemies. The interactions between this exotic ladybird and other aphidophagous species present in Belgian agro-ecosystems are mainly asymmetric in support of H. axyridis. An aphidophages sampling has been performed between 2009 and 2011 in four agrosystems such as broad bean, wheat, corn and potato. The sampling method consisted in the counting of aphids and all developmental stages of aphidophages present in quadrats of 1m² from April to September. Harmonia axyridis, the invasive coccinellid, was ...
Aphid establishes colony in the selective plant parts like vine, leaf petiole, leaflet, inflorescence, and tender fruit in Dolichos lablab Linn but not the entire plant. In this study, the aphid colony establishment in vine is focused to understand the differential resistance response between two varieties. At the early stage of aphid infestation, the aphid colony establishment was significantly different between two genotypes (p value = 0.00) and abbreviated as
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphids ...
WOOSTER, Ohio -- Soybean aphids have arrived in Ohio, and counties along Lake Erie are taking the brunt of the impact. Ron Hammond, an Ohio State University Extension entomologist, said that soybean aphid populations in soybean fields throughout north central and northeast Ohio have reached threshold (250 aphids per plant) with rising populations, and some growers are seeing aphid numbers in the thousands. If left untreated, the result could be as much as 20 to 25 percent yield losses. We are definitely seeing a significant soybean aphid outbreak throughout those regions of Ohio, said Hammond, with the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. We are highly recommending that any grower in those areas to check their soybean fields as soon as possible as they might have populations high enough to warrant treatment. The soybean aphid, a sapsucker with a voracious appetite, was predicted to hit Ohio in high numbers this year. Despite those expectations, the outbreak throughout ...
Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and ...
Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can reduce the yield of aphidsusceptible soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars. The Rag1 and Rag2 genes confer resistance to some biotypes of A. glycines. These genes individually can limit population growth of A. glycines and prevent yield loss. The impact of these genes when combined is not known. We compared the development of A. glycines on soybean with Rag1 alone (R1/S2), Rag2 alone (S1/R2), both genes combined (R1/R2), or neither gene (S1/S2). In addition, we determined the impact of different levels of aphid infestation on seed yield. The genotypes were grown in cages and artificially infested with A. glycines to achieve five treatment levels: aphid-free, 675 aphids per plant, 25,000 cumulative aphid days (CAD) (25K), 50,000 CAD (50K), and 75,000 CAD (75K). The S1/S2 line reached the 50K treatment, but did not reach the 75K treatment. Aphid development on R1/S2 and S1/R2 soybeans after two infestations reached a maximum of 25K. The maximum
13 ref The infectivity of winged migrating aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) was investigated from 1981 to 1986 in two localities in northwestern and northeastern Italy (Carmagnola, Turin, and Pozzuolo, Udine) by using two types of suction traps that capture live aphids. Flying aphids were captured, identified, and tested individually for bydv transmission on either barley or oats, which were then checked for virus presence by both observation of symptoms and ELISA. Of nine aphid species collected near Turin, five transmitted BYDV to the indicator plants, namely: Anoecia corni (Fabricius), Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker), R. maidis (Fitch), R. English World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf International Workshop. Udine (Italy). 6-11 Jul 1987 CIMMYT, Ap. 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F. - Mexico,COMOD AGRIS Collection ...
Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to
A classical biological control project was undertaken against the filbert aphid, Myzocallis coryli (Goetze), in western Oregon. Hazelnut orchards in Spain, France, and Italy were searched for natural enemies of the aphid, and a parasitic wasp, Trioxys pallidus Haliday, was imported, quarantined, mass-reared, and released in Oregon orchards. The wasp successfully attacks and completes its development on the Oregon race of the filbert aphid. A greenhouse culture of the parasitoid has been maintained continuously for over 50 generations, and approximately 30,000 adult wasps have been released in the Willamette Valley. Overwintering survival has been documented in at least eight different locations. In three commercial orchards, the parasitoids reduced aphid populations by 26-32%. The newly imported biotype of T.pallidus attacking the filbert aphid was compared with the previously established biotype attacking the walnut aphid. The two races are morphologically indistinguishable, and were shown to ...
Radishes and nasturtiums lead flea beetles away from cabbage while catnip and basil repel them. Heavy aphid feeding causes leaves to curl up, providing the pests with even more protection. When its not in flight, the wings are folded. Cabbage aphids feed on the youngest, most tender parts of new cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cauliflower. Some of the vegetable plants you can transplant early without fearing loss to freezing are the cole crops such as cabbage, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts and collards. The bad news is that they are all fans of kale. Michl on July 8, 2019 at 10:55 pm I have quite an infestation of aphids on 3 of 4 Brussels Sprouts plants in my container garden. Cole crops are vulnerable to some insects in our area, mainly aphids and imported cabbage butterfly larvae. If you find one heavily infested leaf or plant, sacrifice it and remove it to protect the rest. A variety of pathogens can assault kale, including a number of fungal diseases, those caused by water ...
Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac) cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184) and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Another fact of life contributing to explosions of aphids is their ability to eschew the usual insect-like business of laying eggs. During the rush of spring, many species of aphids dispense with the egg stage and, like humans, give live birth to their babes. This blessed event takes only a few minutes but appears to be fraught with significant drama. Birthing aphids do lots of posturing and pushing. Fortunately, aphids have sucking mouthparts and loud vocalizations accompanying human births are conspicuously absent, hence the silence of the aphids. To further accelerate the process of filling the world with their kind, female aphids carry embryos of their grandchildren within their bodies even before they are born. This greatly compresses the generation time for aphids and is part of the reason aphid populations rapidly grow from a few to thousands. With so many delectable morsels decorating plants in spring, one wonders why hungry predators dont consume aphids into oblivion. Aphids have ...
The progress of nonpersistently transmitted virus epidemics can be substantially altered by the degree of aphid attraction and preference for virus-infected plants. Our objective was to determine whether color or odor-mediated cues of plants infected with Potyviridae mediate aphid attraction. We found that Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) preferred alighting on intensely (highly saturated) yellow than on green (plant-like) or brown (soil-like) ceramic tiles, and expressed no preference for landing on leaves infected with soybean mosaic virus (SMV) or on chlorophyll-deficient soybean leaves. Furthermore, neither aphid species showed odor-mediated attraction to leaf extracts of SMV-infected leaves. Also, R. maidis remained longer on uninfected than on SMV-infected soybean plants before taking flight, although M. periscae exhibited no preference. Neither aphid species had a preference to remain on healthy or potato virus Y-infected plants. Therefore, we conclude that both ...
Sabri, A.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Hance, T.; Frere, I.; Destain, J.; Thonart, P. (2010). Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (9): 2081-2088. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.024133-0. ISSN 1466-5026 ...
Interpretive Summary: Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. Among the major concerns are the pecan weevil, pecan aphids, and diseases such as pecan scab. These pests are generally controlled with broad spectrum chemicals. The chemical pesticides can be harmful to the environment and garner secondary pest outbreaks and resistance. Our overall goal for this project is to develop alternative production practices for pecans that are sustainable and effective. The research reported herein focuses on pecan weevil and aphid control and also suppression of pecan scab. The focus of the research has been on the use of novel environmentally friendly insecticides based on bacterial products. We discovered that a bacteria-based product (Grandevo®, based on a bacteria called Chromobacterium subtsugae), significantly reduced pecan weevil damage in USDA and commercial pecan orchards. Additionally, the bacterial product reduced pecan aphid populations. This is especially ...
  The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51 proved to be the most interesting, in that it resisted aphid attack by mechanisms involving tolerance and antibiosis. Aphid infestation of this landrace resulted in a dry weight loss of only 3.09% (comparison with uninfested plants). The antibiotic resistance of this landrace also significantly decreased the biological potential of the cowpea aphid. In addition to the agronomic and heritage value, some of the landraces of the Biskra region displayed tolerance and antibiosis characteristics suggesting that they might serve as an important genetic resource in future bean selection programs. All tested landraces are attractive to A. craccivora but only this
Aphid populations continue to increase in Iowa. We discuss their trajectory and when/if insecticides will be needed. Also, new publications from Iowa State University are available for the soybean aphid and the brown marmorated stink bug. To purchase the id guide for stink bugs or the new soybean aphid field guide visit the ISU extension publication store (www.extension.iastate.edu/store). To learn where the brown marmorated stink bug is in Iowa visit www.ncipmpipe.org. ...
Reports of soybean aphid activity are still coming in. In fact, reports are indicating that the problem area is no longer limited to northeastern Illinois. Several people have called in with economic infestations in northwestern Illinois and northeastern Iowa. Kevin Black, Growmark, has received word of infestations near Jerseyville (20 miles north of St. Louis) and Beardstown (70 miles southwest of Peoria). Overall, densities are still the highest in northern Illinois. Rod Winter, FMC, is finding 500 to 1,000 aphids per plant in fields in Lee, Ogle, and Winnebago counties. Chet Hetrick, FMC, sent these per-plant counts of soybean aphids: Manteno, 250 to 400; Kankakee to Rte. 24, 150 to 200; Rte. 24 to Rte. 9, 50 to 100; Rte. 9 to I-74 (Ogden), 25 to 100. Although 25 to 100 soybean aphids per plant does not necessarily meet the recommended thresholds for treatment, fields need to remain under watch, as densities can increase up to 10-fold in just 1 week. As soybean aphids are being found in more ...
2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. Alves, T. M., I. V. MacRae, and R. L. Koch. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). 2012, Douglas and Tooker 2015, Hurley and Mitchell 2017). Similarily, a higher percentage of soybean acres has been scouted for arthropod pests in Minnesota, Iowa, and North Dakota than in other states in the region (Fig. (2018) documented resistance ratios greater than 20-fold, which could be considered moderate resistance. 2018) have created an immediate challenge for effective soybean pest management and profitable soybean production. A., S. J. Bhusal, A. Lorenz, and R. L. Koch. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Science II, Ames, IA, Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Walster Hall, Fargo, ND, Agronomy, ...
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8a Aphid gall. Leaf sheath inflated, ± discoloured, leaf blade twisted, rolled. P. canariensis; Phalaroides arundinacea: Rhopalosiphum padi. 8b With similar damage. P. canariensis: Sitobion avenae. 8c Long parallel stripes caused by smut, especially on the upper leaves of the ± shortened shoots. Sori also on leaf sheaths, with dusting of blackish olive-brown spores. Panicles reduced, often remaining in sheaths. Phalaroides arundinacea: Ustilago echinata. 8d In addition, same host, may occur the rare fungus: Physoderma graminis. 8e Leaves curled and wrinkled; culms often severely distorted. Phalaroides arundinacea: Ustilago serpens ...
The indole alkaloid gramine occurs in leaves of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars but not in others. A gene sequence in barley that earlier was characterized as a jasmonate-induced O-methyltransferase (MT) (EC 2.1.1.6, GenBank accession U54767) was here found to be absent in some barley cultivars and breeding lines that all lacked gramine. The cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified. The purified recombinant protein methylated two substrates in the pathway to gramine: 3-aminomethylindole (AMI) and N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole (MAMI) at a high rate, with Km-values of 77 mu M and 184 mu M, respectively. In contrast, the protein did not exhibit any detectable methylation with the earlier suggested substrate for O-methylation, caffeic acid. A number of cultivars and breeding lines of barley were analyzed for presence of the U54767 gene sequence and NIT protein and the enzyme activity in vitro with MAMI or caffeic acid as substrates. The ...
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Kerns, D.L.; Puterka, G.J.; Peters, D.C., 1989: Intrinsic rate of increase for greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotypes E, F, G, and H on small grain and sorghum varieties
Whos the boss? Milkweed is the boss.. Milkweed plants engage in a helpful bit of mutualism with the aphids and ants who take up residence on them. Aphids feed on the milkweeds sap, then secrete honeydew, which ants eat. The ants, in turn, are the muscle of the operation-they help both the plants and the aphids by fighting off potential predators like caterpillars. The partnership goes three ways, but the power is not equal-milkweed is in control.. Researchers Kailen Mooney and Anurag Agrawal recently found that the milkweed can manipulate the relationship between ants and aphids, altering the dynamics for its own good. The scientists planted 32 groups of milkweed, with each group containing 10 siblings from the same family, in a field full of ants. In 20 of the 32 milkweed groups, the presence of ants was a big boon for aphids-the aphid population increased by 150 percent compared to plants with no ants to protect them. But in the other 12 groups, the numbers of aphids actually decreased by ...
Modeling population dynamics that include mutualistic interactions is an important and complex problem in theoretical biology and quantitative ecology. Mutualistic interactions, which are generally considered relationships in which two or more species benefit from each others presence, play a significant role in determining population dyanmics, and are essential to fully understanding the dynamics of interacting species. However, mutualistic interactions are a historically understudied topic in ecology; accurately describing populations in multi-species interactions is inherently challenging (Hastings & Powell, 1991), and models describing these populations increase greatly in complexity as the intricacy and interdependence of the relationship increases. As such, there have been relatively few attempts within the field to fully account for the particulars of these relationships. Through numerical simulation of lycaenid butterfly and aphid populations together with deterministic and stochastic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile hormone titre and related gene expression during the change of reproductive modes in the pea aphid. AU - Ishikawa, A.. AU - Ogawa, K.. AU - Gotoh, H.. AU - Walsh, T. K.. AU - Tagu, D.. AU - Brisson, J. A.. AU - Rispe, C.. AU - Jaubert-Possamai, S.. AU - Kanbe, T.. AU - Tsubota, T.. AU - Shiotsuki, T.. AU - Miura, T.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Most aphids show reproductive polyphenism, i.e. they alternate their reproductive modes from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction in response to short photoperiods. Although juvenile hormone (JH) has been considered a likely candidate for regulating the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction after photoperiod sensing, there are few studies investigating the direct relationship between JH titres and the reproductive-mode change. In addition, the sequencing of the pea aphid genome has allowed identification of the genes involved in the JH pathway, which in turn allows us to examine their expression levels in relation to ...
Based on the optimum control theory (1) , integrative effect of 11 controllable factors of soybean field on soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), natural enemies and summer soybean yield was studied systematically by the approaching optimum point and Orthogonal design L27 (3)13 from 1993 to 1996. According to the criterion of not only good control of the pest and increase of soybean yield but also protection of natural enemies, the controllable factors were evaluated synthetically and optimum system control of soybean aphid was suggested as follows: soybean sown in the same maize hole (4 soybean plants to 1 maize plant) or soybean interplanted in maize field (9 rows of soybeans to 2 rows of maize), cultivar Lusoybean 4, sowing time about 10 June, dressing seeds with trace fertilizer at 1800 g/ha, dosage of fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O application at 45, 60 and 150 kg/ha, dosage of solid manure application at 22500 kg/ha, control soybean aphid with Pirmicarb at 60 g/ha. The technologies of ...
Several parasitoid species of flies and wasps may attack cotton pests (Figure 57), especially aphids and the larvae of lepidopteran pests. Various tiny wasps regularly lay their eggs inside the bodies of aphids. Within a few days the aphids are paralyzed, become swollen and discolored, and eventually die (Figure 58). Several days later, the adult wasp (Figure 59) emerges through a circular hole cut in the mummified body of the aphid. Other tiny wasps and parasitic flies attack the egg or larval stage of armyworms, bollworms, loopers, and other lepidopteran cotton pests.. Several naturally occurring pathogens also may infect and reduce populations of cotton pests. For example, epizootics or outbreaks of the fungal pathogen Neozygites fresenii can rapidly reduce cotton aphid infestations within 7 to 10 days. Infected aphids typically die with their mouthparts still inserted into the leaf and are covered with a velvety white or light gray growth (Figure 60). Later, secondary pathogens infect the ...
Several parasitoid species of flies and wasps may attack cotton pests (Figure 57), especially aphids and the larvae of lepidopteran pests. Various tiny wasps regularly lay their eggs inside the bodies of aphids. Within a few days the aphids are paralyzed, become swollen and discolored, and eventually die (Figure 58). Several days later, the adult wasp (Figure 59) emerges through a circular hole cut in the mummified body of the aphid. Other tiny wasps and parasitic flies attack the egg or larval stage of armyworms, bollworms, loopers, and other lepidopteran cotton pests.. Several naturally occurring pathogens also may infect and reduce populations of cotton pests. For example, epizootics or outbreaks of the fungal pathogen Neozygites fresenii can rapidly reduce cotton aphid infestations within 7 to 10 days. Infected aphids typically die with their mouthparts still inserted into the leaf and are covered with a velvety white or light gray growth (Figure 60). Later, secondary pathogens infect the ...
Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures
TY - CONF. T1 - Aphid vectors and transmission of potato virus Y strains. AU - Verbeek, M.. AU - Piron, P.G.M.. AU - Dullemans, A.M.. AU - van der Vlugt, R.A.A.. AU - van den Bovenkamp, G.. AU - Miedema, G.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. KW - aphididae. KW - gewasbescherming. KW - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding. KW - monitoring. KW - aardappelvirus y. KW - vangmethoden. KW - aphididae. KW - plant protection. KW - integrated pest management. KW - monitoring. KW - potato virus y. KW - trapping. M3 - Abstract. T2 - EAPR virology meeting. Y2 - 17 June 2007 through 22 June 2007. ER - ...
The melon (or cotton) aphid, Aphis gossypii, is distributed throughout most of the world. It has been reported to feed on 220 different crops, including many important vegetables (tomatoes, potatoes, cucurbits) and ornamentals (chrysanthemum, cineraria, begonia, hollyhock, Easter lily). It also infests many weed hosts such as amaranth, milkweed, lambs quarters, and grounsel. Melon aphid infestations can reduce crop vigor, yield, and quality. It is known to vector at least 50 plant viruses, some of which are important in vegetable crops ...
This is an immune response, not to bacteria or viruses, but to parasitic wasps. Aphids are popular targets for some of these wasps: The wasps lay eggs in the aphid, the eggs hatch into baby wasps, and the baby wasps eat the aphids from the inside out until they kill the aphid and then they fly away to predate some more. Except in some aphids, the baby wasps are killed as they hatch, and the aphids survives to make more aphids.. And this immunity to the wasps is - on a population basis, not an individual basis - rather flexible. Insects in general are good at evolving toxin resistance over years or decades, but aphids have apparently been doing this over millions of years. It turns out that different aphids kill the baby wasps in different ways, using different toxins to do so, and the toxins change over time as well. So the wasps cant develop resistance to the toxins. Its a little bit - a very little bit - like an adaptive immune system, at least in broad terms.. Not all aphids are immune at ...
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Sulzer is supplying the first ever industrial scale cMIST™ system for natural gas dehydration with start-up scheduled for the second half of 2020. The unit will be installed at an onshore ExxonMobil facility in the U.S.
When aphids are attacked by predators such as ladybird beetles, they release an alarm pheromone, (E)-â-farnesene, that has long been known to cause other aphids to walk around or drop from the plant. In a paper soon to appear in Ecology Letters, researchers at the University and Max-Planck-Institute in Jena, Germany, now show that exposure to alarm pheromone also causes pea aphids to produce winged offspring that leave their host plant when mature.
Forecasting the need for early season aphid control: geographical variation in the relationship between winter temperature and early season flight activity of Myzus ...
Matt and Erin wrap up a few loose ends before the holiday week. First, Matt shares DowAgroSciences sulfoxaflor insecticide got a renewed registration. This insecticide targets fluid-feeding insects and was an option for soybean aphid before it was canceled in 2015. Now, sulfoxaflor can be used in a number of crops, but not for corn or soybean; cotton and sorghum have emergency labels in some U.S. states. Over the weekend, a soybean aphid Biotype-2 colony died due to a bad compressor in a growth chamber. Aphids dont tend to do well in temperatures over 100 degrees, and these ladies got cooked. Our labs host all four soybean aphid biotypes plus a few other aphid colonies. Colony management is really important and the maintenance is ongoing to keep plants and aphids healthy. Iowa State University features a 3MT (Three-minute thesis) oral competition this week. Three people featured insect-related presentations (a long video of all the speakers can be found here).. Upcoming extension events:. ICM ...
The Black Peach Aphid . The black peach aphid (Brachyeauclus persienecola), which is found in most peach-growing districts, attacks both the roots and the above-ground portioThe black peach aphid (Brachyeauclus persienecola), which is found in most peach-growing districts, attacks both the roots and the above-ground portions of the trees. Although the peach is its main. My Garden: gardening community, tips, tricks and more...
Eyles, A and Smith, D and Pinkard, EA and Smith, I and Corkrey, R and Elms, S and Beadle, CL and Mohammed, CL (2011) Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation. Tree Physiology, 31. pp. 592-603. ISSN 0829-318X ...
Article Inheritance of resistance to the Soybean aphid in Soybean PI 200538. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a major soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest. Soybean plant introduction (PI) 200538 has strong resistance to the aph...