Aims Intra-operative grading of atheromatous plaques in the ascending aorta by epiaortic ultrasound (EAU) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients who have undergone CABG. Methods and results Sixty patients scheduled for elective CABG were prospectively enrolled to undergo intra-operative TEE and EAU ultrasound scanning of the ascending aorta. The ascending aorta was divided into three sections; proximal, middle and distal, and four segments; anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. Degree of atherosclerosis was graded according to a modified Montgomery scale. Epiaortic ultrasound was unable to provide images for a reliable assessment in 56 areas (7.7%; 56/720) vs 322 non-visualized areas by TEE (44.7%; 298/720) (p , 0.01). Out of 563 areas that scored ≥ 2, EAU visualized 379/720 areas (52.6%), whereas TEE visualized 184/720 areas (25.5%) (p , 0.01). EAU mean scores were significantly higher for the mid (p = 0.0001) and distal (p = 0.05) sections and for the posterior segment (p ...
In his presentation entitled "Acute Aortic Syndromes: New Insights from IRAD and GenTAC Registries", Dr. Eagle will review the latest in the approaches to diagnosis and treatment of acute aortic syndromes and thoracic aortic disease. In particular, new insights as to the underlying causes of aortic syndromes, the optimal use of biomarkers, and the evolving role of genetics as it relates to diagnosis and screening will be emphasized. In addition, recent advances in best medical and interventional therapy for thoracic aortic disease will be discussed. Finally, Dr. Eagle will discuss where translational and imaging research advances are likely to shape the future care for patients with or at risk for thoracic aortic disease. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute aortic syndromes. T2 - A second look at dual-phase CT. AU - Lovy, Andrew J.. AU - Rosenblum, Jessica K.. AU - Levsky, Jeffrey M.. AU - Godelman, Alla. AU - Zalta, Amin B.. AU - Jain, Vineet R.. AU - Haramati, Linda B.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of the unenhanced and contrast-enhanced phases separately in patients imaged with CT for suspected acute aortic syndromes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All adults (n = 2868) presenting to our emergency department from January 1, 2006, through August 1, 2010, who underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT of the chest and abdomen for suspected acute aortic syndrome were retrospectively identified. Forty-five patients with acute aortic syndrome and 45 healthy control subjects comprised the study population (55 women; mean age, 61 ± 16 years). Unenhanced followed by contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA) images were reviewed. Contrastenhanced CTA ...
Looking for Aortic diseases? Find out information about Aortic diseases. primary artery of the circulatory system circulatory system, group of organs that transport blood and the substances it carries to and from all parts of the... Explanation of Aortic diseases
Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes a range of severe, painful, potentially life-threatening abnormalities of the aorta. These include aortic dissection, intramural thrombus, and penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer. AAS can be caused by a lesion on the wall of the aorta that involves the tunica media, often in the descending aorta. It is possible for AAS to lead to acute coronary syndrome. The term was introduced in 2001. Causes can include aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer or a thoracic aneurysm that has become unstable. The potential causes of AAS are life-threatening and present with similar symptoms, making it difficult to distinguish the ultimate cause, though high resolution, high contrast computerised tomography can be used. The condition can be mimicked by a ruptured cyst of the pericardium, ruptured aortic aneurysm and acute coronary syndrome. Misdiagnosis is estimated at 39% and is associated with delays correct diagnosis and improper ...
eview article describes the imaging modalities contributing to the diagnosis of aortic atherosclerosis. All imaging modalities do contribute to diagnostic imaging; however only echo provides realtime imaging during the different phases of treatment. If conventional TEE imaging quality is insufficient, additional screening with modified TEE or epiaortic ultrasound is advised. Modified TEE with A-View has the advantage to be performed before surigcal incision, when changes in surgical management or a crossover to a nonsurgical management can still be considered.. Click on the picture to read the article.. ...
The SPARC study is the only large-scale, population-based TEE study performed to date. Study participants were sampled from the adult population residing in a well-defined geographic area, are relatively free of selection bias, and are representative of the general population.. The following study limitations should be noted. First, this was a cross-sectional study, one lacking prospective follow-up data. However, data relating aortic plaque morphology, C pneumoniaeserology, and inflammatory markers to future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events will be available during long-term follow up of the study cohort.. Second, we examined the association between C pneumoniaeIgG antibody titers and aortic atherosclerosis, assuming that the presence of IgG titers beyond a certain threshold (i.e., titers ≥1:16) is indicative of chronic C pneumoniaeinfection (7). Moreover, we examined the association between various levels of antibody titers and aortic atherosclerosis (4,7)and excluded one subject ...
Topic: Stress management for patients with an Aortic Disease. Location: East Foustanellas Conference Rm (H2368), second floor. Details: Group sessions will take place on the 3rd Tuesday of every other month. Patients with a history of an aortic aneurysm, aortic surgery or aortic dissection and their family are welcome to attend.
Aortic disease is a form of peripheral artery disease that affects the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The most common problem is an aortic aneurysm, a bulging out of the artery wall that stretches like a balloon under the pressure of bloo
Causes and diagnosis of medical symptom Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis with references to diagnosis, testing, and other symptoms.
BACKGROUND:Since aortic calcification has been shown to initiate in the lower zone of well-thickened plaques (LZP) adjacent to the aortic media of rabbits fed supplemental cholesterol diets, a restricted supply of serum ...
What is aortic disease? Aortic disease is a form of peripheral artery disease that affects the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The aorta is about the thickness of a garden hose and runs from your heart through your chest and abdomen, carryin
What is aortic disease? Aortic disease is a form of peripheral artery disease that affects the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The aorta is about the
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The authors concluded that endovascular technology could be helpful in treating selected young patients with genetically triggered thoracic aortic disease. However, we should be caution evaluating results of this mid-term follow-up study. Most aortic surgeons support the idea of endovascular therapy of genetically triggered aortic disease, but only in case of already prosthetic replaced aortic segments corresponding to proximal and distal landing zones. Endovascular treatment of the native aorta in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndrome patients is not recommended due to high-risk of later endoleaks type I. Further research and long-term follow-up studies are necessary to identify patients with genetically triggered thoracic aortic disease who benefit from endovascular aortic repair and delineate contraindication for endovascular approach.. ...
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer
Our experience suggest that nonsurgical repair may be an effective therapeutic option for patients with descending thoracic aortic diseases such as aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, or dissections.. Aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta was the first thoracic aortic disease to be repaired by a stent graft endovascular procedure. Effectively thoracic aneurysm stent graft treatment has the longest and most established long term results.4-6 In the past, our management of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm was medical unless clinical and instrumental signs of rupture were evident and required immediate surgery. At the present time, indications for stent graft treatment are presence of an uncomplicated aneurysm and history of hypertension with chest discomfort, or signs of compression on surrounding organs, as well as a diameter ,6 cm or expansion ,5 mm per year. However, if a patient is considered to be a candidate for stent graft placement, several major factors have to be taken into account. The most ...
To present the early and midterm results of endovascular stent-graft repair in patients with infrarenal penetrating aortic ulcers (PAU). Between January 1997 and December 2009, 20 patients (17 men; median age 72 years, range 48-85) with PAU of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different infarction patterns in patients with aortic atheroma compared to those with cardioembolism or large artery atherosclerosis. AU - Kim, Seung Woo. AU - Kim, Young Dae. AU - Chang, Hyuk Jae. AU - Hong, Geu Ru. AU - Shim, Chi Young. AU - Chung, Seok Jong. AU - Hong, Jin Yong. AU - Song, Tae Jin. AU - Song, Dongbeom. AU - Bang, Oh Young. AU - Heo, Ji Hoe. AU - Nam, Hyo Suk. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Aortic atheroma is a known cause of ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether ischemic stroke is caused by emboli from aortic atheroma or by accompanying atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated lesion patterns of patients with complex aortic plaque (CAP) to assume the underlying pathophysiology. Acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography were included. CAP was defined as a plaque in the proximal aorta ≥ 4 mm thick or with a mobile component. The diffusion-weighted imaging lesion patterns of patients with CAP were compared ...
DISCUSSION. It is known that the majority of thoracic aortic diseases are degenerative and occur in association with risk factors for atherosclerosis such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia[10] and all of those had a high prevalence in our sample.. One of the factors that impact morbimortality after aortic interventions are neurologic events and progression of aortic disease[11]. TEVAR is a safe and effective procedure to treat both aneurysms and dissections involving the descending aorta with relative low risk[12,13]. The landing zone was soon extended proximally in order to treat more extensive segments of the aorta, reducing the morbimortality when compared with conventional techniques[14-16].. New totally endovascular techniques for treatment of complex aortic arch diseases are available and include stenting of the supra-aortic vessels (parallel techniques), fenestrated or branched endografts. Those are promising, but experience in aortic arch repair are very limited[17] and ...
In this study using a newly developed CNT-based micro-CT with cardiac and respiratory gating, we have successfully quantified calcification in the aortic arch plaques of living mice. CNT-based sources are able to achieve a 10 ms or better temporal resolution, not directly achievable using conventional thermionic sources. As a result, we were able to gate cardiac and respiratory motion in a straightforward manner, allowing simplified animal handling without the need for intubation.. Heart contraction causes movement of the vascular wall and thereby motion blur in the acquired image.9 In addition, because the R-wave interval at 600 beats per minute is 100 ms, errors of pulse control ,5 to 10 ms could result in significant additional blur of structures. One of the key advantages of our CNT-based micro-CT system is the ability to control the x-ray pulses to at least a microsecond level. Although in vivo imaging of arch calcification has already been reported in B6-apoE KO mice using a conventional ...
Diseases of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence. In the UK, there has been a steady rise in admissions for thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) from 7.2 to 8.8 per 100 000 population over the last decade.1 At the same time, admissions for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have increased from 4.4 to 9.0 per 100 000. Thoracic aortic disease is deadly; most patients with TAA are likely to die of a complication attributable to their aneurysm, accounting for up to 47 000 deaths annually in the USA.2 TAD affecting the ascending aorta has a 30-day mortality of 25-50%.3 The increase in numbers of patients presenting with disease of the thoracic aorta is predominantly due to an increase in elderly patients, over 75 years of age.1 This means that the upward trend is likely to continue as the population ages, and that these patients are more likely to suffer from multiple additional comorbid conditions, presenting greater challenges for clinicians. In the face of this increasing problem, our ...
Aortic atheroma has been correlated with traditional cardiac risk factors, coronary, carotid, renal and peripheral atherosclerosis, and is probably a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis. Aortic atheroma has also been shown to be associated with atrial fibrillation, aortic valve sclerosis, and other calcification of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. None of the previous studies have looked at the noninvasive prediction of aortic atheroma using the history and physical signs of cardiovascular disease. This would be a time and cost-effective bedside diagnostic tool that would be useful prior to cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization, and workup of ischemic stroke patients, especially when transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is being considered for diagnosis but cannot be obtained due to previously mentioned reasons. Although physical examination of peripheral vascular disease is non-specific, a combination of physical examination signs increases the probability of generalized ...
Stroke after cardiac surgery may be caused by emboli emerging from an atherosclerotic ascending aorta (AA). Epiaortic ultrasound scanning (EUS), the current gold standard for detecting AA atherosclerosis, has not gained widespread use because there is a lack of optimized ultrasound devices, it lengthens the procedure, it endangers sterility, and there is a false belief by many surgeons that palpation is as sensitive as EUS. Furthermore there is no clear evidence proving that the use of epiaortic scanning changes outcome in cardiac surgery. Various researchers investigated the ability of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to discriminate between the presence and absence of AA atherosclerosis. It is acknowledged that TEE has limited value in this, but it has never been supported by a meta-analysis estimating the true diagnostic accuracy of TEE based on all quantitative evidence. We aimed to do this using state-of-the-art methodology of diagnostic meta-analyses.. We searched multiple ...
The four major acute aortic syndromes are aortic rupture (discussed above), aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Aortic dissection is caused by a circumferential or, less frequently, transverse tear of the intima. It often occurs along the right lateral wall of the ascending aorta where the hydraulic shear stress is high. Another common site is the descending thoracic aorta just below the ligamentum arteriosum. The initiating event is either a primary intimal tear with secondary dissection into the media or a medial hemorrhage that dissects into and disrupts the intima. The pulsatile aortic flow then dissects along the elastic lamellar plates of the aorta and creates a false lumen. The dissection usually propagates distally down the descending aorta and into its major branches, but it may propagate proximally. Distal propagation may be limited by atherosclerotic plaque. In some cases, a secondary distal intimal disruption occurs, resulting in the reentry ...
Aortic diseases, What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm?,How is a thoracic aortic aneurysm diagnosed?Heart Care For You aim of providing comprehensive cardiac care solutions to the patients for Angioplasty Surgery, Bypass surgery, Cardiac surgery, Valve Surg
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preoperative Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomography Identifies Potential Aortic Emboli. AU - Lee, Richard. AU - Matsutani, Noriyuki. AU - Polimenakos, Anastasios C.. AU - Levers, Lorraine C.. AU - Lee, Michelle. AU - Johnson, Robert G.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Background: Intraoperative epiaortic scanning identifies aortic atheroma. Avoiding atheroma manipulation reduces cerebral vascular accidents (CVA). Unfortunately, epiaortic scanning can only be performed after the time of sternotomy. We sought to determine whether (1) preoperative noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT) identifies areas of aorta at risk for embolization in high-risk patients, and (2) operative strategies designed at the reduction of aortic manipulation of these areas can reduce permanent strokes. Methods: The rate of permanent strokes was examined at a single institution between two time periods using the χ2 method. From January 2002 through June 2003 (pre-CT) 230 patients underwent elective ...
Cleveland Clinic surgeons performed 850 descending throacic aorta repair procedures in the past five years. The majority of these were elective operations that involved an endovascular approach.. ...
主動脈剝離(英語:aortic dissection;法語:dissection aortique;德語:Aortendissektion),又譯為「主動脈夾層」或「心血管動脈撕裂」,是因為主動脈血管內膜(英語:Tunica intima)受傷,使得血液可以流入主動脈壁各層之間,使血管層剝離(英語:Dissection (medical))的症狀[3]。大部份的情形下,在主動脈剝離時會有嚴重、撕裂狀的胸痛或是背痛(英語:Acute aortic syndrome)[1][2],同時會有嘔吐、冒汗、頭重腳輕等症狀[2]。因為無法提供足夠血液到其他器官,也會有像中風或腸繫膜缺血等症狀[2]。主動脈剝離後,因為無法提供心臟足夠的血液或是主動脈破裂(英語:Aortic rupture),可能很快會致命[2]。 主動脈剝離較常出現在有高血壓及主動脈瓣二葉畸形(英語:Bicuspid aortic ...
The Aortic Program at OHSU is a regional resource for aortic emergency care as well as routine management of aortic disease. We collaborate with your local physician and hospital to treat conditions such as descending aortic dissections, chronic thoracic aortic disease and complicated vascular disease.
An estimated 60,000 Americans are walking around with time bombs in their chests called thoracic aortic aneurysms. At any time, their main chest artery could suddenly burst open, causing massive internal bleeding that is almost always fatal.. Its possible to repair the defect before the artery bursts, but traditional surgery is highly invasive. The operation typically requires an 18-inch incision, a week or two in the hospital and three to six months to recover. There are several major risks, including stroke and paralysis.. At Loyola University Hospital, an increasing number of patients are being treated with a device called a stent graft, which is inserted without opening the chest. Stent graft patients typically go home in a day or two, and recover fully in about two weeks.. At Loyolas Thoracic Aortic Disease Clinic, about 70 percent of patients who undergo surgery for aneurysms in the chest artery are receiving stent grafts rather than open chest surgery. "And as the technology evolves, we ...
Our cross-sectional study shows for the first time that higher sclerostin levels are associated independently with AD in T2DM patients. Secondly, high concentrations of sclerostin were associated with abnormal IMT, carotid plaques, and aortic calcifications in T2DM males. We found similar differences in T2DM females with abnormal IMT and aortic calcifications. Thirdly, we found a significant positive correlation among sclerostin levels, homocysteine, and IMT in T2DM patients, independently of sex.. The higher levels of sclerostin observed in T2DM patients with AD suggest a specific role of sclerostin in this process, confirming data from preclinical studies. Previous reports on the Wnt signaling antagonist sFRP (11,13) illustrated that its upregulation after injury was involved in healing and homeostasis of vascular tissue. In support of this hypothesis, data with the Wnt signaling agonist Dishevelled (Dvl) (23), which acts as a positive regulator of the Wnt pathway, showed that activation of ...
Our secondary outcomes are mean aortic wall thickness at the most diseased segment on FDG PET/ CT and vessel wall area on MRI at the most diseased segment, and we will perform analyses using a model including the same variables as above ...
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice.. METHODS: We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar X ray, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) using a Doppler device.. RESULTS: The median AACS was 11 (range 0 - 24). In 58% of the patients, all 4 segments of the abdominal aorta showed deposits, while 19% of patients had no visible deposits (AACS 0). Ankle-brachial index was normal in 49%, low (, 0.9) in 17%, and high (, 1.3) in 34% of patients. Altogether 91 patients (37%) died during the median follow-up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of diseases of the thoracic aorta. T2 - Part 1. Aortic dissection, aortic intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aorta. AU - Willens, Howard J.. AU - Kessler, Kenneth M.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. KW - Acute aortic syndrome. KW - Aortic dissection. KW - Aortic intramural hematoma. KW - Penetrating aortic ulcer. KW - Thoracic aorta. KW - Transesophageal echocardiography. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033388643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033388643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1378/chest.116.6.1772. DO - 10.1378/chest.116.6.1772. M3 - Article. C2 - 10593804. AN - SCOPUS:0033388643. VL - 116. SP - 1772. EP - 1779. JO - Chest. JF - Chest. SN - 0012-3692. IS - 6. ER - ...
Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer is characterized by ulceration that penetrates through the elastic lamina into the media, and is associated with a variable amount of haematoma within the aortic wall. Haematoma formation may extend along the media, resulting in aortic dissection. In some cases, haematoma extension causes stretching of the weakened aortic wall, leading to the formation of a saccular aneurysm. Rupture is an eventual outcome. This entity has to be distinguished from atheromatous ulcers that are confined to the intima layer, aneurysms and classic aortic dissection. Although they typically involve the descending thoracic aorta (mostly the middle or distal portion), penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers can also involve the abdominal aorta and seldom are multiple. Typical CT features of penetrating ulcers include focal involvement with adjacent subintimal haematoma located beneath the frequently calcified and inwardly displaced intima, often associated with thickening or enhancement of ...
Posted By CCF CARDIO MD - MTR on September 01, 1998 at 11:51:15: In Reply to: Aortic Root Dilation posted by Jay on August 31, 1998 at 00:48:01: _____ Dear Jay, than...
This study was undertaken to analyze immediate and mid-term knitted Dacron graft dilation and to establish which parameters should be taken as a reference when aortic graft dilation is evaluated. A Dacron knitted microvel double velour vascular graft (Hemashield Gold) was implanted in 30 patients with aneurysmal (19 cases, 63%) or occlusive (11 cases, 37%) aortic disease. The stems of bifurcated prostheses (27 patients, 90%) and tube grafts (3 patients, 10%) were measured. The package sizing (labelled size) was compared with the external diameter measured intraoperatively with a slide caliper, prior to implantation and after complete clamp release. Additional measurements were obtained by ultrasound 1 and 6 months after implantation, and in 16 cases (53% of the patients) ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) were performed at the end of the first year. The means of the measurements were compared using Students t test for matched pairs. The statistical significance level was set at p values | 0.05.
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Open aortic surgery is employed for patients who have indications for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair but unfavorable anatomy for endovascular aortic repair. Open aortic surgery is also necessary to manage aortic thrombosis or repair of aortic
The purpose of this study was to compare two non-contrast 2D techniques with the current contrast-enhanced MRI standard 3D technique for the routine assessment of thoracic aortic pathologies. One hund
Can someone help shed some light for me...Im a 31 year old male, 63 210lbs with a history of hypertension that is controlled using lopressor. Recent echo, which was a follow up from a previous one done 2.5 years ago, showed an aortic root measuring 4.1cm at the sinus of valsalva. The physician documented this as mildly dilated. This is an increase from 3.8cm in 2013. Valve is trileaflet with no regurgitation noted. I have a follow up appointment on the 21st with my cardiologist. My question is....is the term dilated and aneurysm the same thing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasonographic images of spontaneous intramural hematomas of the intestinal wall in two patients with congenital bleeding tendency. AU - Gamba, G.. AU - Carnevale Maffe, G.. AU - Mosconi, E.. AU - Tibaldi, A.. AU - Di Domenico, G.. AU - Frego, R.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029153167&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029153167&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 80. SP - 388. EP - 389. JO - Haematologica. JF - Haematologica. SN - 0390-6078. IS - 4. ER - ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Case of intramural hematoma of the small intestine caused by anticoagulants]. by Hiroki Sato et al.
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With the advent of helical CT, the capability of noninvasive imaging of the thoracic aorta has been enhanced considerably. In this article, we describe the potential of helical CT using dual-slice technology to evaluate thoracic aortic diseases such
Background: Despite the successful development in cardiac surgery, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) remain a devastating complication. Aortic atherosclerosis has been identified as a major risk factor for CVA. The present thesis addresses this question in relation to aortic manipulation during cardiac surgery, being divided into a clinical (I-II) and an experimental part (III-V).. Material and methods: Consecutive cardiac surgery cases (n=2641) were analyzed. Patients with CVA were extracted from a database designed to monitor clinical symptoms. Patient records were used to confirm clinical data and diagnosis. Subdivision was made into three groups: control subjects, immediate, and delayed CVA, being analyzed for neurological symptoms (I). Patients with CVA who also had been investigated with computer tomography (CT) (n=77) were further evaluated in terms of hemispheric and vascular distribution of lesions. The CT-findings were compared with CVA symptoms (II). An aortic perfusion model was ...
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A method and device for occluding a patients ascending aorta, maintaining circulation of oxygenated blood in the patient and delivering cardioplegic fluid to arrest the patients heart. An aortic occlusion catheter has an occluding member for occluding the ascending aorta. The aortic occlusion catheter passes through a cannula. Delivery of oxygenated blood is accomplished through either the cannula or the aortic occlusion catheter.
Transesophageal MRI of human thoracic aortae demonstrate the feasibility of the technique in healthy volunteers (Fig. 2A)and among patients with aortic atherosclerosis (Fig. 2B-D). Figure 2C, Dshows the corresponding TEMRI and TEE images of the distal aortic arch in a 77-year-old male patient with remote stroke, depicting heterogeneous atherosclerotic thickening, and this illustrates differences in circumferential plaque extent by the two methods. Figure 2Eis a longitudinal slice through the descending thoracic aorta and a portion of the arch of a normal subject, demonstrating the nonuniform SNR of the device (9,12). The SNR decreases linearly with radial distance from the probe, but substantially maintains its SNR along much of its length. In practical terms, this property allows TEMRI at multiple longitudinal locations over ∼20 cm without the need for repositioning the device.. Maximum and minimum WTs were 3.5 ± 1.2 mm and 1.2 ± 0.8 mm by TEE, and 3.3 ± 1.5 mm and 1.0 ± 0.7 mm by TEMRI, ...