Figure 1: Enlarged MRA Pre and post stenting of coarctation. Perspective: Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common defect that occurs in approximately 6-8 % of patients with congenital heart disease and is commonly associated with a bicuspid aortic valve. Intravascular stents are finding increased applications in the treatment of patients with native coarctation of the aorta and percutaneous intervention is a reasonable alternative to surgical correction. 4D flow MR imaging has shown promise in the evaluation of both the clinical significance of the coarctation through the demonstration of collateral blood flow and the persistence of helical flow after coarctation repair ...
Double orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly presenting as the division of the mitral orifice into two anatomically distinct orifices, it is most often associated with other congenital heart defects such as left-sided obstructive lesions, ventricular septal defects or aortic coarctation. We report the case of a 15 years old boy, admitted for arterial hypertension, auscultation revealed a rude aortic systolic murmur. Femoral pulses were weak. Owing to the suspicion of aortic coarctation, transthoracic echocardiography was performed, the aortic coarctation with dilation of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was confirmed and bicuspid aortic valve was found with good function. The mitral valve was dysmorphic, having two orifices; it was divided into 2 separate valve orifices by a fibrous bridge. No mitral or aortic regurgitation was documented by color Doppler flow imaging. The left ventricular ejection fraction was normal. There was a small peri membranous ventricular septal defect with left
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Axillo-iliac artery bypass for recurrent aortic coarctation to reduce cardiac afterload. AU - Yamashita, Yoshiyuki. AU - Tatewaki, Hideki. AU - Matsumoto, Takashi. AU - Shiose, Akira. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - A 13-year-old girl, who had undergone interrupted aortic arch repair with an 8-mm graft as a neonate and Fontan completion in childhood, developed ventricular fibrillation due to long-QT syndrome. Cardioverter defibrillator implantation was planned. Preoperative catheterization showed a 45-mmHg aortic pressure gradient and ventricular end-diastolic pressure of 11 mmHg. This indicated that recurrent coarctation had adversely affected ventricular function. After consideration of the patients age, symptoms and anatomical/surgical complexities, axillo-iliac bypass with cardioverter defibrillator implantation was performed. Postoperative ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 6 mmHg. Axillo-iliac bypass is a surgical option for coarctation that can reduce cardiac ...
Pressure and flow were recorded in the ascending aorta of three dogs with aortic coarctation, induced surgically 3 months previously, and in three control litter mates. From these data were derived input impedance of the systemic circulation, pulsatile and steady components of external heart work, aortic systolic pressure-time index, and mean systolic and mean diastolic pressures. Results were correlated with intraoperative measurements of aortic pressure in three young patients with aortic coarctation and with records taken in another 24 patients during diagnostic catheterization. Distinctive changes in aortic impedance with coarctation were explained in terms of altered peripheral reflection. Such changes were responsible for characteristic alteration in central aortic pressure pulse contour and for change in other parameters, indicating impaired arterial function in accepting pulsatile flow from the heart. Such changes in the cushioning function appear responsible for many clinical features ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of arch hypoplasia after successful coarctation repair. AU - DeLeon, Maryann M.. AU - DeLeon, Serafin Y.. AU - Quinones, Jose A.. AU - Roughneen, Patrick. AU - Magliato, Kathy E.. AU - Vitullo, Dolores A.. AU - Cetta, Frank. AU - Bell, Timothy J.. AU - Fisher, Elizabeth A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Background. Pronounced arch obstruction can be seen after a well-repaired coarctation, and this probably results from the failure of a somewhat hypoplastic arch to grow or from clamp injury at the time of the initial repair, or from both causes. Because of mediastinal adhesions and minimal collateral circulation, use of extraanatomic bypass grafts appears to be the preferred approach. Methods. Six children or young adults presented with arch obstruction over a 3-year period. Their mean age was 13.5 ± 4 years, and the mean interval from the time of the initial repair was 10 ± 4 years. The mean age of the patients at the time of the initial repair was 3.2 ± 5 years. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of surgical, stent, and balloon angioplasty treatment of native coarctation of the aorta. T2 - An observational study by the CCISC (Congenital cardiovascular interventional study consortium). AU - Forbes, Thomas J.. AU - Kim, Dennis W.. AU - Du, Wei. AU - Turner, Daniel R.. AU - Holzer, Ralf. AU - Amin, Zahid. AU - Hijazi, Ziyad. AU - Ghasemi, Abdolrahim. AU - Rome, Jonathan J.. AU - Nykanen, David. AU - Zahn, Evan. AU - Cowley, Collin. AU - Hoyer, Mark. AU - Waight, David. AU - Gruenstein, Daniel. AU - Javois, Alex. AU - Foerster, Susan. AU - Kreutzer, Jacqueline. AU - Sullivan, Nancy. AU - Khan, Asra. AU - Owada, Carl. AU - Hagler, Donald. AU - Lim, Scott. AU - Canter, Joshua. AU - Zellers, Thomas. PY - 2011/12/13. Y1 - 2011/12/13. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of surgical, stent, and balloon angioplasty (BA) treatment of native coarctation acutely and at follow-up. Background: Controversy surrounds the optimal ...
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Arterial hypertension remains a common problem after coarctation repair, and is a major concern in the long-term outcome of these patients. The pathophysiology of hypertension after successful surgical treatment of aortic coarctation, and in the absence of re-coarctation is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that coarctation of the aorta could represent a primary or secondary systemic vasculopathy rather than an isolated local disease of the aortic isthmus. These changes are thought to be involved in the development of hypertension in the absence of re-coarctation as well as premature cardiovascular events.. A number of observational studies in patients after coarctation repair have proposed endothelial dysfunction as measured by FMD, or a decreased reactivity to nitric oxide of the arterial wall as a key player in this respect.3 ,19-22 Impairment of FMD in these patients has been described with20 and without evidence of increased blood pressures.3 This has lead to the hypothesis ...
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts. The word "coarctation" means narrowing. Coarctations are most common in the aortic arch. The arch may be small in babies with coarctations. Other heart defects may also occur when coarctation is present, typically occurring on the left side of the heart. When a patient has a coarctation, the left ventricle has to work harder. Since the aorta is narrowed, the left ventricle must generate a much higher pressure than normal in order to force enough blood through the aorta to deliver blood to the lower part of the body. If the narrowing is severe enough, the left ventricle may not be strong enough to push blood through the coarctation, thus resulting in lack of blood to the lower half of the body. Physiologically its complete form is manifested as interrupted aortic arch.[citation ...
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Pseudocoarctation is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by aorta elongation and kinking, without significant obstruction. We report the case of an elderly patient with history of congestive heart failure (CHF) and aortic regurgitation (AR) who was referred for progressive exertional dyspnoea. After multimodal imaging evaluation, aortic coarctation with significant trans-stenosis gradient but mild luminal narrowing was diagnosed; this borderline patient was not addressed to repair, according to ESC guidelines and in spite of AHA ones. He rather met the criteria for pseudocoarctation diagnosis. An integration of functional and anatomical data is essential for a reliable diagnostic process in similar cases.
The long-term outlook for children who have had their coarctation repaired, either with surgery or angioplasty, is excellent. Children who have successful repair of coarctation usually can live full and productive lives. Women usually can become pregnant safely. However, medical problems can occur after repair.. Recoarctation. Recoarctation is the redevelopment of a narrowing in the aorta. This problem occurs more commonly in children who have had their coarctation repaired during the first year of life. Recoarctation occurs in approximately 10% to 20% of children who have had their repair in infancy, and in less than 3% of children who have had their repair after 3 years of age. Treatment of recoarctation of the aorta usually is with a balloon angioplasty.. High blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the most common medical problems seen in patients after successful repair of coarctation. Approximately 60% of people who have had their coarctation repaired will require medication to treat ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coarctation of the aorta. T2 - Lifelong surveillance is mandatory following surgical repair. AU - Brown, Morgan L.. AU - Burkhart, Harold M.. AU - Connolly, Heidi M.. AU - Dearani, Joseph A.. AU - Cetta, Frank. AU - Li, Zhuo. AU - Oliver, William C.. AU - Warnes, Carole A.. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V. PY - 2013/9/10. Y1 - 2013/9/10. N2 - Objectives The objective of our study was to review the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing surgical repair of aortic coarctation. Background Surgical repair of aortic coarctation has been performed at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, for over 60 years. Methods Between 1946 and 2005, 819 patients with isolated coarctation of the aorta underwent primary operative repair. Medical records were reviewed and questionnaires mailed to the patients. Results Mean age at repair was 17.2 ± 13.6 years. The majority (83%) had pre-operative hypertension. Operations included simple and extended end-to-end anastomosis (n = 632), patch angioplasty (n = ...
Children beyond infancy are usually asymptomatic and are most often diagnosed because of a murmur or hypertension on a routine examination[1]. Delayed or absent femoral pulses and an arm/leg systolic blood pressure difference of 20 mm Hg or more in favor of the arms may be considered as evidence for aortic coarctation[3].. The coarctation can be demonstrated on suprasternal notch two-dimensional echocardiographic views along with increased Doppler flow velocity across the coarctation site[1]. Cardiac catheterization reveals significant systolic pressure gradient (, 20 mm Hg) across the coarctation and angiography demonstrates the degree and type of aortic narrowing[3].. Surgical relief of coarctation may be achieved by resection and end-to-end anastomosis or by subclavian flap or prosthetic path angioplasty[1]. Elective repair of isolated aortic coarctation is nowadays indicated at 3-6 months of life or at the time of diagnosis[2]. Complications, such as recoarctation or secondary hypertension, ...
To the Editor:. Using percutaneous catheter techniques and endovascular grafts, Ince et al1 reported successful treatment of aneurysms occurring after previous repair of aortic coarctation with no mortality and minimal morbidity in 6 patients. They contrasted these results with those reported for similar patients with open surgical treatment, in whom the mortality rates ranged between 14% and 23.5%. The 3 references reporting these outcomes were published between 1989 and 1996.. Any comparison of these 2 methods of treatment for recurrent aneurysm after coarctation repair should include contemporary reports that use modern surgical techniques. Two recent studies using the technique of full cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest in 9 patients with complications following surgical repair of aortic coarctation (including 7 patients with aneurysms or pseudoaneurysms) reported no early deaths and few major complications.2,3. Although minimally invasive endovascular techniques offer important ...
The patient was a 19 year-old woman with the diagnosis of resistant hypertension, although she was under treatment of three classes of anti-hypertensive drugs (beta blocker, angiotensin receptor blocker, diuretic) for more than one year. In physical examination there was only a significant difference between the systolic blood pressure of upper and lower extremities (200 vs. 120 mmHg), without any other remarkable finding. Three different imaging modalities (echocardiography (Figure 1), CT angiography (Figure 2), conventional aortography (Figure 3) confirmed the aortic coarctation at 30 mm after left subclavian artery origin, with the 3.5-4 mm diameter of the narrowest segment. She underwent implantation of a self-expanding aortic stent and therefore the systolic pressure gradient decreased from 90 to 15 mmHg. After three months, her blood pressure was stable on 110/80 mmHg, while she received only metoprolol 25 mg twice daily and follow-up echocardiography showed 15-20 mmHg pressure gradient through
Background. Dacron patch aortoplasty repair of coaretation of the aorta carries an inherent risk of aneurysm development. Sudden death from aortic rupture prompted discontinuing this operation and evaluating 39 patients (16 girls; mean age 6.3 years, range 10 days to 14.5 years) undergoing repair between January 1976 and October 1987. The aorta ruptured in 10 patients; 6 died at a mean interval of 8.1 years (range 0.75 to 12.4) after repair. All 33 survivors were interviewed and examined. ...
Peak ascending and descending aortic blood flow velocities were measured using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound velocimetry in 30 children with coarctation or recoarctation of the aorta and in 13 control subjects. The results were compared with the arm to leg systolic blood pressure difference. The peak flow velocities in the descending aorta were significantly higher in the patients than in the control subjects and there was a close correlation with the systolic blood pressure gradient. Since there was no overlap of flow velocities between the patients and the control subjects the Doppler technique enables coarctation confidently to be excluded as well as demonstrating its presence and severity. The method is simple, rapid, independent of the condition of the aortic valve, and is applicable to neonates in whom the diagnosis of coarctation may otherwise be difficult. In older children it is useful for detecting recoarctation and following its progress, particularly in patients in whom a ...
Surgical strategy and approach are important in patients with aortic coarctation associated with intracardiac anomalies. In this study, surgical technique, indications and results of the single stage repair of aortic coarctation and intracardiac defects via median sternotomy were discussed. Between January 1987 and August 2002, 158 patients with aortic coarctation or interrupted aortic arch (IAA) underwent surgery. In 17 of them who had associated intracardiac anomalies, single stage approach via median sternotomy were performed. Their ages ranged from 1 month to 13 years (mean 2.2 3.3 years). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and aortic stenosis were the most common associated lesions. Aortic coarctation was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass initially and then intracardiac repair was performed. A short period of total circulatory arrest was necessary in two patients with IAA and one patient with extensive arcus hypoplasia. Among the patients who underwent single stage repair of aortic ...
Hypoplastic infrarenal aorta or infrarenal aortic coarctation is an uncommon vascular pathology characterized with diffuse stenosis in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. It is a variant of atherosclerotic occlusive diseases. The exact incidence and etio
To assess the effects on the biosynthesis of collagen types I and III associated with an acute increase in blood pressure, we established a mid-thoracic aortic coarctation in the rabbit and studied gene expression and protein accumulation of these collagen types proximal to the stenosis 1, 3 and 7...
Learn more about Aortic Coarctation -- Adult at West Florida Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Aortic Coarctation -- Adult at West Florida Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Aortic Coarctation -- Adult at JFK Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Aortic Coarctation -- Adult at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Aortic Coarctation -- Adult at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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In this report 5 patients between the ages of 5-14 years admitted to the Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hacettepe University, and diagnosed as having pseudocoarctation of the aorta arc presented. The clinical and angiographic findings of this rare abnormality of childhood are discussed, the importance of differential diagnosis of this entity from coarctation of the aorta is emphasized, and the literature reviewed. © 1990, International Heart Journal Association. All rights reserved ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of treatment modality on vascular function in coarctation of the aorta. T2 - The LOVE-COARCT study. AU - LOVE-COARCT Study. AU - Martins, José D.. AU - Zachariah, Justin. AU - Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet. AU - Truong, Uyen. AU - Morris, Shaine A.. AU - Kutty, Shelby. AU - de Ferranti, Sarah D.. AU - Guarino, Maria. AU - Thomas, Boban. AU - Oliveira, Diana. AU - Marinho, António. AU - António, Marta. AU - Gauvreau, Kimberlee. AU - Jalles, Nuno. AU - Geva, Tal. AU - Carmo, Miguel M.. AU - Prakash, Ashwin. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background-Optimally treated patients with coarctation of the aorta remain at risk for late vascular dysfunction. The effect of treatment modality on vascular function is unknown. The LOVE-COARCT (Long-term Outcomes and Vascular Evaluation After Successful Coarctation of the Aorta Treatment) study was done to compare vascular function in patients with coarctation of the aorta treated with surgery, balloon dilation (BD), or stent ...
Looking for Coarctation of aorta? Find out information about Coarctation of aorta. A compression of the wall of a vessel, narrowing the lumen and reducing the volume . A stricture or occlusion resulting from an outside force deforming a vessel Explanation of Coarctation of aorta
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014 Jun 1;83(7):1124-30. doi: 10.1002/ccd.25318. Epub 2014 Jan 6. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a very rare anomaly characterized by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum without a pressure gradient across the lesion. Pathology It is thought to be of congeni...
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital abnormality producing obstruction to blood flow through the aorta. Coarctation can occur in isolation, in association with bicuspid aortic valve or with major cardiac malformations. CoA accounts for 5-8% of the 8/1000 (4-6/10,000) children born with congenital heart disease. Most CoA is newly diagnosed in childhood; , 25% recognized beyond 10 yrs.. CoA is mostly repaired in childhood by surgery or by balloon catheter dilation. Recurrence rates range from 5-20%. Recurrence is often not recognized until adolescence. Balloon expandable stents have become the predominant therapy in the USA and Europe for CoA treatment in this age group. There are no FDA approved stents for this use. Biliary stents are currently being used off label. Enrollment into a trial of bare metal Cheatham Platinum (CP) Stents, designed for use in CoA, is completed. The Coarctation of the Aorta Stent Trial (COAST) aims to confirm safety and efficacy of CP Stent for native and ...
Coarctation of the aorta: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on coarctation of the aorta at PatientsLikeMe. 13 patients with coarctation of the aorta experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia.
Coarctation of the aorta is a common heart defect present at birth.. With this defect, a portion of the large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aorta) is abnormally narrowed or pinched. Coarctation of the aorta makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the body. Over time, this can lead to high blood pressure, heart failure, or other complications.. This condition is usually detected in newborns during normal blood pressure checks and by listening to the heart. Further tests, such as echocardiography, may be done to confirm the diagnosis.. Coarctation of the aorta requires repair by surgery or heart catheterization.. ...
Causes of Coarctation of aorta dominant including triggers, hidden medical causes of Coarctation of aorta dominant, risk factors, and what causes Coarctation of aorta dominant.
Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital cardiovascular defect characterized by upper-body hypertension resulting from constriction of the aorta. Constrictions vary in degree; they may occur at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation.
The long-term outlook for children who have had their coarctation repaired, either with surgery or angioplasty, is excellent. Children who have successful repair of coarctation usually can live full and productive lives. Women usually can become pregnant safely. However, medical problems can occur after repair.. Recoarctation. Recoarctation is the redevelopment of a narrowing in the aorta. This problem occurs more commonly in children who have had their coarctation repaired during the first year of life. Recoarctation occurs in approximately 10% to 20% of children who have had their repair in infancy, and in less than 3% of children who have had their repair after 3 years of age. Treatment of recoarctation of the aorta usually is with a balloon angioplasty.. High blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the most common medical problems seen in patients after successful repair of coarctation. Approximately 60% of people who have had their coarctation repaired will require medication to treat ...
Evidence-based recommendations on balloon angioplasty with or without stenting for coarctation (narrowing) or recoarctation of the aorta
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) accounts for 8%-11% of congenital heart defects, affecting tens of thousands of patients annually in the western world. Surgical or catheter-based treatments seek to alleviate the blood pressure gradient through the coarctation in order to reduce the workload on the heart. The pressure gradient is dependent on the anatomic severity of the coarctation: the greater the % of area reduction, the larger the pressure gradient. Furthermore, the pressure gradient is also greatly dependent on the flow rate and therefore the physiologic state of the patient: a small pressure gradient at rest can increase several-fold even in mild exercise conditions. The clinician can easily measure the pressure gradient through the coarctation under resting conditions, either by using a catheter-driven pressure transducer or a sphygmometer. However, measuring the pressure gradient under exercise conditions is more challenging since these conditions are not easy to replicate in the clinic. ...
To evaluate ventricular performance and myocardial contractility after surgical correction of congenital coarctation of the aorta, we studied 25 patients (16 men and 9 women, mean age 26.1 years [range 19 to 34]), an average of 10.6 years (range 2 to 25) after repair. Radionuclide ventriculography at rest and exercise and digitized, quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography were performed. Data from derived, high resolution time-activity curves by radionuclide ventriculography, combined with noninvasive hemodynamic/ven-tricular volume data, were compared with values in an age- and sex-matched normal population.. Despite essentially identical baseline and exercise hemodynamics, postoperative coarctation subjects demonstrated enhanced ventricular contraction, as determined by the peak ejection rate at rest (−3.79 versus −3.20 stroke volume/s, p , 0.01) and exercise (−3.00 versus −2.90 stroke volume/s, p = NS), and overall ejection fraction at rest (56.4 versus 48.0%, p , 0.01) and ...
OBJECTIVE: The placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt in patients suffering from pulmonary coarctation can result in the aggravation of uneven pulmonary blood flow. This may subsequently obviate the possibility of future performance of the Fontan procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate mid-term results in patients with pulmonary coarctation who had undergone the placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, coupled with a pulmonary artery angioplasty. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 13 patients who had undergone the placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, coupled with concomitant pulmonary angioplasty, between September 1998 and August 2002. All patients received follow-up angiographic evaluations. RESULTS: On the ipsilateral side of the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, we observed a significant increase in the pulmonary artery index during a mean follow-up period of 11+/-5 months (preoperative 82+/-37 mm2/m2, follow-up 129+/-57, p=0.03). On the ...
We describe a case of aortic coarctation at the level of the infrarenal abdominal aorta which is encountered in less than six individuals in one million. In contrast to aortic narrowing above or including the renal arteries, this seems to be a relatively benign anomaly without systemic hypertension or impaired renal function. For the first time in this type of anomaly, contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA) on a multi-receiver channel MR system, with an 8-channel phased array coil and parallel imaging was used. Ce-MRA displayed a tortuous, narrowed aortic segment that was found to be associated with mesenteric artery stenosis and compression of the orthotopic left renal vein, also known as the nutcracker phenomenon. All major aortic branches could be depicted using 3D surface-shaded displays and subvolume maximum intensity projections (MIPs). Collateral vessels of the abdominal wall were identified using whole-volume MIPs. Since the majority of aortic malformations are diagnosed at a younger age, and
It has been estimated that 20 -30% of repaired aortic coarctation (CoA) patients develop hypertension, with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) with an incomple......
Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of a portion of the aorta, the major artery that leads out of the heart to the body. This narrowing usually occurs at ...
Aortic coarctation can be difficult to identify on chest x-ray and routine review of aortic outline, as well as the ribs, is necessary if one is to make the diagnosis.
The aim of this study was to explore the clinical impact of transverse aortic arch hypoplasia (TAH) after stent implementation for isthmal coarctation of the aorta (CoA). From a retrospective chart...
In six inbred dogs with neonatally-induced coarctation hypertension, and in seven littermate controls, acute responses of proximal arterial pressure and plasma renin activity (PRA) to converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI; SQ 20,881, 0.5 mg/kg i.v.) were serially examined. Studies were performed at 2, 6, and 12 months post-aortic banding under sodium-replete and -deplete conditions. Both in normotensive controls and in coarcted dogs, depressor responses (pre- minus post-CEI values) were positively correlated, not only with initial (pre-CEI) PRA, but also independently with initial blood pressure. Although absolute depressor responses in coarcted dogs exceeded those of the control group, there were no significant group differences when, by analysis of covariance, depressor responses were adjusted for the physiologic influence of initial pressure. Similarly, depressor responses expressed as a percent of initial pressure were comparable in coarcted and control groups. Initial PRA and PRA response to CEI ...
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