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Absorption and tolerability of aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate used for skin antisepsis prior to catheter insertion in preterm neonates.
PURPOSE To investigate ocular bacterial count before and after antisepsis with aqueous chlorhexidine (AC) or povidone-iodine (PI) and to assess discomfort with each agent. METHODS Bacterial swabs were taken from participants eyes before and after antisepsis. These underwent microscopy, culture, and sensitivity testing. Aqueous chlorhexidine drops were administered to left eyes and PI to right eyes. Participants rated their pain (scale 0-10) for each eye but were blinded to the type of drop. RESULTS There were 20 participants (17 women, 3 men), and the mean age was 43 years. Pain scores were significantly higher in right (PI) than in left (AC) eyes (mean 7 vs. mean 2, P | 0.001). No abnormalities were detected on specimen microscopy and gram staining. Seven preantisepsis swabs (three left and four right) grew bacteria in culture. Two postantisepsis swabs grew bacteria in primary culture plate (1 after AC and 1 after PI). For an additional one post-PI swab, bacteria were detected in enrichment broth
Chlorhexidine has attracted increasing attention for its role in skin antisepsis in recent years. It was tested in several prominent clinical trials and subsequently recommended in important guidelines for blood culture collection, vascular catheter
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption. AU - Gessner, Stephan. AU - Below, Elke. AU - Diedrich, Stephan. AU - Wegner, Christian. AU - Gessner, Wiebke. AU - Kohlmann, Thomas. AU - Heidecke, Claus Dieter. AU - Bockholdt, Britta. AU - Kramer, Axel. AU - Assadian, Ojan. AU - Below, Harald. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Background During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Methods We investigated the kinetics of HCWs urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. Results The median ...
Intravenous literature: Nuntnarumit, P. and Sangsuksawang, N. (2013) A Randomized Controlled Trial of 1% Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate Compared with 10% Povidone-Iodine for Topical Antiseptic in Neonates: Effects on Blood Culture Contamination Rates. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 34(4), p.430-432. Abstract:. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in neonates with birth weight greater than or equal to 1,500 g that compared 1% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) as a topical antiseptic. We found 1% CHG to be more effective than 1% PI in reducing blood culture contamination rates, and no contact dermatitis was observed.. ...
BACKGROUND: A number of evidence-based interventions have been proposed to reduce post-cesarean delivery wound complications. Examples of such interventions include appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotics, appropriate choice of skin antisepsis, closure of the subcutaneous layer if subcutaneous depth is ≥2 cm, and subcuticular skin closure with suture rather than staples. However, the collective impact of these measures is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the impact of a group of evidence-based surgical measures (prophylactic antibiotics administered before skin incision, chlorhexidine-alcohol for skin antisepsis, closure of subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular skin closure with suture) on wound complications after cesarean delivery and to estimate residual risk factors for wound complications ...
For external use only. Keep out of reach and sight of children. Do not use on premature or low birth weight infants or infants less than 2 months of age or receiving phototherapy. Do not use on patients with known allergies to chlorhexidine gluconate or any other ingredients in the product. Do not use immediately prior to any invasive techniques, such as venepuncture, lumbar puncture or surgery. Do not use on open skin wounds or broken skin. When using this product, keep out of eyes, ears, and mouth. May cause serious or permanent injury if chlorhexidine is permitted to enter and remain. If contact occurs, rinse with water right away. Do not use if irritation, sensitization, or allergic reaction occurs. Do not store above 25oC. Do not refrigerate or freeze. Store flat. Dispose of as solid waste. Do not flush pads in toilet. For posology, method of administration and side effects refer to SPC.. Supply Classifications: GSL. Date: September 2015. ...
Pringle made a particular study of the treatment of fractures, where he was at an advantage because X-rays had been introduced very early into clinical practice in Glasgow Royal Infirmary, an innovation that allowed Pringle to gain wide personal experience of fractures and their management. His colleague John Macintyre (1857-1928) had established the worlds first x-ray service for patients in Glasgow Royal Infirmary in March 1896.[7] This allowed James Hogarth Pringle an early, perhaps unique experience in fracture diagnosis and management using x-rays, and formed the basis for his book on fractures and their treatment.[8] He had the added advantage of working in the hospital where Joseph Lister had first introduced antisepsis and would surely have been aware of his own fathers work on antisepsis in introducing Listerian antisepsis into Australia. He was, like Sir William Macewen, an early exponent of aseptic technique in surgery. Both of these factors undoubtedly contributed to his expertise ...
Skin preparation solutions are used to clean the skin of the patient before surgery to decrease the rate of infection. This is particularly important for hip replacement to reduce the risk of prosthetic joint infection. The use of a mark on the skin for site identification has become the standard of care to decrease wrong site surgery. The Joint Commission has mandated site identification as part of the surgical time-out. This procedure is also mandated by hospital policy.. Preliminary work on cadaveric skin shows that the type of skin preparation can erase the mark used for surgical site identification. Erasure of the mark presents the surgeon with difficulty in performing the site identification. Any error or lack of visualization of the site marking could lead to catastrophic wrong site surgery.. The investigators hypothesis is that chlorhexidine based skin preparation solutions erase site marking in comparison to iodine based skin preparation solutions. The investigators intend to ...
Bichloride of Mercury is used for the disinfection of the hands and skin and for the irrigation of wounds. Biniodid of mercury is extensively employed and in the same strengths as the bichloride. It is, however, a more powerful germicide, while being less irritative, and neither forms a mercuric albuminate nor tarnishes metal instruments.. Carbolic Acid. This acid is derived from coal tar, and although known as early as 1834 as the first antiseptic recommended and used by Lister, is not so popular since the discovery that bichloride of mercury possesses more germicidal action.. Gangrene of the skin and subjacent tissues has often been traced to the long continued use of dilute solutions of carbolic acid or of ointments containing small quantities of the drug. Gangrene of the fingers and toes is by no means infrequent as a consequence of its use. Another condition frequently seen is the systemic poisoning through absorption. One of the first symptoms noticed from such absorption is irritation of ...
Mimoz O, Lucet JC, Kerforne T, Pascal J, Souweine B, Goudet V, Mercat A, Bouadma L, Lasocki S, Alfandari S, Friggeri A, Wallet F, Allou N, Ruckly S, Balayn D, Lepape A, Timsit JF, CLEAN trial investigators (2015) Skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine-alcohol versus povidone iodine-alcohol, with and without skin scrubbing, for prevention of intravascular-catheter-related infection (CLEAN): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, two-by-two factorial trial. Lancet 386:2069- ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling) on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam) and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters. RESULTS: A total of 409 (42%) patients were included in mixing and 560 (58%) in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not ...
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Studies have shown that even with standard hand-scrubbing procedures, surgical-site infections with bacteria from operating room personnel occur all too often. These infections result in higher costs and morbidity. Parienti and colleagues compared two preoperative-antisepsis protocols to determine their effects on surgical-site infection rates.. The study lasted for 16 months and included surgical services in six hospitals in France (three teaching, three nonteaching). Surgical teams were randomized to two antisepsis protocols. The traditional hand-scrub consisted of a five-minute scrub with 4 percent povidone iodine or 4 percent chlorhexidine gluconate. The hand-rub protocol consisted of a one-minute wash with nonantiseptic soap followed by a five-minute rub with at least 5 mL of a 75 percent aqueous alcohol solution. Surgical-site infections were diagnosed by a surgeon, an infectious-disease specialist, or a hygiene specialist. Surgeries that were considered contaminated or dirty and those ...
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Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents frequently used terms Sterilization: the process by which all living cells, viable spores, virus, and viroids are either destroyed or removed from an object or habitat. Disinfection: the killing, inhibition, or removal of microorganisms that may cause disease. Sanitization: the microbial population is reduced to levels that are considered safe by public health standards. Antisepsis: the prevention of infection or sepsis -cide: kill; -static: stop germicide: kill pathogens but not necessarily endospores. Bactericide; fungicide; algicide; viricide; bacteriostatic; fungistatic
The opportunity for medical practices to progress was great. The treating of antisepsis, using anaesthesia, research in bacteriology and testing the newly developed X-ray technology were among the few progressions that took place. The ground was uncontaminated and was nearly bacteria-free. Bacteriological examinations proved that all pyogenic organisms - which cause pus and thereby infections - were only found close to dwellings and not found in the veld. This reduced wound infections and coupled with the very little rain and hot sun helped the wounded soldiers to heal. However, more than half of the British casualties in the Boer War were not by enemy action, but rather caused by illness, especially typhoid fever.. ...
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Indeed, the history of cancer is also the history of medicine. As other human diseases were conquered by vaccination (18th century), antisepsis (19th century), and modern pharmaceuticals (20th century), cancer remained resistant to the primitive onslaughts of early medicine. The ancients knew just enough about cancer to pronounce it incurable, and only recently have we discovered enough about cancer biology to mount a direct attack against it.. [...]. Dr. Mukherjee has written a remarkable book about a remarkable disease. One may quibble with the philosophical direction that the book takes, but the magnitude of his narrative achievement is undeniable. He has managed to capture the excitement of scientific discovery alongside the clash of medical egos, tracking the progress of human understanding of this most difficult of diseases. At times, the chronological narrative bogs down a bit in the mass of details and clash of competing models. But for the most part, the author produces some of the ...
... is a comprehensive and high-tech enterprise special in chemical synthetic drug, pharmaceutical intermediates, Chemical raw materials, chemical antisepsis, flavor & essence, and food additive, integrating R&D, manufacturing, operating and marketing into an organic whole. The company is located in Xiaogan city, nearby national highways of No.107, marched with Wuhan city ...
Seiring dengan fruktosa dan glukosa, madu juga mengandung banyak asam amino, vitamin, mineral dan enzim. Madu memiliki lebih banyak antioksidan alami (zat yang mengurangi efek negatif radikal bebas) daripada hampir semua sumber botanikal / alami lainnya.. Madu Subur Max, Herbal Penyubur Reaksi Cepat memiliki banyak manfaat kesehatan, sering digunakan secara oral untuk hal-hal seperti pilek dan sakit tenggorokan, dan topikal untuk berbagai kondisi kulit dan penyembuhan luka. Madu telah ditemukan memiliki sifat antibakteri dan anti-inflamasi serta menjadi humektan yang manjur, yang berarti ia mempertahankan kelembaban pada kulit.. Sepanjang sejarah, madu telah digunakan untuk tujuan penyembuhannya. Orang Mesir kuno, Cina, Yunani dan Romawi menggunakan madu Bangga Menggunakan Jam Tangan Original untuk penyembuhan luka dan gangguan perut. Hippocrates ilmuwan Yunani besar secara khusus merekomendasikan madu untuk penyembuhan luka, batuk dan sakit tenggorokan, penyakit mata, antisepsis topikal.. Dulu ...
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Antiseptic skin preparation products can be contaminated by microbes, a problem the FDA will address at an upcoming public hearing.
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Systematic Review and Cost Analysis Comparing Use of chlorhexidine with Use of Iodine for Preoperative Skin Antisepsis to Prevent Surgical Site Infection - Volume 31 Issue 12 - Ingi Lee, Rajender K. Agarwal, Bruce Y. Lee, Neil O. Fishman, Craig A. Umscheid
Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common complications in the post-operative patient, and the second most common health care associated infection overall. It is estimated that there are between 500 thousand and 1.1 million surgical site infections in the United States each year. Given the magnitude of the problem, prevention of surgical site infections is a major goal of peri-operative care. However, skin preparation prior to surgery has not been as rigorously examined. The primary objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of two FDA approved, popular peri-operative skin preparations 2% chlorhexidine gluconate / 70% isopropyl alcohol to Iodine Povacrylex [0.7% available Iodine] / 74% Isopropyl Alcohol in the prevention of superficial surgical site infection. Male and female patients, age 18 years and older undergoing elective colorectal surgical procedures involving a laparotomy will be enrolled. These patients are at high risk of SSI. Eligible patients will be assessed ...
Review of Clinical Trials of Skin Antiseptic Agents Used to Reduce Blood Culture Contamination - Volume 28 Issue 7 - Anurag Malani, Kim Trimble, Vikas Parekh, Carol Chenoweth, Samuel Kaufman, Sanjay Saint
Juleps Glycolic Hand Scrub has the "double exfoliating action of finely milled natural apricot seeds plus glycolic acid". This scrub has a gel like base with a fair amount of apricot seeds in it. Julep suggests using a quarter sized amount of their hand scrub to exfoliate damp hands, but I feel like I need much less than that. This scrub is kinda similar to the St. Ives Apricot Scrub in the that it feels. Juleps scrub is fairly harsh, but not irritating. This scrub really softens the skin and removes any dry bits you may have. Juleps Glycolic Hand Scrub is a nice treat at the end of a work day thats been rough on your hands. This hand scrub is a great companion for Juleps Rock Star Hand Cream. I got curious about using this scrub on my face, since Julep half suggests it, so I tried it a few times and didnt really notice much of an improvement in my skin, but there was a pleasant tingle afterwards to let me know that the glycolic acid was working. Julep warns that glycolic acid can cause ...
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are thin, flexible tubes that are inserted through the skin into a large vein, often in the arm or chest. The tube can then be used to give fluids, medicine and nutrition to chronically and critically ill patients. However, CVCs pose a significant risk of infection by providing a way for…
Merbromins best-known use is as a topical antiseptic to treat minor wounds, burns, and scratches.[4] It is also used in the antisepsis of the umbilical cord[5] and the antisepsis of wounds with inhibited scar formation, such as neuropathic ulcers and diabetic foot sores.[6] When applied on a wound, it stains the skin a distinctive carmine red, which can persist up to two weeks through repeated washings.[citation needed] It is useful on infections of the finger or toe nails because of its permanence and lethality to bacteria.[citation needed]. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1998 classified merbromin as "not Generally Recognized as Safe" due to a lack of recent studies and updated supporting information, not due to evidence of toxicity.[7]. In the United States, its use has been superseded by other agents (e.g., povidone iodine, benzalkonium chloride, chloroxylenol).[citation needed] In Canada, Jean Coutu Group markets a chlorhexidine solution under the "Mercurochrome" ...
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Determining whether a positive blood culture represents contamination at the time of collection or a true bloodstream infection is a common, time-consuming problem for physicians and clinical microbiologists. Contamination rates for routine blood cultures are estimated to range from 0.6% to more than 6% of all cultures, potentially resulting in unnecessary hospital admissions, prolonged length of stay, increased laboratory costs, and inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy (1). False-positive blood cultures may increase laboratory costs by about 20% and are associated with a 39% increase in intravenous antibiotic charges (2); 1 university-affiliated hospital estimated the annualized cost of 6% contaminated blood cultures to be $1.4 to $1.8 million, with an additional 1450 to 2200 extra hospital days per year (3). Ideally, contamination rates should be less than 3% (4 ...
Background: The New Zealand (NZ) SSI Improvement Programme began in 2013 and has prospectively collected data on hip and knee arthroplasties performed in the 20 District Health Board hospitals. The data base was analysed to determine risk factors for surgical site infections (SSI) in hip and knee arthroplasties. Methods: Data captured included information on the patient (sex, age, height, weight and BMI), procedure (antimicrobial prophylaxis and skin antisepsis) and SSI. The CDC NHSN definitions for SSI were used. All patients were followed for 90 days. Only SSI occurring during the initial admission or resulting in readmission were included. Results: ...
Decontamination is a term used to describe a process or treatment that renders a medical device, instrument, or environmental surface safe to handle. Sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis are all forms of decontamination. All infectious materials and all contaminated equipment or apparatus ...
910. Veterinary Immunology. (2-0). Credit 2. Introduction to veterinary immunology; mechanisms of resistance of infectious diseases and tumors; tissue injury caused by the immune system, including hypersensitivity reactions and autoimmunity; immunization theory and practices; immunologic methods for diagnosis of disease. Prerequisite: Enrollment in the first year of professional curriculum.. 911. Veterinary Microbiology. (3-2). Credit 4. Introduction to veterinary microbiology; bacterial, viral, and mycotic agents of veterinary significance; mechanisms of host injury by pathogenic microorganisms; principles of disinfection, antisepsis, and sterilization; classes and mechanisms of mechanisms of action of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral drugs; diagnostic procedures and methods of sample collection. Prerequisite: Enrollment in the first year of professional curriculum.. 913. Infectious Diseases. (2-0). Credit 2. Case-based approach to infectious diseases of animals; includes infectious ...
Control of infection in the surgical intensive care unit demands unfailing attention to three distinct areas: a) The bacteria responsible may be endogenous or exogenous. The effects of the former can be limited by careful surgical techniques and judicious use of antibiotics, of the latter by the practice of asepsis and antisepsis, essentially of scrupulous cleanliness. b) The environment of infection concerns the support of natural barriers to infection (notably the integrity of the skin and the adequate drainage of the pulmonary system), and the sterility and appropriate care and use of the many invasive devices currently available. c) The patients natural defence mechanisms show considerable variation, and those at increased risk can be detected by skin-testing with a number of antigens as well as by recognized clinical features. It is in these patients with anergy and abnormal natural defences that total parenteral nutrition can be of the greatest value.
Here it goes again. Doctors are out of a job because of _____ (fill in the blank with antisepsis, antibiotics, vitamins, lasers, robots, etc). Now, its the Internet.. A recent newspaper article discussed that 60% of Americans and 70-90% of Europeans now seek health information online. Especially impressive is the number of older individuals, or "silver surfers" that find themselves there looking for help. With this powerful informational tool in their hands, the article raised the issue of whether empowered patients will make doctors extinct.. After reading the article, I wrote an Op-Ed piece to the paper, but never saw it published. Just to get it off my chest, I present it here:. Sir, Ms. Bird has absolutely hit the nail on the head when discussing the fact that todays patients are truly educated consumers. In my mens health practice, I routinely see patients who have the latest published paper on their condition tucked under their arms as they sit in front of me at the visit. Kudos to ...
Such was not the case with listerism. Without antisepsis and asepsis, major surgical operations more than likely ended in death rather than just pain. – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 412498-NTU5N
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This article talks about the USFDA ban on 24 Active ingredients which are used in Healthcare settings like OTC antiseptic washes, soaps, rubs & surgical hand scrubs. Manufacturers require to submit a new drug application and must undergo pre-market review.
This paper explores some questions related to the current accepted processes when using laminar flow cabinets and seeks to offer a modern alternative - the aseptic workstation. | Ecolab
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Antiseptics such as chlorhexidine gluconate and triclosan are widely used in healthcare settings for both skin antisepsis and decolonisation of Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 198 methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to both chlorhexidine and triclosan using an agar dilution method. Of these, 10% (19/198) showed a raised MIC to chlorhexidine and 3% (6/198) showed an elevated MIC to triclosan. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of each isolate was predicted using a binary method, and although ST93-MRSA-IV was the most common, ST22-MRSA-IV was shown to have statistically higher chlorhexidine MIC values compared with non ST22-MRSA-IV isolates (z = -8 ...
In a group of 50 randomly selected case-matched patients from 1999, the positive blood cultures were concomitant with fever in 98%, intravenous phlebitis in 44%, and recurrent bacteremia in 20%. Fever disappeared approximately 6 hours after intravenous catheter removal. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed strain homogeneity in patient, water, and alcohol isolates. Contaminated tap water had been used to dilute alcohol for skin antisepsis and for decontamination of the caps of heparin vials. Only sporadic cases directly attributable to breach of protocol were reported after single-use alcohol swabs were substituted ...
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