Two closely related proteins, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα; SHPS-1/CD172) and SIRPβ, have been described in humans. The existence of a third SIRP protein has been suggested by cDNA sequence only. We show that this third SIRP is a separate gene that is expressed as a protein with unique characteristics from both α and β genes and suggest that this gene should be termed SIRPγ. We have expressed the extracellular region of SIRPγ as a soluble protein and have shown that, like SIRPα, it binds CD47, but with a lower affinity (K d , ∼23 μM) compared with SIRPα (K d , ∼2 μM). mAbs specific to SIRPγ show that it was not expressed on myeloid cells, in contrast to SIRPα and -β, being expressed instead on the majority of T cells and a proportion of B cells. The short cytoplasmic tail of SIRPγ does not contain any known signaling motifs, nor does it contain a characteristic lysine, as with SIRPα, that is required for DAP12 interaction. DAP12 coexpression is a requirement for SIRPβ surface
Complete information for SIRPA gene (Protein Coding), Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Neutrophil granulocytes constitute the front line of defense in the innate immune response to invading microorganisms, but can also contribute to development of inflammatory disease and tissue destruction following e.g. myocardial infarction or stroke. During inflammatory activation, neutrophils leave the blood, interact with extracellular matrix proteins, and migrate into tissues in response to chemotactic factors to phagocytose and kill infectious agents by using toxic granule contents and reactive oxygen metabolites. The functional neutrophil response relies on exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules, each containing membrane proteins, which are thereby mobilized to the plasma membrane. Specific programmed cell death (apoptotic) pathways regulate neutrophil homeostasis, where an inflammatory milieu can prolong the life span of neutrophils to several days, whereas non-activated neutrophils are committed to constitutive/spontaneous apoptosis within hours.. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) is ...
Signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) is a myeloid membrane receptor that interacts with the membrane protein CD47, a marker of self. We have solved the structure of the complete extracellular portion of SIRPalpha, comprising three immunoglobulin superfamily domains, by x-ray crystallography to 2.5 A resolution. These data, together with previous data on the N-terminal domain and its ligand CD47 (possessing a single immunoglobulin superfamily domain), show that the CD47-SIRPalpha interaction will span a distance of around 14 nm between interacting cells, comparable with that of an immunological synapse. The N-terminal (V-set) domain mediates binding to CD47, and the two others are found to be constant (C1-set) domains. C1-set domains are restricted to proteins involved in vertebrate antigen recognition: T cell antigen receptors, immunoglobulins, major histocompatibility complex antigens, tapasin, and beta2-microglobulin. The domains of SIRPalpha (domains 2 and 3) are structurally more similar to
CD47 functions as a marker of self on red blood cells (RBCs) by binding to signal regulatory protein alpha on macrophages, preventing phagocytosis of autologous RBCs by splenic red pulp macrophages, and Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)- or complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages in general. RBC senescence involves a series of biochemical changes to plasma membrane proteins or lipids, which may regulate phagocytosis by macrophages. Here, we investigated whether CD47 on experimentally senescent murine RBCs affects their phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro. Clustering of CD47 with antibodies was more pronounced in the plasma membrane of untreated RBCs, compared with that in in vitro oxidized RBCs (Ox-RBCs). Phagocytosis of Ox-RBCs was mediated by scavenger receptors (SRs) distinct from SR-A or CD36 and required serum factors. We found that wild-type (WT) and CD47(-/-) Ox-RBCs were phagocytosed equally well by macrophages in the presence of serum, suggesting that phagocytosis via SRs is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin-associated protein. T2 - A 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins. AU - Brown, Eric. AU - Hooper, Lora. AU - Ho, Thang. AU - Gresham, Hattie. PY - 1990/12/1. Y1 - 1990/12/1. N2 - Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophi1 phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H.D., J.L. Goodwin, P.M. Allen, D.C. Anderson, and E.J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecu1e that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an ...
CD47 is a widely distributed membrane protein that interacts with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an inhibitory receptor on myeloid cells that gives a dont-eat-me signal. Manipulation of the interaction is of considerable interest in the immunotherapy of cancer and in xenotransplantation. The amino-terminal ligand binding domain of SIRPα is highly polymorphic in contrast to the single Ig-like domain of CD47. There is confusion as to whether the polymorphisms will affect ligand binding, but this is an important point for this interaction and other paired receptors being considered as targets for therapy. We show by x-ray crystallography that one human SIRPα allele differing in 13 amino acid residues has a very similar binding site and that several different alleles all bind CD47 with similar affinity as expected because the residues are mostly surface-exposed and distant from the binding site. A peptide from the binding site of CD47 has been reported to mimic the CD47 interaction with SIRPα,
Interaction of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) expressed on the surface of macrophages with its ligand CD47 expressed on target cells negatively regulates phagocytosis of the latter cells by the former. We recently showed that blocking Abs to mouse SIRP enhanced both the Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity of mouse macrophages for Burkitts lymphoma Raji cells opsonized with an Ab to CD20 (rituximab) invitro as well as the inhibitory effect of rituximab on the growth of tumors formed by Raji cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice. However, the effects of blocking Abs to human SIRP in preclinical cancer models have remained unclear given that such Abs have failed to interact with endogenous SIRP expressed on macrophages of immunodeficient mice. With the use of Rag2(c)(-/-)(-/-) mice harboring a transgene for human SIRP under the control of human regulatory elements (hSIRP-DKO mice), we here show that a blocking Ab to human SIRP significantly enhanced the ADCP activity of ...
Signal integration between activating Fc receptors and inhibitory signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) controls macrophage phagocytosis. Here, using dual-color direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, we report that Fcγ receptor I (FcγRI), FcγRII, and SIRPα are not homogeneously distributed at macrophage surfaces but are organized in discrete nanoclusters, with a mean radius of 71 ± 11 nm, 60 ± 6 nm, and 48 ± 3 nm, respectively. Nanoclusters of FcγRI, but not FcγRII, are constitutively associated with nanoclusters of SIRPα, within 62 ± 5 nm, mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Upon Fc receptor activation, Src-family kinase signaling leads to segregation of FcγRI and SIRPα nanoclusters to be 197 ± 3 nm apart. Co-ligation of SIRPα with CD47 abrogates nanocluster segregation. If the balance of signals favors activation, FcγRI nanoclusters reorganize into periodically spaced concentric rings. Thus, a nanometer- and micron-scale reorganization of activating and inhibitory
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The P84 monoclonal antibody reacts with Signal-Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα), also known as CD172a. SIRPα is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Neurons and other tissues of the central nervous system have also been shown to express SIRPα. Its ligand, CD47 is expressed by a wide variety of cells. SIRPα and CD47 regulate dendritic cell-mediated T cell activation, neutrophil migration, and phagocytosis. SIRPα diffuses laterally on the macrophage membrane and accumulates at a phagocytic synapse to bind CD47 which inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Anti-SIRPα antibodies that block the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 have been shown to suppress tumor formation in mice. The P84 antibody has been shown to have neutralizing activity in vivo and in vitro ...
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Clone B4B6 recognizes the human CD172b antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as signal-regulatory protein beta (SIRPβ). SIRPs are a family of transmembrane receptor-like signaling proteins that are abundantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. In addition, SIRPs are expressed in neuronal cells and certain types of cancer cells. SIRPs can be divided into two subfamilies, CD172a and CD172b, based on the putative structures of their C-terminal intracellular domains which distinguish them as either activating (CD172b) or inhibitory (CD172a) isoforms. CD172b is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. - USA
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Pferd, Human and more. 68 verschiedene SIRPG Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Targeting the CD47-signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach to enhance anti-cancer immunity by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike CD47, which is expressed ubiquitously, SIRPα expression is mainly restricted to myeloid cells and neurons. Therefore, compared to CD47-targeted therapies, targeting SIRPα may result in differential safety and efficacy profiles, potentially enabling lower effective doses and improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The development of effective SIRPα antagonists is restricted by polymorphisms within the CD47-binding domain of SIRPα, necessitating pan-allele reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies for therapeutic intervention in diverse patient populations. We immunized wild-type and human antibody transgenic chickens with a multi-allele and multi-species SIRPα regimen in order to discover pan-allelic and pan-mammalian reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies suitable for clinical translation. A total of ...
CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CD47 gene. CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα).
CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells.
CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; FITC CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
SIRPB1 - SIRPB1 (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein beta 1 (SIRPB1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
SIRPG - SIRPG (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein gamma (SIRPG), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
SIRP alpha小鼠多克隆抗体(ab77061)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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High autophagic activity in podocytes, terminally differentiated cells that serve as main components of the kidney filtration barrier, is essential for podocyte survival under various challenges. How podocytes maintain such a high level of autophagy, however, remains unclear. Here we report that signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) plays a key role in promoting podocyte autophagy. Unlike other glomerular cells, podocytes strongly expressed SIRPα, which was, however, downregulated in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mice with experimental nephropathy. Podocyte SIRPα levels were inversely correlated with the severity of podocyte injury and proteinuria but positively with autophagy. Compared with WT littermates, Sirpa-deficient mice displayed greater age-related podocyte injury and proteinuria and developed more rapid and severe renal injury in various models of experimental nephropathy. Mechanistically, podocyte SIRPα strongly reduced Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exosome-SIRPα, a CD47 blockade increases cancer cell phagocytosis. AU - Koh, Eunee. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Nam, Gi Hoon. AU - Hong, Yeonsun. AU - Cho, Eunji. AU - Yang, Yoosoo. AU - Kim, In-San. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - CD47, a "dont eat me" signal, is over-expressed on the surface of most tumors that interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on phagocytic cells. By engaging SIRPα, CD47 limits the ability of macrophages to engulf tumor cells, which acts as a major phagocytic barrier. In this study, we developed an exosome-based immune checkpoint blockade that antagonizes the interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. These exosomes harboring SIRPα variants (SIRPα-exosomes) were sufficient to induce remarkably augmented tumor phagocytosis, lead to prime effective anti-tumor T cell response. Given that clustering of native CD47 provides a high binding avidity to ligate dimerized SIRPα on macrophage, nature-derived exosomes could be appreciable platform to ...
Hornet trap | Radiopaque elastomeric horseshoe | Cooler and tackle box | Apparatus for breeding fly larvae | Non-human animals having a humanized signal-regulatory protein gene |
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) SHP-1 and SHP-2 are critical regulators in the intracellular signaling pathways that result in cell responses such as mitosis, differentiation, migration, survival, transformation or death. SHP-2 is a signal transducer for several receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine receptors. A novel SHP-2 associated glycoprotein was recently cloned from human, rat, mouse and cattle by several labs and was designated SIRPalpha, SHPS-1, MyD-1, BIT and p84. SIRPalpha is a new gene family containing at least fifteen members. SIRPalpha is a substrate of many activated tyrosine kinases such as insulin receptor, EGFR, PDGFR and src, and a specific docking protein for SHP-2. SIRPalpha has regulatory effects on cellular responses induced by serum, growth factors, insulin, oncogenes, growth hormones and cell adhesion and plays a general role in different physiological and pathological processes.. ...
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Siinkohal on kohane kritiseerida ka valitsevat arvamust, nagu oleks kaalu langetamine imelihtne - tuleb vaid süüa vähem ja sportida rohkem. Paraku me kõik teame, et sellel on vaid lühiajaline mõju. Inimkeha on väga kohanemisvõimeline. Kui toidust saadav energiakogus väheneb, siis hakkab keha vastusena vähendama ka kulutatavat energiat - ainevahetuse baastase langeb. Seda on teatud tegelikult juba pea sada aastat14 ja see muudab meie praeguse obsessiivse kalorilugemismaania veelgi veidramaks. Dieeditav inimene tunneb ennast peagi apaatse ja väsinuna, tal on külm ja pidevalt vaevab näljatunne. Tõsi, kaal on vähenenud, aga peagi jõutakse nn platooni, mis tähendab seda, et kulutatav ja tarbitav energiakogus on tasakaalus.. Kui masenduses dieeditaja siis näljatunde leevendamiseks pisut rohkem sööma hakkab, hakkavad ka kilod tagasi tulema, sest ainevahetus on endiselt kokkuhoiurežiimil. Kõige kurvem on, et see juhtub ka siis, kui tarbitav energiakogus on ikkagi palju väiksem kui ...
During the development of multicellular organisms, integrins act through integrin-associated molecules to regulate essential aspects of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cell polarity and cell survival. On p. 2913, Reinhard Fässler and co-authors report that the integrin-associated protein PINCH1 regulates all four of these processes during the peri-implantation stage of mouse development. PINCH1 interacts with integrin cytoplasmic tails at focal adhesions via integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The authors show that, like β1-integrin- and Ilk-deficient mice, mouse embryos carrying a disrupted PINCH1 gene arrest at the peri-implantation stage. To pinpoint this phenotype, the authors examined embryoid bodies (EBs), an experimental model for this stage of development. Although PINCH1-null EBs show many of the same defects as β1-integrin- and Ilk-mutant EBs (including abnormal epiblast polarity and detachment of cells from matrix), they also exhibit abnormal cell-cell adhesion and increased ...
Sirpa Leppänens publications https://www.jyu.fi/hytk/fi/laitokset/kivi/tutkimus/hankkeet/paattyneet-tutkimushankkeet/varieng/en/personnel/leppanen/List_of_publications_Leppnen4_2013.doc/view https://www.jyu.fi/hytk/@@site-logo/logo.png ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) can be sub-divided into various subsets that play specialized roles in priming of adaptive immune responses. Atherosclerosis is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and DCs can be found in non-inflamed and diseased arteries. We here performed a systematic analyses of DCs subsets during atherogenesis. Our data indicate that distinct DC subsets can be localized in the vessel wall. In C57BL/6 and low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice, CD11c+ MHCII+ DCs could be discriminated into CD103− CD11b+F4/80+, CD11b+F4/80− and CD11b−F4/80− DCs and CD103+ CD11b−F4/80− DCs. Except for CD103− CD11b− F4/80− DCs, these subsets expanded in high fat diet-fed Ldlr−/− mice. Signal-regulatory protein (Sirp)-α was detected on aortic macrophages, CD11b+ DCs, and partially on CD103− CD11b− F4/80− but not on CD103+ DCs. Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l−/−) mice, a specific loss of CD103+ ...
Director Teppo Kröger (teppo.kroger(at)jyu.fi). Vice director Sirpa Wrede (sirpa.wrede(at)helsinki.fi). Coordinator Emilia Leinonen (emilia.a.leinonen(at)jyu.fi). ...
Biohit Oyj Stock Exchange Release June 11, 2014 at 5 p.m. local time (EEST) MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen asked the Commission, whether the Commission, in the light of research which stresses the carcinogenic nature of acetaldehyde, does intend to set a limit for acetaldehyde in food or alcoholic beverages?
The identification of Rap1 effector proteins has provided important insights into mechanisms by which Rap1 regulates T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling to integrins. A constitutively active Rap1 construct, Rap1G12V, was used as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify RAPL as a Rap1-binding protein.[3]. Overexpression of RAPL enhances LFA-1 clustering and adhesion, and RAPL-deficient lymphocytes and dendritic cells exhibit impaired adhesion and migration.[4] RAPL is also an integrin-associated protein as RAPL polarizes to the immunological synapse following antigen stimulation of T cells, colocalizes with LFA-1 following TCR or chemokine stimulation, and co-immunoprecipitates with LFA-1 in a Rap1-dependent manner (108). This interaction between RAPL and LFA-1 is dependent on lysine residues at positions 1097 and 1099 in the juxtamembrane region of the αL-subunit cytoplasmic domain. This is a functionally significant region of the αL cytoplasmic domain as deletion of the adjacent GFFKR ...
Sirpa encodes an Ig superfamily receptor expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells, and neurons. SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 interact through their respective Ig variable region (IgV) like domains . Upon binding CD47, SIRPα immunoreceptor tyrosine- based inhibition motifs mediate inhibitory signals via recruitment of the src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 leading to decreased phagocytosis by macrophages, inhibition of neutrophil migration, and attenuated production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF
Flow cytometry and mass spectrometry are widely used analytical tools in cancer research. Flow cytometry is known for cell counting, cell sorting and cancer biomarker discovery. Mass spectrometry is unparalleled in its ability to selectively detect and quantify target analytes at the molecular level. The combination of flow cytometry to isolate specific cell subtypes from biological fluids such as blood and mass spectrometry to quantify proteins contained in the selected cells provides a new approach to studying protein expression in specific cell subtypes. We have used this combination to investigate the normal levels of CD47 and SIRPA proteins in CB8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD14+ monocytes, CD33+ myeloid cells and CD56+ NK cells isolated from blood specimens as a first step toward better understanding of how the CD47/SIRPA protein levels in these cells are affected by cancer and cancer treatment.. Citation Format: Carmen Fernandez-Metzler, Renold Capocasale. LC-MS/MS quantification of proteins ...
A cell-cell contact between microglial SIRPα and CD47 on neighboring cells is a critical module for phase conversion of microglia in the brain white matter and controls demyelination.
PLANEGG, MUNICH and HALLE (SAALE), GERMANY / ACCESSWIRE / July 8, 2019 / MorphoSys AG (FSE: MOR; Prime Standard Segment; MDAX & TecDAX; NASDAQ: MOR) and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional redundancy between thymic CD8α+and Sirpα+ conventional dendritic cells in presentation of blood-derived lysozyme by MHC class II proteins. AU - Atibalentja, Danielle F.. AU - Murphy, Kenneth M.. AU - Unanue, Emil R.. PY - 2011/2/1. Y1 - 2011/2/1. N2 - We evaluated the presentation of blood-derived protein Ags by APCs in the thymus. Two conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), the CD8α +Sirpa-CD11chi (CD8α+ cDC) and the CD8α-Sirpα+CD11chi (Sirpa + cDC), were previously identified as presenting MHC class II bound peptides from hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) injected intravenously. All thymic APCs acquired the injected HEL, with the plasmacytoid dendritic cell being the best, followed by the Sirpα+ cDC and the CD8α+ cDC. Both cDCs induced to similar extent negative selection and regulatory T cells in HEL TCR transgenic mice, indicating a redundant role of the two cDC subsets in the presentation of blood-borne HEL. Immature dendritic cells or plasmacytoid dendritic cells ...
Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 7 (ANI): A new research from a mouse study has suggested that treatments that increase levels of the protein thrombospondin-1 could help the liver recover from an overdose of acetaminophen.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
As the buzz in plastic surgery circles continues to build about breast augmentation through fat transfer, it may be ever more tempting to consider the procedure. That is, if you feel Mother Nature shorted you in the breast department.
SIRP alpha Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin conjugate from Invitrogen for Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) and Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Rat samples. Clone: OX-41. Supplied as 500 ug purified antibody (0.1 mg/ml) in PBS with 4-5mg/ml BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
ABT-510 is synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
The hearing on The new public procurement directive, a step forward for the quality and sustainability of SSGI took place in the afternoon of 13th November 2013 and it was co-hosted by MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen and MEP Nils Torvalds. The new proposal of Directive on Public Procurement acknowledges the specificities of social services as general interest services, and provides a
Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP. Online im Internet; URL: https://www.iap.fraunhofer.de/de/Das_Fraunhofer_IAP/Auszeichnungen.html. Datum: 14.11.2019 18:59. ...
CD47-specific antibodies and fusion proteins that block CD47-SIRPα signaling are employed as antitumor agents for several cancers. Here, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effect of simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SIRPαD1-Fc, a novel CD47-targeting fusion protein, was generated and was found to increase the phagocytic and cytotoxic activities of macrophages against NSCLC cells. During this process, autophagy was markedly triggered, which was characterized by the three main stages of autophagic flux, including formation and accumulation of autophagosomes, fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species and inactivation of mTOR were shown to be involved in autophagy initiation in SIRPαD1-Fc-treated cells, indicating a probable mechanism for autophagy activation after targeting CD47 by SIRPαD1-Fc. Inhibition of autophagy enhanced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis ...
EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF), Vittorio Silano, Claudia Bolognesi, Laurence Castle, Kevin Chipman, Jean‐Pierre Cravedi, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul Fowler, Roland Franz, Konrad Grob, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Maria Rosaria Milana, Karla Pfaff, Gilles Riviere, Jannavi Srinivasan, Maria de Fátima Tavares Poças, Christina Tlustos, Detlef Wölfle, Holger Zorn, Ulla Beckman Sundh, Romualdo Benigni, Mona‐Lise Binderup, Leon Brimer, Francesca Marcon, Daniel Marzin, Pasquale Mosesso, Gerard Mulder, Agneta Oskarsson, Camilla Svendsen, Maria Anastassiadou, Maria Carfì, Wim ...
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), Guido Rychen, Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Marta López‐Alonso, Secundino López Puente, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Pieter Wester, Lucio Costa, Noël Dierick, Lubomir Leng, Boet Glandorf, Lieve Herman, Sirpa Kärenlampi, Jaime Aguilera, Jordi Tarrés‐Call, Robert John ...