Kawecki C., et al. Identification of CD36 as a new interaction partner of membrane NEU1: potential implication in the pro-atherogenic effects of the elastin receptor complex. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 1-17. 29/11/2018.. In addition to its critical role in lysosomes for catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates, NEU1 is expressed at the plasma membrane and regulates a myriad of receptors by desialylation, playing a key role in many pathophysiological processes. Here, we developed a proteomic approach dedicated to the purification and identification by LC-MS/MS of plasma membrane NEU1 interaction partners in human macrophages. Already known interaction partners were identified as well as several new candidates such as the class B scavenger receptor CD36. Interaction between NEU1 and CD36 was confirmed by complementary approaches. We showed that elastin-derived peptides (EDP) desialylate CD36 and that this effect was blocked by the V14 peptide, which blocks the interaction between bioactive ...
Proatherogenic hyperlipidemic states not only increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population but also increase the risk of worsening renal function.1,2 Given the implications that accelerating both cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction have on morbidity and mortality in this population, investigating the mechanisms of renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury observed in this setting is a topic of great interest.. Recently, the apolipoprotein E (apoE) null mouse has been used as a model of hyperlipidemic renal injury and offers a valuable tool to study such mechanisms.3 On this genetic background, we and others have demonstrated that the class B scavenger receptor CD36 is a key molecule in mediating the inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis involved in proatherogenic hyperlipidemic states.4-7 CD36 is expressed on a variety of cell types including monocytes and macrophages8 and proximal tubular cells (PTCs)9 and recognizes ...
Results Compared with NL, hepatic mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36 were significantly higher in patients with NAS (median fold increase 0.84 (range 0.15-1.61) and 0.66 (range 0.33-1.06), respectively); NASH (0.91 (0.22-1.81) and 0.81 (0.38-0.92), respectively); HCV G1 without steatosis (0.30 (0.17-1.59) and 0.33 (0.29-0.52), respectively); and HCV G1 with steatosis (0.85 (0.15-1.98) and 0.87 (0.52-1.26), respectively). In contrast to NL, FAT/CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in patients with NAFLD and HCV G1 with steatosis. A significant correlation was observed between hepatic FAT/CD36 expression index and plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and histological grade of steatosis in patients with NASH (r=0.663, r=0.735 and r=0.711, respectively) and those with HCV G1 with steatosis (r=0.723, r=0.769 and r=0.648, respectively). ...
Background: Bendavia, a cell-permeable and mitochondrial inner membrane-targeting peptide, is known to protect mitochondrial cristae structure, reduce oxidative stress and promote electron transport. Altered energy metabolism substrate utilization and myocardial remodeling have been implicated as important factors in heart failure. Our hypothesis was that Bendavia regulates glucose transporter 4 (GLU4) and fatty acid transporter (CD36) expression and prevents hypertrophy in the noninfarcted border zone.. Methods: Rats with left coronary artery ligation were treated with Bendavia (3 mg/kg/day), water or sham operation. At 6 weeks, heart samples were harvested from shams, MI/BZ=border zone (2 mm noninfarcted tissue) of water-treated infarcted hearts and MI/BZ+Bendavia = border zone of Bendavia-treated hearts.. Results: qRT-PCR analysis showed that GLU4 and CD36 gene expression were decreased by 51%, p=0.0003 and 44%, p=0.0011, respectively, in the MI/BZ group vs sham. Importantly, Bendavia ...
Gene: [07q112/CD36] antigen CD36 (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor); collagen type I receptor (CD36); thrombospondin receptor (CD36); glycoprotein IIIb; glycoprotein IV (platelet); platelet glycoprotein IV deficiency; [THBSR ...
Title:CD36 as a Therapeutic Target for Endothelial Dysfunction in Stroke. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 25. Author(s):Sunghee Cho. Affiliation:Department of Neurology/ Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College at Burke Medical Research Institute, 785 Mamaroneck Ave., White Plains, New York 10605.. Keywords:CD36, stroke, angiogenesis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, pro-death responses, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, cerebrovascular diseases, scavenger receptor.. Abstract:Stroke pathology involves multifactorial pro-death responses, including inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and activation of necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The interruption of a single specific pathway in defined stroke model systems has not been sufficient to address the multifactorial nature of stroke-induced injuries in the human population. CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor that functions in regulating normal physiological and pathological functions. CD36 pathways are activated by several ...
Issued Prepublication Requirements The Joint ommission has approved the following revisions for prepublication. While revised requirements are published in the semiannual updates to the print manuals (as
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Christiane Danilo, Jorge L Gutierrez-Pajares, Maria Antonietta Mainieri, Isabelle Mercier, Michael P Lisanti, Philippe G Frank].
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Cholesterol accumulation in macrophages occurs independently of LDL receptors and results from the uptake of retained and modified apoB-containing lipoproteins by scavenger receptors,1 which are not under a cholesterol-feedback regulation. The scavenger receptor superfamily is composed of many members with diverse structures, expression patterns, and functions.2 Scavenger receptor class A types I and II, the class B scavenger receptors (CD36 and CD68), LOX-1, and possible others are implicated in the unrestrictive cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages, lipid droplet formation and ultimately, atherosclerosis.3 As intracellular cholesterol levels increase, endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis and LDL receptor expression are repressed through inhibition of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway.4 This mechanism is insufficient to maintain cholesterol homeostasis in the face of continued cholesterol uptake by scavenger-receptor-dependent mechanisms. As mammalian cells ...
Compare Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic ...
Over the past few years, growing evidences revealed that clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis can result in powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In vivo, apoptotic cells are cleared rapidly by neighboring cells, macrophages and related scavengers. Defective clearance of apoptotic cells has been linked closely to autoimmunity and persistent inflammatory disease. Several phagocytic receptors, bridging molecules produced by phagocytes and eat-me signals on apoptotic cells are coordinately involved in mediating clearance of apoptotic cells. Complement receptors (CR3, CR4), collection, CD14, CD36 (Class B scavenger receptor), class A scavenger receptor, asialoprotein receptor, Mer receptor kinase were reported to recognize apoptotic cells. The best characterized system for clearance of apoptotic cells is the recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR). Milk fat globule- epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an opsonin ...
Tan, J., Prosser, H., Dunn, L., Vanags, L., Ridiandries, A., Tsatralis, T., Leece, L., Clayton, Z., Yuen, S., Robertson, S., Lam, M., Celermajer, D., Ng, M., Bursill, C. (2016). High Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I. Diabetes, 65(10), 3091-3103. [More Information] ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth major glycoprotein of the platelet surface and serves as a receptor for thrombospondin in platelets and various cell lines. Since thrombospondins are widely distributed proteins involved in a variety of adhesive processes, this protein may have important functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It binds to collagen, thrombospondin, anionic phospholipids and oxidized LDL. It directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and it binds long chain fatty acids and may function in the transport and/or as a regulator of fatty acid transport. Mutations in this gene cause platelet glycoprotein deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
OBJECTIVE-Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a cell-surface HDL receptor that is implicated in reverse cholesterol transport and protection against ...
Chlordecone belongs to the class of persistent organochlorine pesticides that are remarkably resistant to environmental degradation. Even though their use was banned in the United States in 1978, these compounds can still be detected in both humans and wildlife throughout the world. Previous work has shown that the pretreatment of male C57BL/6 mice with low doses of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticide, chlordecone (CD) stimulated biliary excretion of exogenous CH up to 3-fold, and further, that increased biliary excretion was not associated with changes in ATP-binding cassette transporter G8 (ABCG8) or scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). In rodents, hepatic basolateral SR-BI is important in controlling plasma lipoprotein levels and cholesterol (CH) homeostasis, with major roles in reverse CH transport (RCT) and biliary excretion. The hepatic ABCG5/G8 heterodimer is a membrane transporter present on the apical surfaces of hepatocytes, and also plays a key role in biliary CH ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). IL-10 derived macrophages had the greatest amount of oxLDL uptake. We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. On the other hand a blocking antibody against the class B scavenger receptor, ...
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of insulins effect on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C. This was associated with decreased expression of HDL-C clearance factors, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and hepatic lipase, and defective selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl ester by the liver. The phenotype could be rescued by re-expression of SR-BI. These findings demonstrate that hepatic FoxOs are required for cholesterol homeostasis and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver. ...
3NGH: In vitro and in vivo analysis of the binding of the C terminus of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), to the PDZ1 domain of its adaptor protein PDZK1.
Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved
Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36) (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3]) is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53-100% identity as compared with 29-32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved
Looking for online definition of LIMPII or what LIMPII stands for? LIMPII is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Rabbit polyclonal Scavenger Receptor BI + BII antibody validated for WB, IP, BL, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen…
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recpmid,pmid=14709891,ti=Phagocytic removal of apoptotic spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells: mechanisms and consequences ,au=Nakanishi Y; Shiratsuchi A,so=Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27 (1): 13-6,ab=More than half of differentiating spermatogenic cells undergo apoptosis before maturing into spermatozoa during mammalian spermatogenesis. These cells are selectively and rapidly eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells, a testicular somatic cell type possessing phagocytic activity. We have investigated the mechanism by which Sertoli cells specifically recognize and phagocytose apoptotic spermatogenic cells and the consequences of phagocytosis. We showed by in vitro as well as in vivo analyses that Sertoli cells recognize apoptotic spermatogenic cells through the binding of their surface receptor, class B scavenger receptor type I, to phosphatidylserine that is expressed on the surface of spermatogenic cells during apoptosis. The inhibition of phagocytosis in live animals resulted in a decrease ...
Der Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) vermittelt den selective lipid transfer von Cholesterol und Vitamin E aus HDL in die Leber. Die zelluläre Aufnahme verschiedener Lipide aus HDL über den selben Mechanismus, vermittelt durch den selben Rezeptor wirft die Frage auf, ob diese Aufnahmeprozesse einander beeinflussen. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, daß die Aufnahme von neutralen Lipiden (Cholesterolester, Triacylglycerol) aus HDL in die Zelle von der Lipidzusammensetzung der Donorpartikel abhängen könnte. Wir untersuchten, ob der Vitamin-E-Gehalt von HDL die Aufnahme und den Efflux von Cholesterol in und aus HepG2-Zellen beeinflußt. Die Inkubation von HepG2-Zellen mit [3H]Cholesterol-markiertem HDL mit ansteigendem Vitamin-E-Gehalt ergab eine steigende Aufnahme von Vitamin E, während sich die Cholesterolaufnahme nicht veränderte. Der erhöhte zelluläre Gehalt an Vitamin E bewirkte eine Reduktion der PKC-Alpha- und SR-BI-Expression in Verbindung mit einem erniedrigten Cholesterolefflux ...
CD163 is a member of the group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, also known as GHI/61, M130, RM3/1, p155, hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex receptor, or macrophage-associated antigen. It is a 134 kD (non-reduced)/155 kD (reduced) glycoprotein primarily expressed on macrophages, Kupffer ce
Enables the directed movement of long-chain fatty acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells. A long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
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PDZK3兔多克隆抗体(ab96526)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
PDZK1兔多克隆抗体(ab64856)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Much evidence has pointed toward a potential contribution of adipose in mediating HDL lipidation. Adipose tissue is the major store for cholesterol within the body, and therefore represents a large pool of substrate to support HDL biogenesis. Adipose tissue expresses high levels of key cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI; but not ABCG1),14 providing a gateway for cholesterol to efflux onto HDL. Expression of both ABCA1 and SR-BI increases during adipogenesis and adipocytes support HDL lipidation in vitro.14 Furthermore, adipocytes promote HDL lipidation in vivo, and the absence of either adipocyte ABCA1 or SR-BI impairs this process.14 ABCA1−/− adipocytes exhibited impaired efflux to apoA-I in vitro, but unaltered efflux to HDL, whereas SR-BI−/− adipocytes effluxed normally to apoA-I but failed to efflux to HDL. ABCG1−/− adipocytes exhibited normal efflux to both HDL and apo-A1, and protein levels were negligible in wild-type adipocytes.14 ...
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Our laboratory focusses on understanding how enveloped viruses attach to and enter cells to initiate viral replication and immunological responses that prevent infection with a vision to develop the worlds first preventative HCV vaccine for HCV elimination. Hepatitis C Virus contains two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, that function as a heterodimer to mediate attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion. The viral glycoprotein E2 is primarily responsible for receptor binding to scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) and CD81. Antibodies directed towards regions of E2 that interfere with SRB1 or CD81 binding, block virus entry and are neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, understanding the structure of E2, how it interacts with both cellular receptors and how antibodies prevent these interactions are pivotal for vaccine development. Through our studies, we have identified a leading HCV vaccine candidate (HepSeeVaxDelta3) that we are currently assessing in preclinical studies as a recombinant ...
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to SCARF1/SREC-I, a scavenger receptor protein that mediates the binding and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL). This protein has only little activity of internalizing modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), but it can interact with SCARF1 through its extracellular domain. The association of this protein with SCARF1 is suppressed by the presence of scavenger ligands. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Human genetic platelet glycoprotein IV (CD36) deficiency may be related to the phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome and is frequently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. CD36 deficiency is relatively frequent in Asian and African populations. It also has been reported that CD36 deficiency might be linked with cardiomyopathy. This deficiency can be classified in two subgroups: the type I phenotype is characterized by platelets and monocytes/macrophages that exhibit CD36 deficiency; whereas in the type II phenotype, the surface expression of CD36 is lacking only in platelets, but expression is near normal in monocytes/macrophages ...
A brief communication: Enhanced CD36 scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 human monocytes in the presence of lupus plasma: Linking autoimmunity and atherosclerosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2009 ...
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Alright guys, how are yall doing? Im guessing this goes here since its recovery/rehab related. So post cycle I got limp dk, over the course of 1-1.5
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The overall goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles as a drug delivery system against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC patients have a less favorable prognosis than those with hormone positive breast cancers. TNBC does not respond to current endocrine treatment. Consequently, the five- year survival rate for patients with metastatic TNBC is | 30%. The studies performed here were intended to fill a void in the treatment of metastatic TNBC with the use of targeted reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles, an innovative approach. The rHDL nanoparticles are small, biocompatible, non-immunogenic complexes, targeted to the high-density lipoprotein receptor (scavenger receptor class B type 1 [SR-B1]). While most malignant cells and tumors overexpress the SR-B1 receptor, its expression levels are nearly undetectable in most normal tissues. These findings present the opportunity to exploit a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is involved in arachidonic acid induced-platelet aggregation. AU - Dutta-Roy, Asim K. AU - Crosbie, Lynn. AU - Gordon, Margaret Jane. AU - Campbell, Fiona Margaret. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. KW - Antibodies, Monoclonal. KW - Antigens, CD. KW - Antigens, CD36. KW - Arachidonic Acid. KW - Blood Platelets. KW - Humans. KW - Platelet Aggregation. M3 - Article. C2 - 8736825. VL - 24. SP - 167S. JO - Biochemical Society Transactions. JF - Biochemical Society Transactions. SN - 0300-5127. IS - 2. ER - ...
Activation of platelets with thrombin and other agonists causes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of multiple proteins on tyrosine. To identify candidate protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs; EC 2.7.1.112) that may be responsible for these phosphorylation events, we analyzed the expression of seven Src-family PTKs and examined the association of these kinases with known platelet membrane glycoproteins. Five Src-related PTKs were detected in platelets: pp60SRC, pp60FYN, pp62YES, pp61HCK, and two LYN products of Mr 54,000 and 58,000. The Fgr and Lck PTKs were not detected. Although strict comparative quantification of protein levels was not possible, pp60SRC was detected at higher levels than any of the other kinases. In addition, glycoprotein IV (GPIV, CD36), one of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins, was associated in a complex with the Fyn, Yes, and Lyn proteins in platelet lysates. Similar complexes were also found in two GPIV-expressing cell lines, C32 melanoma cells and HEL cells. ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine whether human RPE cells in culture express the following reverse cholesterol transport proteins: scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), scavenger receptor BII (SR-BII), and ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1); to confirm this expression in fixed human tissue sections. Methods: Primary cultures of human RPE cells were grown for at least one week at confluence prior to RNA isolation or immunofluorescent staining. RNA expression was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of total cellular RNA using primer sets specific to human SR-BI, SR-BII or ABCA1. Immunofluorescent staining was performed using a biotinylated secondary antibody and fluoresceinated avidin. Either affinity- purified antibodies specific to SR-BI and SR-BII peptides, or commercially available antiserum to ABCA1 were used as primary antibodies, with the appropriate controls. SR-BI, SR-BII and ABCA1 proteins were visualized in RPE cells by standard and confocal ...
T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-13 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
The table below shows the top 100 pain related interactions that have been reported for fatty acid transport. They are ordered first by their pain relevance and then by number of times they were reported for fatty acid transport. Please click on the INT link to display more detailed information on each interaction. ...
Refractory to deletion (failed disruption) Disruption successful. No difference in growth Attenuated. Egress defect Invasion defect Transcriptional effect Cell-cycle arrest Altered cytoadherence ...