Looking for antigenic variation? Find out information about antigenic variation. Alteration of an antigen on the surface of a microorganism; may enable a pathogenic mocroorganism to evade destruction by the hosts immune system Explanation of antigenic variation
Cesarean delivery and the risk-benefit calculus. Influenza vaccine--outmaneuvering antigenic shift and drift. Estimating the number of potential organ donors in the United States
Different virus families have different levels of ability to alter their genomes and trick the immune system into not recognizing. Some viruses have relatively unchanging genomes like paramyxoviruses while others like influenza have rapidly changing genomes that inhibit our ability to create long lasting vaccines against the disease. Viruses in general have much faster rate of mutation of their genomes than human or bacterial cells. In general viruses with shorter genomes have faster rates of mutation than longer genomes since they have a faster rate of replication.[15] It was classically thought that viruses with an RNA genome always had a faster rate of antigenic variation than those with a DNA genome because RNA polymerase lacks a mechanism for checking for mistakes in translation but recent work by Duffy et al. shows that some DNA viruses have the same high rates of antigenic variation as their RNA counterparts.[15] Antigenic variation within viruses can be categories into 6 different ...
Many evolutionarily distant pathogenic organisms have evolved similar survival strategies to evade the immune responses of their hosts. These include antigenic variation, through which an infecting organism prevents clearance by periodically altering the identity of proteins that are visible to the immune system of the host1. Antigenic variation requires large reservoirs of immunologically diverse antigen genes, which are often generated through homologous recombination, as well as mechanisms to ensure the expression of one or very few antigens at any given time. Both homologous recombination and gene expression are affected by three-dimensional genome architecture and local DNA accessibility2,3. Factors that link three-dimensional genome architecture, local chromatin conformation and antigenic variation have, to our knowledge, not yet been identified in any organism. One of the major obstacles to studying the role of genome architecture in antigenic variation has been the highly repetitive ...
Respiratory infections constitute a major public health concern. The goal of this book is to share knowledge on the best advances in influenza and influenza-like viral infections, and new molecular-based diagnostic methods that discern the antigenic shift enabling viruses to constantly evolve and elude the host immune response. Co-infections, co-morbidities, persistently meager anti-flu vaccination coverage, and infection complications are dealt with. The chapters also further insight into such topics as the effects of sex hormones, and socioeconomic and anthropometric measures on respiratory and immune functions underlying the severity of asthma and respiratory allergy. Psychological functioning in respiratory disorders, taking into account quality of life, illness acceptance, and depressive symptoms is also reviewed as it is all too often underestimated by healthcare providers. The book is intended for clinicians, researchers, students, and all other actors in health-related issues.
Influenza A viruses circulate in humans, birds, and pigs. Occasionally, different influenza A viruses can infect a single host at the same time. This often happens in places where humans and animals live in close contact. The genetic material of the viruses gets mixed up, creating an entirely new virus. (This process is called antigenic shift or viral reassortment.) If the new virus makes people sick and is transmitted easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic can occur.. Thats what happened in the spring of 2009: the virus thats making the news right now has genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia as well as avian (bird) and human genes.. ...
More Influenza Essay Topics.. In that year, H2N2 viruses circulated, followed by H3N8 in 1900, H1N1 in 1918, H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 in 1968, and H1N1 in 1977," with the latest antigenic shift being in 2009 with the H1N1 virus. This shows the emergence of the H1N1 strain of the virus was in 1918. The reason that these were major pandemics back then was because of the lack of treatments. The virus was unchecked as it spread throughout the population causing mass death. There are treatments available now that can alleviate the effects of the virus and save the lives of those infected by the swine flu.. The H1N1 virus cannot be treated by the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and issues and are therefore useless when fighting a virus. However there are ways to alleviate the pains that are caused by the virus. Common symptoms of the H1N1 virus include: body aches, cough, diarrhea, sore throat, vomiting, chills, fever, fatigue, runny nose and headaches. Common over the ...
this is the host shift of the influenza A H1N1...if you can see, there are a red line is a connection between human and pig, so you can think for yourselves about that. take a look at the antigenic shift, and then you will understand the virus better...this make no sense, but it will make a big change ...
AbstractBackgroundCovariation is an essential process that leads to coevolution of parts of proteins and genomes. In organisms subject to strong selective pressure, coevolution is central to keep the balance between the opposite requirements of antigenic variation and retention of functionality. Being the viral component most exposed to the external environment, the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 constitutes the main target of the immune response. Accordingly its more external portions are characterised by extensive sequence heterogeneity fostering constant antigenic variation.ResultsWe report that a single polymorphism, present at the level of the viral population in the conserved internal region C2, was sufficient to totally abolish Env functionality when introduced in an exogenous genetic context. The prominent defect of the non-functional protein is a block occurring after recognition of the co-receptor CCR5, likely due to an interference with the subsequent conformational changes that lead to membrane
The TWiPsters solve the case of the Brazilian Immigrant With Heart Problems, and describe how genome organization controls trypanosome antigenic variation.
The numerous cases which were treated showed a positive clinical response in greater or lesser degree. The earliest cases were studied intensively and were readied for publication.. The tumors that responded to a greater degree to our treatment, as was expected, are the ones with the greatest degree of undifferentiation; because of their antigenic characteristics and because of the greater degree of dissimilarity between them and the genotypes and antigenic characteristics of normal cells, they have more probability of eliciting an efficient immunologic response.. Histological studies which were made give us certain possible mechanisms of action which correlate with the clinical response obtained.. Microscopic studies showed the almost complete delimitation of the tumoral areas by connective-vascular structures which seem to have diverse morphologies according to their proximity to the tumor and the level of their chronological development, having at first a thick endothelial wall with ...
Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Change in the Surface Antigen of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with Influenza Viruses, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow Antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (Antigenic shift). The second type is when certain Parasites, especially trypanosomes, Plasmodium, and Borrelia, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (Antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed ...
Influenza A virus can mutate in two ways: antigenic drift or adaptive mutation, whereby the existing antigen transformed and antigenic shift or mutation of the mating process of two or more kinds of antigens. Antigenic drift, causing a small mutations in the flu virus from year to year, which attacks the human immune system but not completely. In contrast, the new H1N1 strain emerged in a way antigenic shift in pigs in Mexico ...
Schistosomes have an outer tegument that protects them from the host immune system. Parasite antigens expressed on or within the surface layer of the tegument have been suggested to be potential vaccine targets such as tetraspanin 23 (TSP23). Little is known about the evolution and diversity of tegumental antigens, an important consideration given that vaccines are being designed and are failing. Moreover, these antigens, including TSP23, are in direct contact with the host immune system, and so accelerated and adaptive evolution may be occurring. Species of Schistosoma infect a variety of definitive hosts. The way in which these hosts are shaping the evolution of antigens across different species of Schistosoma needs investigating. Much attention has been focussed on the production of an effective multi-species vaccine against the schistosomes, and there has been little success in absolute clearance or even establishment of continued immune memory post-infection. The aim of this study was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemics in Competition. T2 - Partial Cross-Immunity. AU - Andreasen, Viggo. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - The competition between two pathogen strains during the course of an epidemic represents a fundamental step in the early evolution of emerging diseases as well as in the antigenic drift process of influenza. The outcome of the competition, however, depends not only on the epidemic properties of the two strains but also on the timing and size of the introduction, characteristics that are poorly captured by deterministic mean-field epidemic models. We describe those aspects of the competition that can be determined from the mean-field models giving the range of possible final sizes of susceptible hosts and cumulated attack rates that could be observed after an epidemic with two cross-reacting strains. In the limit where the size of the initial infection goes to zero, the possible outcomes lie on a (one dimensional) curve in the outcome space.. AB - The competition between two ...
Brunham, R C, F A Plummer, and R S Stephens. "Bacterial antigenic variation, host immune response, and pathogen-host coevolution.." Infection and Immunity 61.6 (1993): 2273-2276. Web. 19 Jan. 2020. ...
View Notes - 10-07_Culture_Exists_2 from ANTHRO 186P at UCLA. Culture exists Three sources of variation Much variation is not environmental Much variation not due to institutions w w Cultures
Pathogens that evade adaptive immunity typically exhibit antigenic variation. By contrast, it appears that although the chronic human tuberculosis (TB)-causing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis needs to counter host T cell responses, its T cell epitopes are hyperconserved. Here we present an extensive analysis of the T cell epitopes of M. tuberculosis. We combined population genomics with experimental immunology to determine the number and identity of T cell epitope sequence variants in 216 phylogenetically diverse strains of M. tuberculosis. Antigen conservation is indeed a hallmark of M. tuberculosis. However, our analysis revealed a set of seven variable antigens that were immunogenic in subjects with active TB. These findings suggest that M. tuberculosis uses mechanisms other than antigenic variation to evade T cells. T cell epitopes that exhibit sequence variation may not be subject to the same evasion mechanisms, and hence vaccines that include such variable epitopes may be more ...
Antigenic variation by variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat switching in African trypanosomes is one of the most elaborate immune evasion strategies found among pathogens. Changes in the identity of the transcribed VSG gene, which is always flanked by 70-bp and telomeric repeats, can be achieved either by transcriptional or DNA recombination mechanisms. The major route of VSG switching is DNA recombination, which occurs in the bloodstream VSG expression site (ES), a multigenic site transcribed by RNA polymerase I. Recombinogenic VSG switching is frequently catalyzed by homologous recombination (HR), a reaction normally triggered by DNA breaks. However, a clear understanding of how such breaks arise-including whether there is a dedicated and ES-focused mechanism-is lacking. Here, we synthesize data emerging from recent studies that have proposed a range of mechanisms that could generate these breaks: action of a nuclease or nucleases; repetitive DNA, most notably the 70-bp repeats, providing ...
Trypanosoma brucei, a causative agent of African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, constantly changes its dense variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat to avoid elimination by the immune system of its mammalian host, using an extensive repertoire of dedicated genes. Although this process, referred to as antigenic variation, is the major mechanism of pathogenesis for T. brucei, the dynamics of VSG expression in T. brucei during an infection are poorly understood. In this thesis, I describe the development of VSG-seq, a method for quantitatively examining the diversity of expressed VSGs in any population of trypanosomes. Using VSG-seq, I monitored VSG expression dynamics in vivo during both acute and chronic mouse infections. My experiments revealed unexpected diversity within parasite populations, and the expression of as much as one-third of the functional genomic VSG repertoire after only one month of infection. In addition to suggesting that the host-pathogen interaction in T.
Research in the Totten group focuses on the molecular biology, pathogenesis, and disease associations of the recently discovered STD pathogen, Mycoplasma genitalium. Their finding that this bacterium can persist for months, if not years, in infected women lead to our hypothesis that this pathogen evades the host immune response in part by antigenically varying two of its immunogenic surface-exposed proteins. Supporting this hypothesis, they have shown that the sequences of the genes encoding these proteins evolve using reciprocal recombination with non-coding homologous DNA distributed throughout its minimal chromosome. Further, contrary to the accepted wisdom that this bacterium contains few regulatory genes, they have shown that recombination leading to antigenic variation is regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational levels. The novel recombination and regulatory mechanisms of antigenic variation, the biologic significance of the resulting antigenic variants, ...
Neisseria meningitidis is the major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide. The genome of this pathogen contains >40 phase variable loci whose expression is regulated by tandem DNA repeat tracts. Majority of these loci encode OMPs, which are potential targets for host innate and adaptive immune responses. An analysis for the distribution, frequency and role of PV of these genes is relevant in determining their virulence association and suitability as a future vaccine candidate. The project investigated the combined distribution, frequency and PV status of two important genes, hpuAB and hmbR, in disease (n=221) and carriage (n=305) isolates. Strains with both genes or only hmbR were present at similar frequencies among disease isolates as compared with carriage isolates. However, >90 % of isolates from CC5, CC8 and CC11 (CCs with the highest disease to carriage ratios) contained both genes. Strains with only hpuAB gene were under-represented among disease isolates, possibly due to the receptor ...
Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) represents an essential element in controlling and combating outbreaks, which can otherwise have disastrous consequences such as during the FMD outbreak in the UK in 2001. This is pertinent to regions in large parts of the developing world in which the FMD virus (FMDV) is endemic, as well as during an epidemic in FMDV-free areas such as Europe. Nevertheless, successful vaccination against FMDV requires selection of the appropriately matching vaccine strain providing protection against a particular circulating field virus. This problem originates from the existence of seven known serotypes of FMDV, with which a high antigenic variation of the virus is observed. In addition, subtypical antigenic variation within a serotype is under constant evolutionary change due to the high mutation rate of FMDV. For these reasons, continuous vaccine testing and modification in the light of recent antigenic changes to the virus is required. Traditionally, vaccines ...
darcoda at telerama.lm.com (S. Frog) wrote: , , , Hi, and all that. , , Im not sure if this is the proper place to raise this question, , and forgive me if it isnt, but I have a question about the flu. , Actually, three questions: , Is the flu a retrovirus? , If it isnt a retrovirus, do I have a faulty definition of what a , retrovirus is? , Lastly, is it true that the flu has only been around for like a , hunred years or so? And that it mutated from something else, which is , why human has so little resistence to it when the influenza epidemic , roared through just after world war I? , , , Thanks. :) , , , , , S. Frog , -- , , , .. The agent which causes many cases of the flu is called influenza. It is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses have a segmented, single stranded RNA genome. Their segmented genome enables them to undergo a special kind of mutation (actually it is segment reassortment) called antigenic shift, which causes the pandemics in human medicine. Many species ...
Contingency genes are common in pathogenic microbes and enable, through pre-emptive mutational events, rapid, clonal switches in phenotype that are conducive to survival and proliferation in hosts. Antigenic variation, which is a highly successful survival strategy employed by eubacterial and eukaryotic pathogens, involves large repertoires of distinct contingency genes that are expressed differentially, enabling evasion of host acquired immunity. Most, but not all, antigenic variation systems make extensive use of subtelomeres. Study of model systems has shown that subtelomeres have unusual properties, including reversible silencing of genes mediated by proteins binding to the telomere, and engagement in ectopic recombination with other subtelomeres. There is a general theory that subtelomeric location confers a capacity for gene diversification through such recombination, although experimental evidence is that there is no increased mitotic recombination at such loci and that sequence ...
In addition to avoiding destruction by modulating DNA-Repair pathways, viruses also alter other aspects of the cells defense such as cell surface markers. CMV and adenoviruses decrease the expression of a cells MHC recognition markers which decreases the ability of the immune system to respond to infections that is highly characteristic of the immune system in senescence (DNA-Damage-Response np). One factor is the loss of the CD28 marker; when CD28 isnt expressed, antigen-presenting cells like macrophages no longer recognise the T cell and thus arent able to alert the immune cell to danger (de Grey 207). Some viruses like HIV are able to prevent detection from the immune system by restricting the expression of virus antigens as well as having wide antigen variation (DNA-damage-response). Furthermore, there are viruses that modify other signaling pathways that lead affects lymphocyte and macrophage (which is an anti-gen presenting cell) functions that lead to immunosupression ...
Then is this host specific antigenic variation due to different subspecies of P.carinii infecting their particular favorite flavor of host? Or is there one P.carinii changing its disguise to suit its situation (Like the elusive pimpernel)? Do the authors of this splendid sounding article offer an explanation? My library doesnt carry that journal. Doesnt carry much of anything not relating to engineering, actually. Regards Simon ______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________ Subject: RE: Re[2]: P.carinii Author: [email protected] at Internet Date: 11/12/98 7:14 PM Host species-specific antigenic variations have been reported, according to the article I cited. Pigs are not dogs are not rats are not people! -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [SMTP:[email protected]] Sent: Thursday, November 12, 1998 12:27 PM To: [email protected] Subject: Re[2]: P.carinii Forgive my stupidity, but wont any antibody to P.carinii label ...
A Mr 32,000 integral membrane protein has previously been identified on erythrocytes bearing the Rh(D) antigen and is thought to contain the antigenic variations responsible for the different Rh phenotypes. To study it on ...
5/4/2009 10:24:08 PM Flu viruses change slightly from year to year. This is called antigenic drift. This is what the committee that determines what the
In malaria‐endemic areas, a nagging issue is the failure of naturally exposed individuals to develop sterile long‐lasting protective immunity. This may be due to several factors including the stage specificity of parasite antigen expression, the antigenic variability among field parasites, and the profound immune dysregulation caused by pre‐erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages (Renia & Goh, 2016; Scholzen & Sauerwein, 2016; Van Braeckel‐Budimir et al, 2016). These factors could also contribute to explain why despite tremendous investments and years of research, progress on the vaccination front has been only modest. Clinical efficacy of the most advanced subunit vaccine candidate against P. falciparum (RTS,S) is limited and quickly wanes over time (Olotu et al, 2016). Hopes are emerging from whole attenuated sporozoite vaccination strategies (Sissoko et al, 2017), but the disappointing RTS,S results combined with the fact that vaccine research on P. vivax is only beginning (Tham et al, ...
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), a genus of the Picornaviridae family, are the most frequent etiological agents of common colds (Rueckert, 1996). Rhinoviruses are small, icosahedral viruses, with an average diameter of 300 Å and a molecular mass of ∼8.5 × 106 Da. They are composed of a protein shell that encapsidates a single, positive RNA strand of ∼7000 bases. The capsid is built from 60 copies each of four viral proteins. The three larger proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3 (∼250 amino acids, 30 kDa each), form the external surface of the virus, whereas VP4 (70 amino acids, 6 kDa) is an internal protein located at the interface between the capsid and genome (Rossmann et al., 1985).. With ,100 different serotypes identified to date, HRVs exhibit remarkable antigenic variability. To produce infection, HRVs must first attach to a cellular receptor. The major group of HRVs, consisting of ∼90 serotypes, utilizes the cell surface glycoprotein, intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1), as its ...
Interested in discovering how trypanosomes undergo antigenic variation? If the answer is yes - we have a postdoctoral position available in the Trypanosome Molecular Biology group with Lucy Glover. In our group we study how the trypanosomes control expression of the variant surface glycoprotein from the fly to the mammalian host, and the the role of DNA repair and recombination in antigenic variation and immune evasion in African trypanosomes We are located in the Department of Parasites and Insect Vectors at the Institute Pasteur in Paris, which provides an excellent international scientific environment and state-of-the-art core facilities including high throughput sequencing, and imaging technologies.. ...
Author Summary The molecular evolution of any organism is described by changes in the genotype resulting from genetic drift or selection to maintain or establish fitness under the given environmental conditions. Identification of phenotype-defining changes and their distinction from (near-) neutral (hitchhikers) ones is a fundamental challenge in genome research. The standard approach involves time- and cost-intensive mutation experiments, which are typically low throughput, due to their experimental nature. We have developed a computational method for the inference of phenotypic impact of genotypic changes that is applicable to any system, within or across species, where homologous genetic sequences and associated pairwise phenotype distances are available. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method by application to the human influenza A (H3N2) virus. This exemplary system is of particular interest, as recognizing changes in the antigenic phenotype and a viral strains capability to evade pre
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The primary focus of the Montelaro lab is to elucidate the intricate interactions between viral pathogens and host immune responses to determine the mechanisms by with host immunity contributes to protection and disease and to serve as a basis for the development of effective vaccines. A particular interest of the lab is to develop effective strategies to overcome the challenge of natural viral antigenic variation that has evolved as a common complication to the development of effective vaccines to important viral diseases, including those related to biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Systems currently under investigation include HIV-1 and related animal lentiviruses (SHIV, SIV, and EIAV). Studies in these systems include investigation of the nature and role of antigenic variation during infection, the development of novel assays to characterize virus-specific innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses, and the design of engineered immunogens for effective vaccination against ...
Identification of nuclear proteins that interact differentially with Plasmodium falciparum var gene promoters.: The Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor PfEMP
A novel strategy to predict the antigenic evolution of circulating influenza viruses and more precisely anticipate seasonal flu strains has been developed.
... An analysis is presented for the horizontal displacement and rotation of a vertical pile subjected to lateral loading and moment, and situated in an ideal elastic mass. Influence factors are presented for a wide range of pile flexibilities and length-to-diameter ratios, for both free-head and fixed-head piles. Comparisons between the elastic solutions and the corresponding solutions obtained from the subgrade reaction theory show that the latter considerably overestimates the displacement and rotation of the pile, but gives a reasonable estimate of the moments in the pile. The elastic analysis is extended to include the effect of local yield between the soil and the pile; the load-displacement relationship for relatively flexible piles is found to be markedly influenced by local yield. The characteristics of behavior indicated by the theoretical solutions agree reasonably well with those reported from measurements on full-scale piles.
Yet crucial advances in toxicology also occurred within other NIH laboratories, led during pioneers such as Bernard Brodie and Julius Axelrod and later continued at hand investigators such as JR Mitchell, D Jollow and JR Gillette. There are assorted institutes all across the world, which gather genome data, for benchmark, to discover why united treatment in regard to a genetic malady helps one untiring, but shows no or less to all intents on another. This substance inferior intimacy, lower communications, and much fights discount dapoxetine 90mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction at age 25. J Biol Chem 270:7241В-7250 Prucca CG, Slavin I, Quiroga R, Elias EV, Rivero FD, Saura A, Carranza PG, Luj?n HD (2008) Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is regulated by RNA interference. As infants fit more expressive, they jeopardy wound from falls down stairs and afar chairs, tables, and other structures. Its an surprising process, this on-going detoxification of your consistency order cialis 10mg ...
Problems & Puzzles: Puzzles Puzzle 92. A pile of prime-spheres Days ago my friend Enoch Haga and me starting puzzling each other to construct a pile of balls (a tetrahedron) with the following properties: a) every ball contains a distinct prime, b) each prime-ball must be the sum of the prime numbers contained in the three balls from the immediate inferior level and in contact with the mentioned prime-ball. Can you imagine a pile of balls? A new friend of these pages, Chuck Henry, kindly and quickly provided several beautiful photos generated by him that should help to visualize a pile of balls like the one we are talking about. Please click here 1 and here 2 (*). Question: Get the least solution for a pile of n levels, for n=5, 6 & 7. ...
M. Soriani, P. Petit, R. Grifantini, R. Petracca, G. Gancitano, E. Frigimelica, F. Nardelli, C. Garcia, S. Spinelli, G. Scarabelli, S. Fiorucci, R. Affentranger, M. Ferrer-Navarro, M. Zacharias, G. Colombo, L. Vuillard, X. Daura and G. Grandi. Exploiting antigenic diversity for vaccines design : the Chlamydia ArtJ paradigm. J. Biol. Chem, 2010, 285, 30126-30138. ...
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The MOVAX side grip pile driver is based on MOVAXs Modular System and thus capable of handling a wide variety of piles [linkki]. In order to select the correct arms, clamps and pads information is needed about the main type of piles to be driven, but also whether there is a need to drive also other type of piles, now or in the future ...
The current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients (r1 values). Limitations of this approach are that antigenic relationships among field viruses are not addressed, as comparisons are only with potential vaccine virus. Furthermore, inherent variation among vaccine sera may impair reproducibility of one-way relationship scores. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype ...