TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Nucleation and Growth: Efficacy of an Antifreeze Protein from the Longhorn BeetleRhagium mordax. AU - Perfeldt, Christine Malmos. AU - Chua, Pei Cheng. AU - Daraboina, Nagu. AU - Friis, Dennis. AU - Kristiansen, Erlend. AU - Ramløv, Hans. AU - Woodley, John. AU - Kelland, Malcolm A.. AU - von Solms, Nicolas. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are characterized by their ability to protect organisms from subfreezing temperatures by preventing tiny ice crystals in solution from growing as the solution is cooled below its freezing temperature. This inhibition of ice growth is called antifreeze activity, and in particular, certain insect AFPs show very high antifreeze activity. Recent studies have shown AFPs to be promising candidates as green and environmentally benign inhibitors for gas hydrate formation. Here we show that an insect antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle, Rhagium mordax (RmAFP1), the most potent protein yet found ...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enhance the survival of organisms inhabiting cold environments by affecting the formation and/or structure of ice. We report the crystal structure of the first multi-domain AFP that has been characterized. The two ice binding domains are structurally similar. Each consists of an irregular β-helix with a triangular cross-section and a long α-helix that runs parallel on one side of the β-helix. Both domains are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. A flat plane on the same face of each domains β-helix was identified as the ice binding site. Mutating any of the smaller residues on the ice binding site to bulkier ones decreased the antifreeze activity. The bulky side chain of Leu174 in domain A sterically hinders the binding of water molecules to the protein backbone, partially explaining why antifreeze activity by domain A is inferior to that of domain B. Our data provide a molecular basis for understanding differences in antifreeze activity between the two domains of this
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) aid the survival of cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals in the organism. The binding of AFPs to ice separates the melting point from the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). Although AFPs were discovered more than 40 years ago, the mechan
Until now, few groups reported the antifreeze activity of cyclic glycopeptides;however, the tedious synthetic procedure is not amenable to study the intensive structure activity relationship. A series of N-linked cyclic glycopeptoids and glycopeptide have been prepared to evaluate antifreeze activity as a function of peptide backbone cyclization and methyl stereochemical effect on the rigid Thr position. This study has combined the cyclization protocol with solid phase peptide synthesis and obtained significant quantities of homogeneous cyclic glycopeptide and glycopeptoids. Analysis of antifreeze activity revealed that our cyclic peptide demonstrated RI activity while cyclic glycopeptoids showed no RI activity. These results suggest that the subtle changes in conformation and Thr orientation dramatically influence RI activity of N-linked glycopeptoidsnd glycopeptide have been prepared to evaluate antifreeze activity as a function of peptide backbone cyclization and methyl stereochemical effect ...
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the ...
Very little is known about the mechanism of antifreeze action of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) present in Antarctic teleost fish. Recent NMR and CD studies assisted with total synthesis of synthetic AFGP variants have provided insight into the structure of short AFGP glycopeptides, though the observations did not yield information on the antifreeze mechanism of action. In this study, we use Hamiltonian replica exchange (HREX) molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structure and surrounding aqueous environments of both the natural (AFGP8) and synthetic (s-AFGP4) AFGPs. AFGPs can adopt both amphiphilic and pseudoamphiphilic conformations, the preference of which is related to the proline content of the peptide. The arrangement of carbohydrates allows the hydroxyl groups on terminal galactose units to form stable water bridges which in turn influence the hydrogen-bond network, structure, and dynamics of the surrounding solvent. Interestingly, these local effects lead to the perturbation of ...
Certain Arctic and Antarctic ectotherm species have developed strategies for survival under low temperature conditions that, among others, consist of antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP). AFGP form a class of biological antifreeze agents that exhibit the ability to inhibit ice growth in vitro and in vivo and, hence, enable life at temperatures below the freezing point. AFGP usually consist of a varying number of (Ala-Ala-Thr)(n) units (n=4-55) with the disaccharide beta-D-galactosyl-(1 -> 3)-alpha-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine glycosidically attached to every threonine side chain hydroxyl group. AFGP have been shown to adopt polyproline II helical conformation. Although this pattern is highly conserved among different species, microheterogeneity concerning the amino acid composition usually occurs; for example, alanine is occasionally replaced by proline in smaller AFGP. The influence of minor and major sequence mutations on conformation and antifreeze activity of AFGP analogues was investigated by ...
Brrrrr! Its cold outside. Lots of animals are much better adapted to the cold weather than we are. Polar bears have thick fur, seals and whales have a layer of blubber and some birds migrate.. But what if youre a fish?. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded. They can keep their body temperature higher than the icy environment around them. Fish are cold-blooded. Their body temperature is the same as their surroundings. In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, the temperature is very chilly - below 0 degrees Celsius. The salt in the oceans stops them freezing.. Why dont fish freeze?. To stop their blood freezing, some fish that live in the Arctic and Antarctic have special antifreeze proteins.. Antifreeze proteins are very clever. They slow down the formation of bonds between water molecules, which prevents the formation of ice crystals in the fishs blood.. Scientists are working out how they could use these antifreeze proteins as a non-polluting de-icer for cars and machinery. Antifreeze proteins ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Antifreeze Proteins (AFP) market is...
Scientists have discovered that an ice-binding protein (fcIBP) from the sea ice microalga does not fit in the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins, suggesting unknown mechanisms behind its antifreeze property. This finding could lead to a broader application of the antifreeze protein in food and medical industries.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are often called ice-binding proteins and are thought to bind to ice or ice-like crystals exclusively to control their growth. Here molecular recognition repertoire of AFPs has been greatly expanded to other hydroxyl containing, non-ice like compounds. The inhibitory and habit-modifying effects of AFPs on the stable nuclei formation and on the crystals of nucleosides have been first demonstrated.
The report on global Antifreeze market portrays comprehensive information and conducts a complete study to provide latest market updates and information about present and forecast market scenario. The changes taking place in Antifreeze are elaborated in this report to help readers in making vital business decisions. The Antifreeze industry details are provided in the form of graphs, pie-charts to help the emerging and existing market players, buyers, and suppliers in planning the business strategies. These details will fuel the development of their business and will bring huge revenues in return.. Further, this report incorporates both quantitative as well as qualitative data sets which include market framework, executive summary for the global Antifreeze market.The report also includes key players profile description, details on fiscal & accounting, business tactics and fresh developments in global Antifreeze Market.Tools for competition mapping are also inculcated in the report as an assistant ...
A diver himself, Cziko worked with other divers to place and maintain a temperature-logging device in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, one of the coldest marine environments on the planet. The device recorded ocean temperatures there for 11 years, a substantial portion of notothenioids lifespan. Not once in that time did temperatures increase enough to overcome the antifreeze proteins anti-melting effect to completely rid the fishes of their internal ice, the researchers report.. The researchers suspect that the accumulation of ice inside the fishes could have adverse physiological consequences, but none have yet been discovered.. If the fishes are destined to carry ice crystals around all their lives, Cheng said, it is conceivable that ice particles could obstruct small capillaries or trigger undesired inflammatory responses. Cziko likens the potential threat to dangers posed by asbestos in the lungs or blood clots in the brain.. "Since much of the ice accumulates in the fishes spleens, we think ...
Sea water freezes at -1.9C which presents a problem for any creature that wants to live in Arctic or Antarctic seas. Some species of fish have antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that allow them to live in such environments. Such proteins bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. Consequently the freezing point of blood and body…
Self Bias Resistor writes: According to an article in New Scientist, an antifreeze protein naturally produced by Antarctic fish has been synthesised by U.S. researchers at the University of California. Apparently, this discovery could have a wide variety of applications such as frost-resistant con...
heating system antifreeze catologs and heating system antifreeze manufacturers - 4,124 heating system antifreeze Manufacturers, Exporters & suppliers from China
Certain plants and animals protect themselves against temperatures below freezing with antifreeze proteins. How the larva of the beetle Dendroides canadensis manages to withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees Celsius is reported by an international team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Martina Havenith from the Department of Physical Chemistry II at the Ruhr-Universität in the journal
AFGPs have evolved convergently in unrelated fishes from both Antarctic and Arctic seas to prevent freezing in these cold ice-laden environments. Previous studies have shown that AFGPs of Antarctic notothenioids are encoded by a family of polyprotein genes, with each gene encoding a large precursor containing multiple AFGP molecules linked in tandem by cleavable small spacers (Chen et al., 1997a). High concentrations of AFGPs circulate in the serum of several northern cods either through the whole year or during winter. The size and compositional heterogeneity has been reported for several species of northern cods, but only three AFGP genes from a partial genomic library of polar cod have been characterized. Four more polar cod B. saida AFGP gene sequences, their structures, and organization in the genome are reported here. Genomic Southern analysis indicates that a large AFGP gene family exists in its genome. A high percentage of the AFGP member genes appear to be arranged in tandem and ...
Press Release issued May 15, 2017: Anti-freeze coolants are used in automobiles, HVAC systems, and heat exchangers to facilitate heat transfer process in adverse cold weather conditions. Also, they prevent overheating of the vehicle in summer. These are antifreeze agents or chemicals that are added in water in a certain proportion. This mixture is called an anti-freeze coolant. Antifreeze coolants ensure workability and performance of engines and heat exchangers. Chemicals predominantly used as anti-freeze agents include propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and glycerol. Adverse cold climatic conditions and automotive demand from relatively colder regions across the world maintain stable volumes of demand across the world. Other applications of antifreeze coolants are found in aerospace, industrial applications, and the electronics industry. Typical application in aerospace includes development of anti-icing and de-icing materials.
... meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
... meets or exceeds performance requirements ASTM D3306, JIS K2234 and is recommended for use and fully compatible with product meeting Ford WSS-M97B44-D, Chrysler MS-12106 and GM 6277M.. This ethylene glycol antifreeze/coolant is based on a proprietary organic acid corrosion inhibitor package powered by RECO-COOLTM technology (OAT) that is free of silicates, phosphates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and amines. It provides extended protection against rust, corrosion and pitting caused by cavitation for all coolant system metals, including aluminum. STP® GM Vehicle Extended Life 50-50 Premixed Antifreeze/Coolant is fully compatible with other similarly formulated OAT coolants and is recommended for use in North American cars and light duty vehicles. May also be used in 2010 or newer Ford and 2012 or newer Chrysler models. *When added as an initial fill and properly maintained in accordance with engine manufacturers maintenance ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about antifreeze at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about antifreeze easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
New Roles of Antifreeze Proteins - Antifreeze Proteins as Highly Effective Additives to Control the Crystallization of Non-Ice like Compounds Antifreeze Protein Enhancers: Identification and Mechanisms Effects of Toxic Metal Ions on Zinc Finger Proteins Collaborators Funding
Natural Regulating Factors Budworm populations are usually regulated by combinations of several natural factors such as insect parasites, vertebrate and invertebrate predators, and adverse weather conditions. However, the combined effect of natural agents does not prevent or reduce population resurgences when climatic and forest stand conditions are favorable for an increase in budworm populations. During prolonged outbreaks when stands become heavily defoliated, starvation can be an important mortality factor in regulating populations. Western spruce budworm larvae, pupae, and adults are parasitized and preyed upon by several groups of insects and other arthropods, small mammals, and birds. There are more than 40 species of insect parasites (small wasps and flies) of the western spruce budworm, of which four or five species are most common. Spiders, ants, snakeflies, true bugs, and larvae of certain beetles feed on the budworm, as do chipmunks and squirrels. Birds known to feed on the budworm ...
Used in a growing range of fields, from biology and medicine to astronomy, citizen science involves volunteers gathering data to help scientists answer research questions.. In the case of the spruce budworm outbreak, an innovative project called Budworm Tracker is giving volunteers in eastern Canada the tools to gather and report data on spruce budworm populations - data that is helping scientists monitor and better understand the insect and its spread.. In this initiative, volunteers receive a free Budworm Tracker kit containing a pheromone trap, a data collection sheet and detailed instructions. They hang their trap from a lower branch of a spruce or balsam fir tree near where they live or work.. From mid-June until the end of the summer, these citizen scientists check the trap at least once a week, collecting and counting the moths and recording their findings. Volunteers with a smartphone can report their findings directly on the Budworm Tracker website or use a downloadable app. At the end ...
Psychrophilic organisms produce AFPs in order to prevent ice growth during freezing. Some studies have demonstrated that these proteins are extremely effective in the inhibition of recrystallization of ice even at very low concentrations [49]. However, their working mechanism is not well understood. Moreover, their properties offer the opportunity to exploit AFPs for biotechnological applications, especially in food industry. In frozen food products, freezing provides a multitude of small ice crystals, but it is also important to prevent the formations of large ice crystals [50]. AFPs from Antarctic bacteria GU1.7.1, GU3.1.1 and AFP5.1 were able to reduce the damage associated to ice, probably through the reduction of the size of large ice crystals in buffer solution. This phenomenon was evidenced when zucchini and cucumbers tissues were treated with a commercial and bacterial AFPs, where small pore were (red asterisk Figs. 1, 2) formed on plant cell walls of treated tissues in comparison to the ...
Antifreeze is highly toxic to cats. Please read our blog on antifreeze poisoning and keeping your cat (and others) safe as the weather gets colder.
Antifreeze After watching murder, upon murder shows, one key thing Ive learned about antifreeze is that it has a sweet taste. While Ive never tasted it, I can say that TV has come in quite handy with the knowledge of avoiding antifreeze. The fatal substance is common in driveways in the winter. Some car owners take care of their car very carefully, which can involve antifreeze/coolant changes to prepare for harsh winter weather. A spill is common, and usually unintentional, but the small accident can be a fatal one. The sweet, intoxicating, smell and taste can be a lure for pups. The main ingredient in antifreeze is ethylene glycol. If ingested, the toxic chemical could lead to severe illnesses and even death. According to Petxtreme, "The mortality rate in dogs poisoned by antifreeze ranges from 50 to 70% and is thought to be even higher in cats." That is an extremely high number! If the animal isnt treated immediately, nervous system damage or kidney damage could occur, if death doesnt come ...
Pool antifreeze is an insurance policy against freeze damage to pool pipes and plumbing. Non-toxic pool antifreeze is propylene glycol based - protects pool pipes down to -50° F.
... provides superior heat transfer and excellent protection against corrosion, cylinder-liner cavitation, freezing and boilover. It provides maximum protection in extreme temperatures and operating conditions, and provides superior protection for aluminum, steel, cast iron, copper, brass and solder alloys.
Car accessories high effective car cooling system waterless ethylene glycol msd coolant antifreeze, US $ 0.5 - 1.9 / Piece, Guangdong, China, THIS, ISO9001.Source from Guangzhou Comma Car Care Accessories Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
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Rat and mouse poisons are toxic to children. Antifreeze. Though there are several types of anticoagulants available as rat poison, some populations. The liver metabolizes ethylene glycol into glycolate and oxalate, which cause extensive cellular damage in various tissues, especially the kidneys, but across many different organs. A greedy rat can eat enough poison to kill 20 rats before he starts to feel sick and if a dog or cat eats the rat, the poison is transferred. Most rodent poisons use anti-coagulants that kill the animals by causing uncontrollable bleeding. But usually not quickly. It may sample a small dose but then it would realise that it is not good & not take anymore. There are some types of road salt that apparently contain some antifreeze which can be toxic to dogs. Varmints learn fast by habit and ease of procuring the prey. She said shes received four birds in the past week that have died from poisoning. In the photo below, a homeowner attempted to perform do it yourself raccoon ...
ES Compleat Antifreeze Coolant - Propylene Glycol Concentrate|br|ES Compleat PG is a high performance fully formulated Extended Life Propylene Glycol Antifreeze/Coolant, an environmentally safer and less toxic fluid. It is Fleetguards answer to the maintenance demands of heavy-duty diesel cooling systems. ES Compleat PG only requires possible re-inhibition after 1 year, 150,000 miles or 4,000 hours of operation. It is the perfect mixture that protects your cooling system by preventing scaling, foaming, corrosion and liner pitting. ES Compleat is easy to use, cost effective, and outperforms other extended life coolant products in the marketplace today. |ul||li|For All Heavy-Duty Engines |/li||li|1 Gallon|/li||/ul|
D2982 - 07(2013) Standard Test Methods for Detecting Glycol-Base Antifreeze in Used Lubricating Oils , glycol-base antifreeze, glycol-base coolant, used lubricating oil,
Ingesting a Small Amount of Antifreeze Causes Kidney Failure in Dogs Pound for pound, antifreeze is the heavyweight of poisons seen in small-animal veterin
The AA. investigate the effects of spruce budworm on tree growth at 5 areas within Itasca State Park in northwestern Minnesota near the southwestern margin of the range of balsam. They also document the species composition and age structure along transects in sites infested by spruce budworm. The objectives were to : 1) discover when the latest spruce budworm outbreak started; 2) determine whether tree growth was similarly reduced in earlier decades; and 3) test whether radial tree growth and the start of the outbreak(s) were correlated with climate. They used the computer program OUTBREAK to determine that the current spruce budworm infestation began to reduce tree growth in the 1990s, before it was detected by park officials in 2001. The results show that outbreaks are related to climatic conditions, but they also depend on other factors such as the availability of sufficient food for the spruce budworm ...
The blood serums of Antarctic fishes freeze at -2°C, which is approximately 1°C below the melting points of their serums. This thermal hysteresis is due to the influence of serum glycoproteins. The temperatures of freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of the purified glycoproteins suggest that this thermal hysteresis results from the adsorption of the glycoprotein molecule onto the surface of ice crystals. ...
The Nutshell Putative Gay Genes Identified, Questioned A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
My research involves investigation into synthetic Antifreeze glycoproteins and extremeophile bacteria resistant to cold temperatures within the Gibson group at Warwick chemistry depatment. Further details will be posted at a later date. The image shows a selection of antifreeze proteins (from http://2011.igem.org/Team:KULeuven/Afp) highlighting the large diversity and potential for research ...
The western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, is the most widely distributed and destructive forest defoliator in western North America. Several outbreaks have occurred in Colorado, the largest exceeding two million acres. They commonly infest Douglas-fir and white fir. Occasionally, they also attack Engelmann spruce, blue spruce and sub-alpine fir.
In 2010, the FDA invited public comment on a genetically modified strain of salmon ("Frankenfish" to its critics). There were two issues: whether the FDA should approve this "new animal drug application" (because it is new ground for the FDA and there are no regulations about genetically engineered animals, it was evaluated as if it were an animal treated with drugs); and whether the fish (if approved) must be labeled as genetically engineered or not.. AquAdvantage Salmon was designed to grow twice as fast as traditional fish. It is an Atlantic salmon containing the Chinook salmon growth hormone gene, plus an antifreeze protein gene from the ocean pout-an eel-like creature from a different family of marine organisms.. In 2015, the FDA approved the genetically engineered salmon despite a vocal public outcry, making it the first GE animal to be approved for human consumption. The approval of the GE salmon will likely lead to the development of more GE animals. The New York Times reports that ...
One was a lovely toy poodle which ingested poison in a North Vancouver park (Princess Park) this week-end. The other dogs in the household were also sick but, given the patients small size, the amount of poison he consumed, he did not survive. His presentation was extremely unusual case as the antifreeze (ethylene glycol) was laced with something else which made the detection more difficult. We were told by the family that poison is at times put out in the parks of North Vancouver for dogs and wildlife (bears, coyotes or raccoons). While we can not think who would be so misguided as to do this, we wish to warn the pet owners in that area.. We recently saw a cat who had been exposed to minoxidil (Rogaine). It is known to cause irreversible heart failure in cats. Whether there is some left on hands after applying it, or even if they like to nuzzle (or lick) the treated area or the bottle itself, they become exposed. As more compounds are available for topical treatments (to lessen side effects to ...
A sweet-smelling aroma and antifreeze smell could indicate that the cars heater core is leaking. Other common signs of a bad heater core include a foggy windshield, a water surging sound inside the...
Antifreeze and engine coolant manufacturers who sell products in the U.S. must now add a bitter flavor agent to prevent animals and children from being poisoned by the sweet-tasting liquid. Previously enacted in 17 states, the industry will now voluntarily add the bitter taste to all coolant products sold across 50 states.
Although painted turtles dont have much else in common with automobiles, their wintertime coping strategies include antifreeze, too.
Title: A-A-52624, Date: 1997-Feb-06, Status: Active, Desc: COMMERCIAL ITEM DESCRIPTION ANTIFREEZE MULTI-ENGINE TYPE (06-FEB-1997) [SUPERSEDING O-A-548 A-A-870 MIL
A Sacramento family is mourning the loss of their beloved dog. They believe foul play is involved after their vet discovered antifreeze in the dogs system.
SPRINGFIELD, Mo. (AP) - A southwest Missouri woman is charged with using antifreeze to fatally poison her husband and son and attempt to kil…