Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas.
With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the
The index case of inhalational anthrax in October 2001 was in a man who lived and worked in Florida. However, during the 3 days before illness onset, the patient had traveled through North Carolina, raising the possibility that exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores could have occurred there. The rapid response in North Carolina included surveillance among hospital intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited by the index patient to identify the naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related source of his exposure.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a new indication for BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) to prevent disease following suspected or confirmed exposure to Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax disease. The vaccines new use is approved for people 18 through 65 years of age in conjunction with recommended antibiotic treatment. BioThrax was initially approved by the FDA in 1970 for the prevention of anthrax disease in persons at high risk of exposure.. Anthrax disease, especially the inhalation form, is often fatal if not promptly treated. Anthrax is considered one of the more likely agents to be used in a biological attack, primarily because its spores are very stable and easy to disperse. Although it is rare, people may contract anthrax disease through natural exposures, such as contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.. "With todays approval of BioThrax, we now have a vaccine that can be used, together with antibiotic treatment, to ...
In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) bacteria (yellow) cultured from a blood sample. Seen here are endospores (pink ovals within bacterial cells) and free spores (pink ovals). The spores are reproductive cells that are able to survive dormant in unfavourable conditions for long periods of time. B. anthracis is the cause of anthrax. It can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x9300, when printed 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C020/8537
TREATMENT - ANTHRAX from emedicine.com A number of possible therapeutic strategies have yet to be fully explored experimentally or submitted for approval to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommendations provided do not represent uses currently approved by the FDA but are a consensus based on best available information of recent studies. Given the fulminant course of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic administration is essential to maximize patient survival. Given the difficulty in achieving timely microbiologic diagnosis of anthrax, all persons with fever or evidence of systemic disease in an area where anthrax cases are occurring should be treated empirically for anthrax until the disease is excluded. No clinical studies exist of the treatment of inhalation anthrax in humans. Most naturally occurring strains of anthrax are sensitive to penicillin, and penicillin historically has been the preferred therapy for the treatment of anthrax. Penicillin and doxycycline are FDA-approved ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis bacteria, the cause of anthrax. These are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. The bacteria can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x6550 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C006/3118
Inhalational anthrax is the most serious form of anthrax infection, seen in the cases in Florida and Washington DC. The disease begins when aerosolized anthrax spores are inhaled. Once in the lungs, immune systems cells called macrophages, whose normal function is to ingest, kill, and degrade invading pathogens and activate other immune system cells. However, instead of being killed, the spores reactivate and grow into live bacterial cells. The macrophages transport the bacteria to the lymph nodes, where they proliferate and spread, eventually breaking out of the lymph system into the bloodstream. During this period of lymphatic replication, the patient only displays non-specific symptoms much like the flu. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria proliferate further and begin producing anthrax toxin. Eventually the bacteria spread through the entire circulatory system at high concentrations. Death from inhalational anthrax is associated with shock and multiple organ failure. When untreated, ...
It was reported that the people had anthrax-like small blisters or bumps on their hands and arms after eating the meat.. It was reported that 30 villagers had consumed the meat in question, but most of them had already taken medicine and they could not be successfully tested for anthrax. Instead, the hospital team collected samples from animal carcasses for lab tests with the results expected soon.. The country has been free of livestock anthrax since 2000 and the last anthrax outbreak in Thailand was 17 years ago.. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most common in wild and domestic animals but can also be seen in humans exposed to tissue from infected animals, contaminated animal products or directly to B anthracis spores under certain conditions.. LISTEN: Anthrax: An interview with Dr Buddy Faries. Depending on the route of infection, host factors, and potentially strain-specific ...
In February 2002, scientist Bruce Ivins submitted a sample of the anthrax he has been using to FBI investigators, but it was destroyed because it was not submitted according to strict protocols. As a result, he is asked to submit a second sample in April 2002, and does. Ivins works at USAMRIID, the US Armys top bioweapons laboratory, and is helping with the anthrax investigation even as the FBI has reason to believe the anthrax could have come from USAMRIID (see Mid-October 2001 and Winter 2001). Ivins is using a variety of the Ames anthrax strain known as RMR-1029. Around early 2004, scientists will discover some unique genetic markers to the anthrax used in the 2001 attacks and will start comparing that anthrax to other anthrax. No match will be found between Ivinss April 2002 sample and the anthrax used in the attacks. As a result of this discrepancy, the FBI will raid Ivinss lab in July 2004 and seize more samples of RMR-1029 (see July 16, 2004). Additionally, Paul Keim, a biologist at ...
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of man and animals caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax bacteria form spores, which are extremely stable in the environment. There are three clinical presentations of the disease: 1) Cutaneous infections, the mildest form, occur when bacterial spores become embedded in the skin. 2) The gastrointestinal form, which is extremely rare, occurs when animals ill with anthrax are consumed as food. 3) Inhalation anthrax occurs when the spores are inhaled. Both the inhalation and gastrointestinal forms have high mortality rates. The reservoir of the bacteria is soil, where the spores can remain viable for years. The spores can be found worldwide and are found naturally in some western states in the U.S. and Canada. Animals, including livestock, can acquire the bacteria from contaminated soil. However, there have been no reported cases of anthrax in Indiana livestock since before 1960.. Anthrax is a disease of interest because of its high mortality rate, severe ...
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Define anthrax bacillus. anthrax bacillus synonyms, anthrax bacillus pronunciation, anthrax bacillus translation, English dictionary definition of anthrax bacillus. Noun 1. anthrax bacillus - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals ; can be used a bioweapon Bacillus anthracis B, bacillus -...
Their findings, which appeared online today in Nature, are based on testing in mice. However, the results may contribute to the development of anthrax treatments for humans, the researchers say.. Anthrax disease is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which produces two deadly toxins: lethal toxin and edema toxin. When B. anthracis infects a human or animal, both toxins seek out and bind to receptors on the surfaces of human and animal cells. Using two types of laboratory mice-those missing the anthrax toxin receptor on a single type of cell or those having the receptor present on a single type of cell-the scientists compared disease progression among the rodents. They concluded that anthrax-induced death is caused primarily by lethal toxin targeting heart cells and muscle cells surrounding blood vessels, and edema toxin targeting liver cells.. These results may help scientists studying anthrax disease in humans. For example, the study authors suggest, knowing the types of cells that ...
Until 2001, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, was an obscure agricultural pathogen, but that fall someone sent letters stuffed with anthrax spores to several politicians and journalists. Nearly half (5/11) of those infected by breathing in the spores died from the disease. The anthrax mailings triggered a run on antibiotics, but these drugs only work in the early stages of anthrax infection, before the bacteria have had time to spread and secrete toxins. "These attacks called attention to the need for better therapies for anthrax infection," said Tang ...
Since the last report (1), six new anthrax cases have been reported. Three of these cases have occupational exposures similar to previously reported cases (1). A fourth case occurred in a mail handler at a facility not previously linked to cases but that receives mail from a facility at which cases have occurred previously. Two new cases have no discernable epidemiologic link with anthrax cases previously reported or sites that are associated with known cases. These new cases suggest that anthrax exposure has occurred or is continuing to occur through means that cannot be ascribed to known contaminated letters or the paths these letters took through the mail service. The public health response to these new anthrax cases will evolve based on ongoing epidemiologic and criminal investigations. Because exposures are being intentionally perpetrated, public health authorities must be vigilant for the appearance of new cases in previously unaffected populations. Prompt data sharing between law ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular determinants for a cardiovascular collapse in anthrax. AU - Brojatsch, Jurgen. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. AU - Goldman, David L.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Bacillus anthracis releases two bipartite proteins, lethal toxin and edema factor, that contribute significantly to the progression of anthrax-associated shock. As blocking the anthrax toxins prevents disease, the toxins are considered the main virulence factors of the bacterium. The anthrax bacterium and the anthrax toxins trigger multiorgan failure associated with enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and cardiac dysfunction in animal challenge models. A recent study using mice that either lacked the anthrax toxin receptor in specific cells and corresponding mice expressing the receptor in specific cell types demonstrated that cardiovascular cells are critical for disease mediated by anthrax lethal toxin. These studies are consistent with involvement of the cardiovascular system, and with an increase of ...
A new anthrax antibody engineered by scientists at The University of Texas at Austin protects and defends against inhalation anthrax without the use of antibiotics and other more expensive antibodies. The high-affinity antibody, an anthrax antitoxin, successfully eliminated both anthrax bacteria and its deadly toxins in animal tests. If future tests concur, this could be the first successful treatment for late-stage anthrax infection, even for an anthrax strain that has been designed to resist antibiotics.
Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis). B. anthracis spores are highly infective and can cause inhalation, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal anthrax. Inhalation anthrax results from breathing in spores and is of great concern due to its high fatality rate.
Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA), a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8). Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein
In the United States, incidence of naturally-acquired anthrax is extremely rare (about 1-2 cases of cutaneous disease per year). Gastrointestinal anthrax is rare, but may occur as explosive outbreaks associated with ingestion of infected animals. Worldwide, the incidence is unknown, though B. anthracis is present in most of the world. Unreliable reporting makes it difficult to estimate the true incidence of human anthrax worldwide. However, in fall 2001, 22 cases of anthrax (11 inhalation, 11 cutaneous) were identified in the United States following intentional contamination of the mail. In the United States, the annual occurrences of naturally-occurring human anthrax declined from estimated 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to 2 cases each in 2000, 2001, and 2002 ...
Spores of Bacillus anthracis have for long been regarded as one of the most powerful bioterrorism threats due to their stability and high lethality [1]. The spores can be easily produced and stockpiled in large quantities, using simple microbial techniques by people having access to a virulent strain and incentive to be exposed to the risk connected with its propagation and handling. Previous deliberate spread of anthrax spores as agent of biowarfare has been as aerosol. However, they could also be disseminated through the food or water supply for targeting of the gastrointestinal tract.. Anthrax infections fall into three different categories, reflecting the route of entry; inhalational, gastrointestinal or cutaneous in order of severity of the infection. With regard to bioterrorism, the most realistic mode of mass exposure includes inhalational or gastrointestinal infections. Conceptually, the idea of targeting the food supply is not new [2] and a few records of planned use of anthrax spores ...
Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Assembled complexes containing the toxin components are endocytosed. In the endosome, the enzymatic components of the toxin translocate into the cytoplasm of a target cell. Once in the cytosol, the enzymatic components of the toxin disrupts various immune cell functions, namely cellular signaling and cell migration. The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the ...
Eleven known cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax (IA) were treated in the United States during 2001. We retrospectively compared 2 methods that have been proposed to screen for IA [1, 2]. The 2 screening protocols for IA were applied to the emergency department charts of patients who presented with possible signs or symptoms of IA at Inova Fairfax Hospital (Falls Church, Virginia) from 20 October 2001 through 3 November 2001. The Mayer criteria [1] would have screened 4 patients (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.9%) and generated charges of $1900. If 29 patients (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.7%-3.7%) with ⩾5 symptoms (but without fever and tachycardia) were screened, charges were $13,325. The Hupert criteria [2] would have screened 273 patients (24%; 95% CI, 22%-27%) and generated charges of $126,025. In this outbreak of bioterrorism-related IA, applying the Mayer criteria would have identified both patients with IA and would have generated fewer charges than applying the Hupert criteria.. ...
In a newly published study, researchers from MIT show that a modified version of the anthrax toxin can be used to deliver antibody drugs to kill cancer cells.. Bacillus anthracis bacteria have very efficient machinery for injecting toxic proteins into cells, leading to the potentially deadly infection known as anthrax. A team of MIT researchers has now hijacked that delivery system for a different purpose: administering cancer drugs.. "Anthrax toxin is a professional at delivering large enzymes into cells," says Bradley Pentelute, the Pfizer-Laubauch Career Development Assistant Professor of Chemistry at MIT. "We wondered if we could render anthrax toxin nontoxic, and use it as a platform to deliver antibody drugs into cells.". In a paper appearing in the journal ChemBioChem, Pentelute and colleagues showed that they could use this disarmed version of the anthrax toxin to deliver two proteins known as antibody mimics, which can kill cancer cells by disrupting specific proteins inside the cells. ...
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics ...
Washington Two Washington-area postal workers have been diagnosed with inhalation anthrax and two more employees at the same facility have died of symptoms consistent with the disease, officials said Monday as the nation grappled with an unprecedented bioterrorism threat.. Dr. Ivan Walks, the citys chief health official, also said authorities are investigating as many as nine more cases that have aroused concern. He said he did not know how many of the nine were postal workers or how many were hospitalized.. The disclosures came as postal workers by the dozens lined up for testing, and city authorities urged anyone connected with the affected Brentwood central mail facility to come forward immediately for screening.. "This is a different day," the city health official said at a news conference.. He said the unidentified man diagnosed with the disease was hospitalized in suburban Virginia, at the same facility where another postal worker was diagnosed over the weekend.. He said authorities were ...
human) RATIONALE FOR SURVEILLANCE Anthrax is a widespread zoonosis transmitted from domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, pigs and other) to humans by direct contact or through animal products. Human anthrax is a serious problem in several countries and has potential for explosive outbreaks (especially the gastrointestinal form); while pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax is mainly occupational, the threat of biological warfare attacks should not be forgotten. Anthrax has a serious impact on the trade of animal products. The control of anthrax is based on its prevention in livestock: programmes based only on prevention in humans are costly and likely to be ineffective except for those industrially exposed. There is an effective vaccine for those occupationally exposed, and successful vaccines for livestock, particularly for herds with ongoing exposure to contaminated soil. In most countries anthrax is a notifiable disease. Surveillance is important to monitor the control programmes and to ...
MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Anthim (obiltoxaximab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat inhalational anthrax, a rare disease stemming from infected animal products. Bacillus anthracis spores also pose a deadly bioterrorism threat if released intentionally.. Anthrax toxins can cause severe tissue damage and death, the FDA said Monday in a news release. Anthim, combined with certain antibacterial drugs, is designed to neutralize the toxins. The medications effectiveness was evaluated in studies conducted on animals, since it wasnt ethical or feasible to conduct such trials with human volunteers, the agency said.. The drugs safety was evaluated in 320 healthy human volunteers. The most common side effects included headache, itching, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, nasal congestion, hives and injection-site reactions including swelling, bruising and pain.. Anthims label includes a boxed warning of a potential severe and possibly fatal ...
Weve had anthrax down here for over a hundred years, and Ive been around it all my life, said Randy Hicks, a salesman at the Uvalde Farm and Ranch Supply Company. I can tell you this much, Im sure not scared of it.. State officials said more than 1,600 animals died of anthrax in Texas this summer, the most severe outbreak of the disease since 1987. But no people have died. One man in Del Rio contracted cutaneous anthrax while skinning a buffalo in June, the first confirmed case among humans here since 1988. Another Del Rio man is believed to have contracted the disease but recovered before he could be tested, said Dr. Terry Conger, the states epidemiologist at the Texas Animal Health Commission.. Among Texas ranchers, anthrax is just another occupational hazard among many, like drought, low beef prices or coyotes, that can be managed through care and caution.. There has been anthrax around for as long as there have been people and animals, all the way back to the Bible, Mr. Conger said. ...
Background Anthrax toxin is comprised of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). These proteins are individually nontoxic; however, when PA assembles with LF and EF, it produces lethal toxin and edema toxin, respectively. Assembly occurs either on cell surfaces or in plasma. In each milieu, PA assembles into a mixture of heptameric and octameric complexes that bind LF and EF. While octameric PA is the predominant form identified in plasma under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C), heptameric PA is more prevalent on cell surfaces. The difference between these two environments is that the anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR) binds to PA on cell surfaces. It is known that the extracellular ANTXR domain serves to stabilize toxin complexes containing the PA heptamer by preventing premature PA channel formation-a process that inactivates the toxin. The role of ANTXR in PA oligomerization and in the stabilization of toxin complexes containing octameric PA are not understood.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 60 days of oral antibiotics along with a three-dose regimen of BioThraxT anthrax vaccine (zero, two weeks, four weeks) as an emergency public health intervention for people exposed to anthrax. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro ) and doxycycline are approved in adults and children for post exposure prophylaxis (preventing infection in people exposed to anthrax). Levofloxacin (Levaquin ) is approved for post exposure prophylaxis in adults 18 and older. Common side effects of Cipro include upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dizziness, or headache. Patients taking doxycycline should be aware of the following side effects: upset stomach, vomiting, and diarrhea. Additionally, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin should not be taken with antacids, calcium supplements, and dairy products. These may bind with the medications, decreasing their effectiveness. Common side effects of Levaquin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, ...
Maj. Gen. John Parker. [Source: Public domain]On October 25, 2001, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge tells reporters that the anthrax used in a letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle (D-SD) was "highly concentrated" and "pure" and that a binding material was used, resulting in small spore clusters that are more easily spread. In contrast, the anthrax in a letter sent to the New York Post was coarser and less concentrated. Both letters used the same Ames strain of anthrax bacterium. (The Post letter was part of a less sophisticated first wave of letters (see September 17-18, 2001) and the Daschle letter was from the second wave (see October 6-9, 2001).) On October 29, Major General John Parker, commanding general of USAMRIID, the US Armys top bioweapons laboratory, makes similar comments at a White House briefing. He says silica was found in the Daschle letter anthrax and the anthrax spore concentration in the Daschle letter was ten times that of the New York Post letter. The presence of a binding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. AU - Barochia, Amisha V.. AU - Cui, Xizhong. AU - Sun, Junfeng. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Solomon, Steven B.. AU - Migone, Thi Sau. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Bolmer, Sally D.. AU - Eichacker, Peter Q.. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Background. Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support. We investigated whether protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody (PA-mAb) treatment further augments titrated hemodynamic support.Methods and Results.Forty sedated, mechanically ventilated, instrumented canines challenged with anthrax LT were assigned to no treatment (controls), hemodynamic support alone (protocol-titrated fluids and norepinephrine), PA-mAb alone (administered at start of LT infusion [0 hours] or 9 or 12 hours later), or both, and observed for 96 hours. Although all 8 controls died, ...
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Imagine researchers in hazmat suits moving slowly and deliberately through a lab. One of them holds up a beaker. Its glowing.. This light - or the absence of it - could save millions of dollars for governments and save the lives of anthrax victims.. Scientists at the University of Missouri Laboratory of Infectious Disease Research proved a new method for anthrax detection can identify anthrax quicker than any existing approach.. When the "bioluminescent reporter phage" - an engineered virus - infects anthrax bacteria, it takes on a sci-fi-movie-type glow.. George Stewart, a medical bacteriologist at MUs Bond Life Sciences Center, and graduate student Krista Spreng, observed the virus against a variety of virulent strains of bacillus anthracis, the bacteria causing anthrax disease.. "For this technique, within a few hours, youll have a yes or no answer," Stewart said.. The research, funded by the USDA, was published in the Journal of Microbiological Methods in Aug. 2013. David Schofield at ...
It has been a while since the 2001 anthrax attacks but anthrax remains a potent bio-weapon that is notoriously hard to clean up. Anthrax spores can survive
As Vera and I pointed out to the Commission, and confirmed by CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, after the anthrax letters between 10 and 30 thousand people potentially exposed to anthrax spores took antibiotics. Not a single one developed anthrax. One hundred ninety-eight also took vaccine. They failed to get anthrax. Does vaccine improve the effect of antibiotics? It is impossible to improve on 100% protection, though the Commission would like us to forget this human efficacy experiment. If you give the vaccine with something that is highly (100%) protective, the vaccine will naturally appear to be "most effective" under those circumstances. ...
Source: Washington Post, July 28, 2003. OPINION. Unready for Anthrax By Lawrence M. Wein and Edward H. Kaplan. In any attempted terrorist attack against this country, smallpox and anthrax would be the only two biological agents capable of causing mass casualties. And while the government has invested considerable effort in planning for a potential smallpox attack, no equivalent plan exists for anthrax.. In a recently completed study, we looked into various emergency responses to an airborne anthrax attack and concluded that the United States is woefully unprepared. Two pounds of weapons-grade anthrax dropped on a large American city could result in more than 100,000 deaths, even if early cases were successfully diagnosed, antibiotics were distributed broadly and drug adherence was high. The reason for the catastrophic death toll: Not enough people would receive antibiotics quickly enough to prevent symptoms from developing, and those who developed symptoms would overwhelm the medical ...
The litany of mistakes that were made, detailed in the reports Findings, is breathtaking. Lack of understanding of anthrax. Lack of SOPs. Lack of appropriate experimental design. Failure to follow CDCs own protocols, where they existed. Lack of supervision. Lack of timely communication when the incident was discovered, including identifying employees who may have been exposed so they could receive prophylaxis. (See page 16 of the Report.) However, I disagree that it was highly unlikely that staff were exposed to anthrax: they were, more likely, simply not exposed to enough anthrax spores, along with receiving prophylactic antibiotics, to induce disease. ...
This undated file electronmicrograph from the official U.S. Department of Defense anthrax information Web Site shows Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells in a monkey spleen. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday, June 19, 2014, that some of its staff in Atlanta may have been accidentally exposed to dangerous anthrax bacteria because of a safety problem at some of its labs. less ...
B. anthracis remains a bioterrorism threat, with the potential for thousands or tens of thousands to be exposed after spore release in a densely populated setting5,6,30,31. Such numbers of casualties would likely strain and possibly overwhelm the public health and medical care system and it is highly plausible that some patients may not receive immediate prophylaxis or treatment when symptoms are just beginning to manifest. With large numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments seeking care, it is crucial that emergency physicians, intensivists and other clinicians understand the importance of therapeutic options and timing available to them. For patients with inhalational anthrax who progress to severe disease, morbidity and mortality are largely due to the detrimental effects of toxemia, so the timing for effective treatment of toxin-mediated disease must be understood in order to effectively plan for and respond to such a public health emergency. The United States Strategic ...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in epithelial cells lining Bacillus anthracis three sites of entry. T2 - Implications for the pathogenesis of anthrax infection. AU - Bonuccelli, Gloria. AU - Sotgia, Federica. AU - Frank, Philippe G.. AU - Williams, Terence M.. AU - De Almeida, Cecilia J.. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. AU - Hotchkiss, Kylie A.. AU - Terman, Bruce I.. AU - Rollman, Brent. AU - Alileche, Abdelkrim. AU - Brojatsch, Jürgen. AU - Lisanti, Michael P.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Anthrax is a disease caused by infection with spores from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. These spores enter the body, where they germinate into bacteria and secrete a tripartite toxin that causes local edema and, in systemic infections, death. Recent studies identified the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin (ATR), a type I membrane protein. ATR is one of the splice variants of the tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) gene. ATR and TEM8 are identical throughout their ...
Q: Is there an approved treatment for anthrax? A: Yes. Three types of antiobiotics are approved for anthrax: ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines (including doxycycline), and penicillins. For people who have been exposed to anthrax but do not have symptoms, 60 days of one of these antibiotics is given to reduce the risk or progression of disease due to inhaled anthrax. Q: Does the government have a plan in place to make Cipro available if there were mass exposure to anthrax? A: Yes. Under emergency plans, the Federal government would ship appropriate antibiotics from its stockpile to wherever they are needed. Q: Should individual consumers ask their physicians to write a prescription for Cipro, so they have it on hand in case its needed? A: No. Any needed antibiotics from the current stockpile will be made available if they are needed. In the meantime, Cipro should not be prescribed unless there is a clearly indicated need, so that the drug will be available as the need arises for the standard ...
The anthrax letter attacks after September 11, 2001 demonstrated the ease of using the anthrax spore as a weapon in a bioterrorist attack. Anthrax is a lethal i...
Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacillus, primarily infecting herbivores. Although rare in the developed world the organism remains a threat to livestock in African and Asian countries where control depends on appropriate animal husbandry approaches such as vaccination and disposal/decontamination of carcasses. Animals are thought to contract anthrax by ingesting spores from contaminated soil while humans become infected via contact with diseased animals, their products or as a consequence of acts of bio-terrorism such as occurred in 2001. This unprecedented act has stimulated a burst of research, shedding new light on the biology of the organism and its ability to cause disease. It is to be hoped that this renewed interest will see anthrax once more regain the status of an exotic disease of antiquity. ...
Since October 3, 2001, CDC and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. This report updates findings as of October 31, and includes interim guidelines for the clinical evaluation of pers ...