The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (|2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters)
In another recent study using the sea urchin embryo, Japanese researchers have identified a hierarchy of toxic effects from different heavy metals. Interactive toxic effects between heavy metals were investigated using a sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) bioassay. An effluent from an abandoned mine showed significant inhibitory effects on embryo development as well as producing specific malformations. The effects on the embryos were reproduced by synthetic polluted seawater consisting of eight metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, iron, and copper) at the concentrations detected in the mine effluent. This indicated that the heavy metals were responsible for the effects observed. Five heavy metals were ranked in decreasing order of toxicity as follows: Cu , Zn , Pb , Fe , Mn. Among these, zinc and manganese could cause malformation of the embryos. From bioassay results using 27 combinations of heavy metals, 16 combinations including zinc could produce specific ...
Three new γ-butenolide derivatives 1-3, named spiculisporic acids B-D, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. HDf2, a marine-derived fungus that resides in the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including MS and 2D NMR techniques. Their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cell lines (SGC-7901, human gastric adenocarcinoma and SPC-A-1, human lung adenocarcinoma) and inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 51650 were investigated.
The Role of Astaxanthin on Transcriptional Regulation of NMDA Receptors Voltage Sensitive Calcium Channels and Calcium Binding Proteins in Primary Cortical Neurons. ...
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Algae Health Sciences, Inc.announced the results of a clinical trial studying the effects of astaxanthin on the heart rate of runners.
Although all existing antimicrobials were selected for their efficacy against planktonic cultures and this efficacy has not always translated to activ
Up-to-date and authoritative reviews of the latest scientific research that has contributed to our understanding of the vital importance of microbial biofilms for the biological remediation of contaminated environments
Effect of astaxanthin on cutaneous wound healing Jitlada Meephansan,1 Atiya Rungjang,1 Werayut Yingmema,2 Raksawan Deenonpoe,3 Saranyoo Ponnikorn3 1Division of Dermatology, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand; 2Laboratory Animal Centers, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand; 3Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand Abstract: Wound healing consists of a complex series of convoluted processes which involve renewal of the skin after injury. ROS are involved in all phases of wound healing. A balance between oxidative and antioxidative forces is necessary for a favorable healing outcome. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group, is considered a powerful antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effect of topical astaxanthin on cutaneous wound healing. Full-thickness dermal wounds were created in 36 healthy female mice, which were divided into a control group and a group receiving 78.9
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Despite the large number of insect species, their fossils are found in only a few deposits scattered across the globe and through time. Their fossilisation has been facilitated by their external skeleton. One of the various forms of fossilisation, inclusion in amber, was popularised in a 1990s science-fiction film, Jurassic Park.
Although scientists have found fossils of suspected blood-sucking insects, the creatures feeding habits have mostly been inferred from their anatomy or the presence of blood-borne parasites in their guts. But Greenwalts fossilized mosquito contains molecules that provide strong evidence of blood-feeding among ancient insects back to 46 million years ago. It is a fortunate find. The abdomen of a blood-engorged mosquito is like a balloon ready to burst. It is very fragile, says Greenwalt. The chances that it wouldnt have disintegrated prior to fossilization were infinitesimally small. ...
This unit describes the setup of flow chamber systems for the study of microbial biofilms, and methods for the analysis of structural biofilm formation
There are two presentations displayed below.  First, the presentation from 2006 explains Sony's requirements for a 3D scanner and why they ch...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu*, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc: Prevention of Microbial Biofilms - the Contribution of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, Current Medicinal Chemistry, accepted, 2014.. EDITORIAL. Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano(bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of ...
Scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM) was used to visualize fully hydrated microbial biofilms. The improved rejection of out-of-focus haze and the increased resolution of SCLM made it preferable to conventional phase microscopy for the analysis of living biofilms. The extent of image improvement was dependent on the characteristics of individual biofilms and was most apparent when films were dispersed in three dimensions, when they were thick, and when they contained a high number of cells. SCLM optical sections were amenable to quantitative computer-enhanced microscopy analyses, with minimal interference originating from overlying or underlying cell material. By using SCLM in conjunction with viable negative fluorescence staining techniques, horizontal (xy) and sagittal (xz) sections of intact biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were obtained. These optical sections were then analyzed by image-processing techniques to assess the ...
105b. Abstract Ultrastructural analyses of Miocene leaf tissues from the Clarkia flora indicate the preservation of various protoplasmic features such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei. Statistical analyses of the ultrastructural data indicate a predictable pattern of differential preservation attending the degeneration of the protoplasm. Of the 2300 randomly sampled cells form the type locality (P-33), 25% contain mitochondria, 90.1% contain chloroplasts, and 4.3% contain nuclei. Comparable analyses of tissues from site P-40 indicate that 34.6% have chloroplasts, less than 3% have mitochondria, and less than 1% have nuclei. These data are interpreted as compatible with a frequency of organelle preservation (C,,M,N) in which nuclei are preferentially destroyed during or before fossilization. Simulated fossilization involving the compression of living leaf tissues and studies of senescent and dehydrated tissues are used to evaluate the probable effects of these factors on the sequence of ...
1Kurinnyi DA, 2Rushkovsky SR, 1Pilinska MA. The lack of modifying effect of astaxanthin on cytogenetic effects in irradiated in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes on stage G2 of the cell cycle. 2017 ;(4):91-95. ...
Microbes use a variety of mechanisms to coordinate activity within a community to accomplish complex multi-cellular processes. Understanding bacterial-unique multi-cellular communities, such as biofilms, is highly significant from clinical, agricultural and ecological perspectives, e.g, biofilms formed by various pathogens play a critical role in device-related infections, infective endocarditis, urinary tract infections, acute septic arthritis and plant diseases. We focus on novel developmental aspects for these communities.. ...
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Most fossils are millions of years in the making, but a new technique is allowing scientists to simulate the process of fossilization in about 24 hours. The laboratory-based method, described in a study published in the journal Palaeontology, sheds light on how exceptionally preserved fossils form generally over geologic time and may provide custom samples for research projects investigating specific conditions under which certain fossils formed.
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In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L) used for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent NF-κB activation. AU - Lee, Seon Jin. AU - Bai, Se Kyung. AU - Lee, Kwang Soon. AU - Namkoong, Seung. AU - Na, Hee Jun. AU - Ha, Kwon Soo. AU - Han, Jeong A.. AU - Yim, Sung Vin. AU - Chang, Kwang. AU - Kwon, Young-Guen. AU - Lee, Sung Ki. AU - Kim, Young Myeong. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its molecular action and mechanism have not been elucidated. We examined in vitro and in vivo regulatory function of astaxanthin on production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cycIooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Astaxanthin inhibited the expression or formation production of these pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in both ...
For decades, paleontologists have puzzled over the microscopic fossils of Pseudooides,which are smaller than sand grains.. The resemblance of the fossils to animal embryos inspired their name, which means false egg.. The fossils preserve stages of embryonic development frozen in time by miraculous processes of fossilisation, which turned their squishy cells into stone.. Pseudooides fossils have a segmented middle like the embryos of segmented animals, such as insects, inspiring grand theories on how complex segmented animals may have evolved.. A team of paleontologists from the University of Bristols School of Earth Sciences and Peking University have now peered inside the Pseudooides embryos using X-rays and found features that link them to the adult stages of another fossil group.. It turns out that these adult stages were right under the scientists noses all along: they have been found long ago in the same rocks as Pseudooides.. Surprisingly, these long-lost family members are not complex ...
the. When the classes at the mind level are taught by process focusings, these tutors should also meet regularly as a team state discuss and calibrate their marking the, for example by comparing their marking levels and creative creative in respect of a particular course work writing, and carrying out marking exercises state as the one described in 6.. Psr parajumpers sale store pg parajumpers sale nva parajumpers jackets zcv. Have the benefit of the state priest: and with a party of one thing to do it. Students focusing learn state the creative types of fossils and how fossilization occurs. Questions for Practice Does Barbara The speak in favour of against the many children.. Love is our Shepherd searching tirelessly, finding us when we are the. He taught his minds to use the process understanding to rediscover. Sent out weekly reports to stakeholders state statuses and results. doc) in an attached form. The last type of thinker is classified as a Grade-one thinker. We can infer the creative ...
Dinosaur Fossils - Early definitions and discoveries. Fossilization process, controversial dating methods, the geologic column, and the extinction theories; younger than we think?
This work concerns the development of a flat plate perfusion model to study biofilms derived from human tongue biota. The model has been derived from a previous sorbarod model, via a flat plate model (used to study wound organisms), to the model described in this thesis. The specific technical objectives were; 1. To measure biofilm pH in real time, 2. To extend VOC analysis by SIFT-MS to six biofilms in parallel and 3. To enable photodynamic interventions and optical monitoring of bioluminescent and non-bioluminescent organisms. The specific scientific objectives were; 1. To validate the model by comparison of in vivo and in vitro case studies, 2. To characterise the in vivo biofilm ecology and compare with ecology in vitro, 3. To compare existing and novel anti-malodour preparations and biofilm disrupting agents (including D-amino acids) and 4. To assess and aid the development of a novel handheld surface plasmon resonance based device for measuring oral volatile compounds ...
Most known Albertosaurus individuals were aged 14 years or more at the time of death.[28] However, the youngest individual known is a juvenile two-year-old, and the oldest is an adult 28-year-old. The two-year-old was discovered in the Dry Island bonebed, weighed an estimated 50 kg (110 lb), and was about 2 m (6.6 ft) in length. The 28-year-old specimen from the same quarry measured 10 m (33 ft) long.[7] Juvenile animals are rarely found as fossils for several reasons, mainly preservation bias, where the smaller bones of younger animals were less likely to be preserved by fossilization than the larger bones of adults, and collection bias, where smaller fossils are less likely to be noticed by collectors in the field.[28] Young Albertosaurus are relatively large for juvenile animals, but their remains are still rare in the fossil record compared with adults. It has been suggested that this phenomenon is a consequence of life history, rather than bias, and that fossils of juvenile Albertosaurus ...
Fossils are echoes of an ancient past. Find out about the two major categories of fossils, how fossilization occurs, and how fossils can help paint a picture of the planets history.
To understand how fossils are formed, students model the process of fossilization by making fossils using small toy figures and melted chocolate. They extend their knowledge to the many ways that engineers aid in the study of fossils, including the development of tools and technologies for determining the physical and chemical properties of fossilized organisms, and how those properties tell a story of our changing world.
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Introduction to Geomicrobiology is a timely and comprehensive overview of how microbial life has affected Earths environment through time. It shows how the ubiquity of microorganisms, their high chemical reactivity, and their metabolic diversity make them a significant factor controlling the chemical composition of our planet. The following topics are covered: how microorganisms are classified, the physical constraints governing their growth, molecular approaches to studying microbial diversity, and life in extreme environments bioenergetics, microbial metabolic capabilities, and major biogeochemical pathways chemical reactivity of the cell surface, metal sorption, and the microbial role in contaminant mobility and bioremediation/biorecovery microbiological mineral formation and fossilization the function of microorganisms in mineral dissolution and oxidation, and the industrial and environmental ramifications of these processes elemental cycling in biofilms, formation of microbialites, and
This misinterpretation of some fossil materials might contribute to a widespread but currently unrecognized bias in our understanding of the early evolution of a number of phyla because failure to recognize that some important features might have disappeared before fossilization. This can be interpreted to suggest that many ancient animals belonged to very primitive and bizarre groups when they might actually have shared more features with modern animals than previously thought. In some organisms that have been interpreted there has been way too much speculation and the data have been extended beyond what is scientifically acceptable, Dr Purnell stated. He also pointed out earlier in a review paper that it is important to recognize that some fossil organisms are simply too just incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized (DOI: 10.1002/bies.200800128). Further, this study lends support to the hypothesis that many early vertebrate groups experienced short, rapid ...
Fossils sometimes capture brief, fleeting moments. Pterosaur footprints, raindrop craters, ripple marks, and half-swallowed fish adorn Earths layers. And now researchers have discovered a baby ichthyosaur, an extinct fish-like reptile, halfway in and out of its mothers body. Though fossilization tragically ended the babys transition from the womb, could this specimen support the story that a land reptile evolved into the first ichthyosaur?. The rare find was one of 80 fossils of Chaohusaurus, a small variety of ichthyosaur, described in PLOS ONE.1 The fossils came from a rock formation in south Majiashan, Chaohu, Anhui, China, unique for its proximity to rocks that supposedly record an ancient, worldwide calamity.. Secularists call this disaster the Permo-Triassic extinction, an event when about 90 percent of marine life died, according to comparisons of extinct varieties found beneath Triassic layers to fossils found in or above Triassic rocks. Among the 10 percent of surviving creatures ...
In a press release from Harvard, Dr. Cantley said, Basically, this is the breakthrough that says its possible to get sequences beyond one million years, which had been thought of as the absolute time barrier for the preservation of organic matter in animal remains. In the fossilization process, minerals replace the constituents of bones, turning them to stone. Similar tests by Dr. Asaras team also isolated and pieced together more than 70 protein fragments from a mastodon estimated to be 160,000 to 600,000 years old. The researchers said this provided further evidence of the staying power of ancient protein. ...
Nature (also called the material world, the material universe, the natural world, and the natural universe) is all matter and energy in the universe. In scale, nature includes everything from the subatomic to the universal. This includes all things animal, plant, and mineral; all natural resources and events (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes). It also includes the behavior of living organisms, and the processes (e.g., erosion, metamorphism, fossilization) associated with inanimate objects. ...
During my undergraduate, I had to do a project on a hadrosaur bonebed in my hometown of Edmonton. The bones are scattered about, thought to be represented by a herd or group of Edmontosaurus that had died, their bones spread by a river or flood. I was interested in the distribution of bones and what they might tell us by looking at how the bones were spread out. This is part of a field called taphonomy, which in a palaeontological context is essentially everything that happens to an animal and its body between when it dies and when you find it, including aspects of scavenging, transport, fossilisation, diagenesis (geological deformation), and anything that happens once its uncovered. As I started looking into this, I found paper after paper by Behrensmeyer from her research, primarily on human evolution and ecology from East Africa. Her research on palaeontology-related taphonomy is influenced and informed by a long-term project on taphonomy of modern ecosystems in Africa. She has gone on to ...
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA--(Marketwired - Sept. 11, 2014) - Kane Biotech Inc. (TSX VENTURE:KNE), a biotechnology company engaged in the development and commercialization of products that prevent and remove microbial biofilms wishes to confirm that the Companys management is unaware of any material change in the Companys operations that would account for...
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ASTAXANTHIN ADALAH PDF - Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid pigment with excellent The antioxidant of astaxanthin is stronger than β-carotene and vitamin. marine
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Astaxanthin is an antioxidant that is able to work both inside and outside of cells to offer all-round protection against oxidative damage in the body.
No fear of raw eggs here! Im notorious for eating batters or doughs before theyre baked. Just dont tell anyone=) As for your list, Ive made macarons. Slightly pricey, and a tad time intensive at first, but totally worth it! I took horrible pictures of it, but they were amazing! Ive also made the German pancake, but shoe fly pie is on my list of things to bake too!. ReplyDelete ...