Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
The Antennapedia (Antp) homeotic gene of Drosophila melanogaster controls cell fates and pattern formation in the epidermis, nervous system and mesoderm of thoracic segments. Its expression is controlled at the levels of transcription, alternative RNA splicing, polyadenylation and translation. Two nested Antp transcription units extend over 103 kb and produce sixteen different transcripts. We have compared the Antp genes of Drosophila virilis, Drosophila subobscura and D. melanogaster to determine which structural features are conserved and therefore may be important to the genes function. The overall gene structures are similar. There are many conserved sequence blocks throughout the large introns, at least 15 kb upstream of the first promoter, and at least 3 kb downstream of the last polyadenylation site. Intron and exon sequence conservation around alternative splice sites indicates that alternative protein coding forms may also be conserved. Protein coding potential is perfectly conserved ...
The trithorax (trx) gene is required for normal development of the body plan in Drosophila embryos and adults. Mutations in trx cause homeotic transformations throughout the body. Genetic studies suggest that trx encodes a positive regulatory factor required throughout development for normal expression of multiple homeotic genes of the bithorax and Antennapedia complexes (BX-C and ANT-C). To determine how trx influences homeotic gene expression, we examined the expression of the BX-C genes Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A, Abdominal-B and the ANT-C genes Antennapedia, Sex combs reduced and Deformed in trx embryos. We show that trx does indeed exert its effects by positively regulating homeotic gene expression and that its effects on expression of individual homeotic genes are complex: each of the BX-C and ANT-C genes examined exhibits different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific reductions in their expression. This implies that each of these genes have different requirements ...
1HOM: Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the Antennapedia homeodomain from Drosophila in solution by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
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Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that regulates segmental identity in the mesothorax. Provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis (By similarity).
The ANTP class is the largest of the homeobox gene classes in animal genomes. Thus far, these genes have only been found in animals. The ANTP class derives its name from (but is not an abbreviation for) the Antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila. Although the best known ANTP class genes are the Hox genes, these comprise a minority of ANTP class genes. The human and mouse genomes each have 39 HOX genes, amongst a total of 100 ANTP genes (Holland et al. 2007; Zhong and Holland, 2011); there are also 19 ANTP pseudogenes described in the human genome and 2 in mouse. The amphioxus genome has 60 ANTP genes including 15 Hox genes (Takatori et al. 2008); Drosophila melanogaster has 47 ANTP class genes ...
The ANTP class is the largest of the homeobox gene classes in animal genomes. Thus far, these genes have only been found in animals. The ANTP class derives its name from (but is not an abbreviation for) the Antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila. Although the best known ANTP class genes are the Hox genes, these comprise a minority of ANTP class genes. The human and mouse genomes each have 39 HOX genes, amongst a total of 100 ANTP genes (Holland et al. 2007; Zhong and Holland, 2011); there are also 19 ANTP pseudogenes described in the human genome and 2 in mouse. The amphioxus genome has 60 ANTP genes including 15 Hox genes (Takatori et al. 2008); Drosophila melanogaster has 47 ANTP class genes ...
1FTZ: Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the fushi tarazu homeodomain from Drosophila and comparison with the Antennapedia homeodomain.
Although Hox proteins have fundamental roles in development, researchers have long been puzzled by what creates their binding specificity. Now, Walter Gehring and co-workers add a piece to that puzzle (see p. 1669). The Hox DNA-binding homeodomain has low sequence specificity, and co-factors are thought to contribute to this specificity by binding to a conserved YPWM motif (found in most Hox proteins). Gehrings lab previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Drosophila Hox gene Antennapedia (Antp) causes cells of the eye to adopt the developmental fate of the wing. Now they show that YPWM is required for this eye-to-wing transformation and, using a yeast two-hybrid system, have identified a YPWM-binding protein called BIP2. Using gain-of-function experiments and a new bip2 mutant allele, the authors show that the ANTP-BIP2 interaction is required for the ectopic formation of wing structures. BIP2 is a TATA-binding protein associated factor (TAF), making this the first demonstration ...
Generally, all bilaterans examined have similar conservation of HOX protein structure, function, expression, and requirement. However, at the level of being the same, it is unknown whether the HOX protein, Antennapedia, is required for tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster as in Tribolium casteneum, or whether the requirement of HOX proteins in determination of body parts diverges in insects. I proposed to use a heat shock-inducible nanobody (UAS- NSlmb-vhhGFP4 driven by hsp-GAL4) activated during the third larval stage in all cells to degrade thoracically expressed HOX proteins (Sex combs reduced, Antennapedia, and Ultrabithorax) tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) derivatives; GFP, YFP, CFP, or 17 amino acid epitope of GFP. Due to difficulties in establishing CRISPR mediated homologous recombination, only the initial steps have been completed, but the system is now established to determine whether HOX requirement for tarsus determination is conserved in insects.
Homeobox protein Hox-A7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXA7 gene.[1][2][3] In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. For example, the encoded protein represses the transcription of differentiation-specific genes during keratinocyte proliferation, but this repression is then overcome by differentiation signals. This gene is highly similar to the antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila.[3] ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
improved in situ hybridization method for the detection of cellular RNAs in Drosophila tissue sections and its application for localizing transcripts of the homeotic Antennapedia gene complex., An ...
Embryonic, larval, and pupal Antp RNA products of 3.5 and 5kb can be detected. Antennapedia is transcribed from two promoters (P1 and P2) but at least it was not clear in the past whether the protein is produced from P2 transcript (Laughon et al., (1986)). GI:156946 was not studied by IRESite curator in detail yet. The transcript from the P1 promoter has 1512nt long 5-UTR derived from non-coding exons A (55nt), B(88nt), D(252nt), E (621 out of 777nt are coding) and from coding exons F(39nt), G(226nt), H(819nt; note the difference to the H exon of P2 variant below). P1 transcripts are of 3.4 and 4.9kb and appear slightly later than the exon C transcripts (from promoter P2). The 4.9-kb RNA is more abundant than the 3.4-kb species in embryos. Antp transcripts are also found in third-instar larvae and in pupae at about 1/10 of the embryonic levels (Laughon et al., (1986) Fig. 2A). [Laughon et al., (1986)] P1 related GenBank records: complete P1 mRNA record GI:156948, 4694nt long, CDS[1526-2662] DNA ...
Discover the best homework help resource for ANTP at University of Akron. Find ANTP study guides, notes, and practice tests for The University Of Akron.
FF domains are found singly or in multiple copies but the number of FF domains in protein sequences ranges, in general, between two and six [1,2,3,4,5,6]. The FF domain is composed of three α-helices arranged in an orthogonal bundle with a 3(10) helix in the loop between the second and third α helices (see ,PDB:1H40,). The two highly conserved phenylalanine residues are in the middle of the first and third α helices, and form part of the hydrophobic core of the protein [3,4,5,6.]. The profile we developed covers the entire FF domain. Last update: June 2013 / First entry. ...
Protein transduction domains (PTDs), both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been extensively utilized for intracellular delivery of biologically active molecules both in vitro and in vivo. However, most comparisons of transduction efficiency have been performed using fluorescent markers. To compare efficiency of functional protein transduction, a peptide derived from IkB kinase ß (IKKß) that prevents formation of an active IKK complex was used as a biologically active cargo. This peptide, termed NEMO Binding Domain (NBD), is able to block activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB by IKK, but not basal NF-κB activity. Our results demonstrate that Antp and Tat PTDs were most effective for delivery of NBD for inhibition of NF-kB activation compared to other PTD-NBD in both Hela and 293 cells, however, at higher concentrations (100 µM), the Antp-NBD as well as the FGF-NBD peptide caused significant cellular toxicity. In contrast to the cell culture results, delivery of NBD using 8K
There are things to be said about both ways of working. For one, if you leave the type selector off it will decrease the length of your selector which improves the readability of your css file, especially when many selectors are stringed together. Less scrolling sideways is a good thing. On the other hand, adding the type selector does give you extra information on the class and might make it easier to recognize elements as you got the html element to help you out. A more important argument popped up when I was revising our deliverables (our company only does front-end, so we deliver templates to be implemented by partners). Adding the type selector locks the css to the html code. By doing this, you create an extra checkpoint for people to implement the templates you deliver. If, for example, they used an ...
HOXD1 is a protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain, and it belongs to the Antp homeobox family. This nuclear protein functions as a…
Container and custom selector tests to come later. Log: Unit tests for core selectors, along with some minor bug fixes for problems discovered when writing the tests ...
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First, the model proposes EXD as a required co‐activator for most HOX target elements. All known elements activated in response to HOX proteins also require exd function (Chan et al., 1994, 1996; Rauskolb and Wieschaus, 1994; Popperl et al., 1995; Sun et al., 1995). Based on the phenotypes of exdmz− mutants and of clones of exd mutant cells in adult cuticular structures (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990; Gonzalez‐Crespo and Morata, 1995; Rauskolb et al., 1995), it seems likely that a great many other HOX target elements also require exd for their activation. The only HOX protein that appears to have some exd‐independent activation function is ABD‐B (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990). This correlates with the absence of a YPWM motif just upstream of the ABD‐B homeodomain sequence. The YPWM or hexapeptide motif is required for the formation of HOX-EXD or HOX-PBX cooperative binding complexes (Chang et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1995; Knoepfler and Kamps, 1995; Neuteboom et al., 1995; Phelan et ...
The absence of Antp+ function during embryogenesis results in the larval mesothorax exhibiting characteristics of the prothorax and an ensuing lethality; the loss of Antp+ function in the development of the adult thorax causes specific portions of the leg, wing and humeral imaginal discs to develop abnormally. Every Antp mutation, however, does not cause all of these developmental defects. Certain mutant alleles disrupt humeral and wing disc development without affecting leg development, and they are not deficient for the wild-type function required during embryogenesis. Other Antp mutations result in abnormal legs, but do not alter dorsal thoracic development. Mutations of each type can complement to produce a normal adult fly, which suggests that there are at least two discrete functional units within the locus (Abbott, 1986). Ectopic expression of homeotic genes, Dfd, Scr and Antp, results in the disruption of the developing PNS in the abdomen. Thus homeotic genes have specific roles in ...
attribute of HTML elements in documents that are in quirks mode must be treated as ASCII case-insensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. Attribute and element names of HTML elements in HTML documents must be treated as ASCII case-insensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. Everything else (attribute values on HTML elements, IDs and classes in no-quirks mode and limited-quirks mode, and element names, attribute names, and attribute values in XML documents) must be treated as case-sensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. ...
SpecialChem Selector is the universal selection source for bio-based products and materials. You can contact SpecialChem to get your bio-based products and materials listed on the Selector.
SpecialChem Selector is the universal selection source for bio-based products and materials. You can contact SpecialChem to get your bio-based products and materials listed on the Selector.
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I am working through chapter 15 of The Big Nerd Ranch iOS Book 3rd edition, which deals with subclassing table view cells. After creating a custom...
Overloaded. Groups the elements of a sequence according to a specified key selector function and creates a result value from each group and its key. Key values are compared by using a specified comparer, and the elements of each group are projected by using a specified function.(Defined by Enumerable.) ...
We all now recognize that 2016 was a highly unusual year. Political events that we are witnessing today seemed simply impossible 12 months ago.
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
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There are several subsets of homeotic genes. They include many of the Hox and ParaHox genes that are important for segmentation.[5] Hox genes are found in bilateral animals, including Drosophila (in which they were first discovered) and humans. Hox genes are a subset of the homeobox genes. The Hox genes are often conserved across species, so some of the Hox genes of Drosophila are homologous to those in humans. In general, Hox genes play a role of regulating expression of genes as well as aiding in development and assignment of specific structures during embryonic growth. This can range from segmentation in Drosophila to central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.[6] Both Hox and ParaHox are grouped as HOX-Like (HOXL) genes, a subset of the ANTP class (named after the Drosophila gene, Antennapedia).[7] They also include the MADS-box-containing genes involved in the ABC model of flower development.[8] Besides flower-producing plants, the MADS-box motif is also present in other ...
During this growth, the expanding brain pulls the prochordal plate (future buccopharyngeal membrane) and the central part of the cardiogenic plate forward, rotating the plate and pericardial part of the intraembryonic coelomic cavity so that the central portions of the cardiogenic plate and pericardial cavity, initially rostral to the buccopharyngeal plate, are now ventral and caudal to ...
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Overloaded. Groups the elements of a sequence according to a specified key selector function and creates a result value from each group and its key. Key values are compared by using a specified comparer, and the elements of each group are projected by using a specified function.(Defined by Enumerable.) ...
During animal development, selector genes determine identities of body segments and those of individual organs. Selector genes are also misexpressed in cancers, although their contributions to tumor progression per se remain poorly understood. Using a model of cooperative tumorigenesis, we show that gain of selector genes results in tumor cooperation, but in only select developmental domains of the wing, haltere and eye-antennal imaginal discs of Drosophila larva. Thus, the field selector, Eyeless (Ey), and the segment selector, Ultrabithorax (Ubx), readily cooperate to bring about neoplastic transformation of cells displaying somatic loss of the tumor suppressor, Lgl, but in only those developmental domains that express the homeo-box protein, Homothorax (Hth), and/or the Zinc-finger protein, Teashirt (Tsh ...
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.9.3a1pre) Gecko/20100203 Firefox/3.7a1pre Build Identifier: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.9.3a1pre) Gecko/20100203 Firefox/3.7a1pre Run the http://www.css3.info/selectors-test/test.html Selector test. Reproducible: Always Steps to Reproduce: 1. Test fails near the end Actual Results: Doesnt pass the checkbox test http://www.css3.info/selectors-test/test-checked.html#checked Expected Results: Pass all the css3 selector ...
Gabriela Cowperthwaite explains why she was motivated as a mother to make the film Blackfish, which airs on CNN Thursday, October 24.
Reconstruction of the endocardium of the heart and its arterial trunks in No. 6520, a member of the median third of stage 17. It is shown in two parts, A and B. In A, only the derivatives of the primary cardiac tube are shown. In B, enough of the primary tube is removed to expose the venous part of the heart. The latter, being in a contracted state, reveals in an unobstructed view the right and left atrioventricular canals, now clearly separated, each leading forward into its respective ventricle. It will be noted that the primary cardiac tube is connected with the venous part of the heart only at the two atrioventricular junctions. When the latter are severed, the arterial portion can be freely separated from the venous part. In A, the cleavage has not yet crossed the crest of the septum, and both arterial trunks lead off from both ventricles. From the distention of the endocardium of the primary cardiac tube, however, one can see that the left ventricle favors the aorta and the right ventricle ...
NYSCF - Robertson Stem Cell Investigator Dr. Paola Arlotta, of Harvard University, published her latest work on gene co-regulation in Nature Neuroscience.. The regulatory logic, or rules, that orchestrate the expression of the unique combinations of genes in each neuron class is unknown. In this study the scientists discovered that Fezf2 is the first selector gene able to regulate on its own the expression of large batteries of genes that collectively define corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN). CSMN are one specific class of cortical neurons responsible for the initiation and fine execution of motor function.These neurons are affected in diseases like ALS and are injured in spinal cord injury.. This is the first discovery of a selector gene for any class of neurons of the cerebral cortex and will aid efforts to program CSMN from stem cells in order to model disease affecting CSMN in vivo.. Read the paper in Nature Neuroscience ,,. ...
Correct identification of individual Hox proteins is an essential basis for their study in diverse research fields. Common methods to classify Hox proteins focus on the homeodomain that characterise homeobox transcription factors. Classification is hampered by the high conservation of this short domain. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is a widely used but time-consuming classification method. We have developed an automated procedure, HoxPred, that classifies Hox proteins in their groups of homology. The method relies on a discriminant analysis that classifies Hox proteins according to their scores for a combination of protein generalised profiles. 54 generalised profiles dedicated to each Hox homology group were produced de novo from a curated dataset of vertebrate Hox proteins. Several classification methods were investigated to select the most accurate discriminant functions. These functions were then incorporated into the HoxPred program. HoxPred shows a mean accuracy of 97%. Predictions on the
Looking for Homeodomain protein? Find out information about Homeodomain protein. A highly conserved sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid that occurs in the coding region of development-controlling regulatory genes and codes for a protein... Explanation of Homeodomain protein
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have attracted great interest as delivery vehicles in medicine, with potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents or cosmetic products. Biological membranes are typically impermeable ...