Animal welfare science is the scientific study of the welfare of animals as pets, in zoos, laboratories, on farms and in the wild. Although animal welfare has been of great concern for many thousands of years in religion and culture, the investigation of animal welfare using rigorous scientific methods is a relatively recent development. The worlds first Professor of Animal Welfare Science, Donald Broom, was appointed by Cambridge University (UK) in 1986. Early legislation which formed the impetus for assessing animal welfare and the subsequent development of animal welfare science include the Ireland Parliament (Thomas Wentworth) "An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living Sheep", 1635, and the Massachusetts Colony (Nathaniel Ward) "Off the Bruite Creatures" Liberty 92 and 93 in the "Massachusetts Body of Liberties" of 1641. Richard Martins act, the "Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822" is often considered to be the precursor of modern relevant legislation. One of ...
Animal welfare and rights in India regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in India. It is distinct from animal conservation in India. India is home to several religious traditions advocating non-violence and compassion towards animals, and has passed a number of animal welfare reforms since 1960. India is also one of the worlds leading producers of animal products. Indias first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, criminalizes cruelty to animals, though exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments. The 1960 law also created the Animal Welfare Board of India to ensure the anti-cruelty provisions were enforced and promote the cause of animal welfare. Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of draught animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation. The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and ...
Introduction. The ethical analysis of our moral obligations to animals, as well as practical decisions regarding many issues in veterinary medicine, both presuppose some account of "animal welfare" - that is, of what makes an animals life go well or poorly. Therefore, it is essential that we think critically about the concept of animal welfare. This paper briefly explores some philosophical issues in the definition and assessment of animal welfare.. Two Different Senses of "Animal Welfare". The first thing to clarify is the way in which Im using the term "animal welfare." In both moral philosophy and ordinary language (as concerns humans), the term "welfare" is roughly synonymous with "wellbeing." To say that an individual "has a welfare" is to say that her life can go better or worse from her perspective, and to talk about her welfare is to talk about her interests - what are the things that make her life go better or worse for her? How should we conceptualize her wellbeing in the abstract? ...
Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways design were not
3:30 - 4:30 p.m. : Understanding Animal Welfare, Animal Welfare Compromise and Animal Pain. An introduction to animal welfare and its scientific foundations; animal welfare compromise and its comprehensive assessment and management; changing attitudes to pain in animals and practicalities of pain recognition, assessment and management; the growing global significance of animal welfare and managing animal pain.. 6:30-7:30pm: Integrated and Inclusive Regulatory Management of Animal Welfare in New Zealand Development of New Zealands comprehensive animal welfare infrastructure? integration of the components of the legal and regulatory framework for animal welfare management? roles of ministerial advisory committees and their membership? roles of and support for NZ animal welfare science research capability? the significance of codes of welfare and participation in their formulation by parties having diverse interests in animal welfare? liaison groups fostering inclusiveness. 8:00-9:00pm: ...
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published pioneering guidelines laying out, for the first time, a standardised methodology for the risk assessment of animal welfare. The methodology, which follows a step-by-step approach, is designed to be applicable to all animal species and all factors that affect animal welfare, including housing, transport, stunning and killing. The development of the guidelines supports EFSAs commitment to ensure that all its work on animal welfare is underpinned by a strong scientific approach.
FAO has launched a new web portal to facilitate a single access point for international and national information related to farm animal welfare. Policymakers, farmers, scientists and animal welfare experts can now access research findings, relevant legislation and policies on livestock through this online gateway.
The USPCA is the worlds second oldest animal welfare organisation. It was established in 1836 and is a charity supported entirely by voluntary donations. Its purpose as given in its Constitution, is to promote kindness and to prevent or suppress cruelty to animals. The Societys work extends to caring for all animals in all circumstances.. The USPCAs Welfare Officers, staff and volunteers work round the clock to help animals in distress. The Society acts to have the law enforced in relation to animal welfare and the Welfare Officers investigate alleged cases of cruelty.. The Societys Sanctuaries receive and treat companion animals, equines and wildlife. A major part of the work of the Society is to place unwanted animals into new and caring homes.. The USPCA campaigns both in the UK and throughout Europe to achieve legal and social reform in animal welfare.. The Policies in this booklet represent the considered position held by the USPCA on particular issues. However readers should be aware ...
GLOBAL - Food companies are paying more and more attention to animal welfare within their supply chains, according to the latest Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) report, published on Monday.
GLOBAL - Food companies are paying more and more attention to animal welfare within their supply chains, according to the latest Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) report, published on Monday.
Information about animal health and welfare for pets and livestock animals. DPIs Bureau of Animal Welfare and Animal Health deliver programs and provides policy, legislation, advisory, research and regulatory activities. ...
They appear that the free download scientific perspectives on animal welfare can practice from research to radiation. Kripke provides this, bleeding that while project ensures, in all old apps, the implantation with new quiddity 79, its project websites may collect far from chemistry to cause. Both solutions have given, but of the two, the logic is to allow conscious.
In a country where animal welfare services are entirely dependent on public donations and good will, Cape Town is the first ever city in South Africa to provide grants to support dog and cat sterilisation.. Marking the 20th anniversary of World Spay Day, Mdzananda Animal Clinic - a project of IFAW - joined animal welfare groups across the city last week, Tuesday 25th February, in rolling out Cape Towns second dog and cat mass sterilisation project.. In the next six months a massive grant of R527 999 from the City Health Directorate will be used to, hopefully, sterilise 70 per cent of dogs and cats in Khayelitsha township on the Cape Flats.. Also on IFAW.org: CLAW South Africa find themselves refugees, for the moment. Mdzananda is based in Site B, Khayelitsha. The clinic provides the only full time, on site, animal welfare support to dogs and cats owned by the community of about 1,5-million people, so we are well placed to offer a base for this ambitious initiative to improve the welfare of the ...
Study Animal Welfare - understand how self aware animals are, consider ethical services of animal protection, animal welfare issues, and more.
VICTORIAN farmers are keen to see one of their own head up the states Animal Welfare Advisory Committee. The Andrews Labor Government today called for expressions of interest for the role of chairperson of the Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, after current chair Carmel Morfunis decision to step down. The post VFF keen for farmer to lead VIC animal welfare advisory committee appeared first on Sheep Central ...
Progressive animal production methods must deliver high quality meat to the consumer, while at the same time promote the welfare of farmed animals. The literature on animal welfare has expanded immensely over recent years, but until now no book has related this area to that of meat science. This book aims to fill that gap. It provides a general review of current knowledge of the welfare of farmed animals, including fish, as this impacts upon meat quality. It represents a textbook for graduate level courses in animal welfare or meat science, but will also be of interest to a wide range of readers in animal, veterinary and food sciences, and in applied ethology.
Members: Dr. David Burrows, Dr. Shevaun Gallwey and Dr. Karthi Martelli. Meets on a project basis and may incorporate additional members on an ad hoc basis. Aims: To promote an understanding of animal welfare in the region and to provide advice to HKVA members, the public and the Government on any matter relating to animal welfare. As veterinary surgeons our primary responsibility is the welfare and care of animals across the species and it was thought to be important that the views of the profession as experts in this field should be expressed and that good animal welfare be promoted by the HKVA. This will be particularly important as the Government is currently undertaking a review of laws that will have a direct impact on animal welfare and the HKVA should be consulted on such matters. If members have any issues that they would like this Sub-committee to discuss please email to the HKVA Secretary [email protected] HKVA Policy on Animal Welfare ...
Please ask your US senators and representative to support the Animal Welfare in Agricultural Research Endeavors (AWARE) Act--introduced in response to the horrendous abuse suffered by thousands of animals at the federally funded and operated Meat Animal Research Center in Nebraska. The AWARE Act would require federal farm animal research operations to abide by the Animal Welfare Act.
The purpose of this review is to present the best available scientific knowledge on key animal welfare issues during swine transport, such as transport duration and distance, time off feed and water, rest intervals, environmental conditions, loading density, and transport of young animals, based on their impact on stress, injury, fatigue, dehydration, body temperature, mortality, and carcass and meat quality. The review was limited to this set of priority welfare issues which were identified by the National Farm Animal Care Council (NFACC) Scientific Committee to help with the development of the livestock transportation Codes of Practice. This review focuses primarily on research related to the transport of market pigs (100-135 kg) which is a reflection of the current literature available on pig transportation. This information presented here can be used to support other animal welfare codes, guidelines, standards or legislations regulating the welfare of pigs during transport. Based on the available
Animal welfare is about quality of life. An animal feels most comfortable in an environment that allows it to express its natural behaviour and does not cause any chronic stress, pain or fear. Feed, care, housing and medical treatments all influence the welfare of agricultural animals. Animal welfare is judged using the five freedoms. An animal should be free: of hunger, thirst and inappropriate nutrition; of physical and physiological inconveniences; of pain, wounds and diseases; of fear and chronic stress; to express its natural (species-specific) behaviour. Wageningen UR is looking at ways to guarantee these freedoms in animal husbandry.
Humane endpoints are a core refinement concept in animal experimentation. This paper identifies an urgent requirement for individuals and institutions to refocus on humane endpoints as part of the transposition of Directive 2010/63/EU into the national laws of the Member States, and to go beyond their legal construction when setting new guidance or applying humane endpoints in practice. It will be argued that requirements for humane endpoints within the Directive appear not to promote recent advances in best practice, but seem reliant on a narrow and potentially outdated definition of the term. We describe progress that has been made in encouraging change in the construction and application of humane endpoints, and suggest that Directive 2010/63/EU does not sufficiently acknowledge the conceptual complexity of this refinement strategy. For example, a useful development representing recent consensual views of best practice has been proposed by an EU consortium (in 2012). A complex approach to ...
FRANCE - New animal welfare rules from France will aim to place welfare at the heart of the agriculture strategy, according to farming minister Stéphane Le Foll.
FRANCE - New animal welfare rules from France will aim to place welfare at the heart of the agriculture strategy, according to farming minister Stéphane Le Foll.
How far have we come and what is the future for farm animal welfare? This will be the focus of a public lecture and international conference at Bristol University this week. Entitled Farm animal health and welfare - past, present and future, the lecture will be given by Alick Simmons, Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer of the UK Government Department, Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). The lecture takes place at 6.30 pm on Thursday, April 17 in the Powell Lecture Theatre, H H Wills Physics Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol. It is free and open to everyone. The lecture is part of this years Colston Research Society Symposium, a two-day meeting at the Universitys School of Veterinary Science at Langford, which will bring together an international line-up of experts to discuss farm animal welfare and the link with disease.. The symposium entitled, Farm animal welfare and the interface with disease, has six sessions that will progress from the fundamentals of animal welfare, ...
Animal welfare, etológia és tartástechnológia Animal welfare, ethology and housing systems Volume 7 Issue 4 Különszám Gödöllı THE CONTROL OF VARROA MITE IN ORGANIC APICULTURE Dániel Szalai, Tamás
Developed in response to industry demand, an animal welfare course where you will learn the about the theory and practice of animal welfare - wildlife, pets, farm animals.
Animal welfare science is a multidisciplinary subject. To advance the broad subject of animal welfare, researchers need to meet and discuss their results and ideas. These symposia are intended to be a friendly scientific forum for such discussion. Both natural and social scientists are welcome ...
The Animal Welfare Society exists to provide humane shelter and care to animals and to further the cause of responsible animal adoption and ownership.
you are here Guide > Animal Welfare Organisations > New South Wales > Animal Welfare Organisations - DABS (Domestic Animal Birth Control Society) in Canterbury ...
Volunteer with Progressive Animal Welfare Society of Bremerton, o. Find Progressive Animal Welfare Society of Bremerton, o volunteering opportunities at VolunteerMatch!
The Acting Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture [hereinafter Complainant], instituted this disciplinary administrative proceeding under the Animal Welfare Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. §§ 2131-2159) [hereinafter the Animal Welfare Act]; the regulations and standards issued under the Animal Welfare Act (9 C.F.R. §§ 1.1-3.142) [hereinafter the Regulations and Standards]; and the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary Under Various Statutes (7 C.F.R. §§ 1.130-.151) [hereinafter the Rules of Practice], by filing a Complaint on February 22, 1996.. The Complaint alleges that: (1) on October 5, 1994, November 15, 1994, and January 31, 1995, Samuel Zimmerman [hereinafter Respondent] failed to maintain complete records showing the acquisition, disposition, and identification of animals in willful violation of section 10 of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. § 2140) and section 2.75(a)(1) ...
California processor Central Valley Meat Co. is the subject of a recent Internet animal cruelty video released by anti-meat organization, Compassion over Killing. The video captured instances of inhumane handling practices that are not condoned by the beef and cattle industry or the Canadian Cattlemens Association (CCA). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) suspended operations at the company pending investigation of the animal welfare issues cited in the video. The plant reopened after federal officials approved corrective action plans to improve the treatment of animals. As a result of the video, major customers, including McDonalds Corp., cancelled or suspended contracts with the company. These types of undercover videos, typically taken by activists with an ordinary cellphone, draw attention to animal welfare issues. Their underlying motivation in exposing such acts is not to improve animal agriculture; but to end it by falsely portraying inhumane practices as the industry ...
Historically, animal welfare has been defined by the absence of negative states such as disease, hunger and thirst. However, a shift in animal welfare science has led to the understanding that good animal welfare cannot be achieved without the experience of positive states. Unequivocally, the housing environment has significant impacts on animal welfare. This review summarises how cage and cage-free housing systems impact some of the key welfare issues for layer hens: musculoskeletal health, disease, severe feather pecking, and behavioural expression. Welfare in cage-free systems is currently highly variable, and needs to be addressed by management practices, genetic selection, further research, and appropriate design and maintenance of the housing environment. Conventional cages lack adequate space for movement, and do not include features to allow behavioural expression. Hens therefore experience extreme behavioural restriction, musculoskeletal weakness and an inability to experience positive ...
To help veterinarians and the general public understand the complexity and passion behind animal welfare issues, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has launched its
As public awareness of environmental issues and animal welfare has risen, catering to public concerns and views on these issues has become a potentially profitable strategy for marketing a number of product types, of which animal products such as dairy and meat are obvious examples. Our analysis suggests that specific marketing instruments are used to sell animal products by blurring the difference between the paradigms of animal welfare used by producers, and the paradigms of animal welfare as perceived by the (...) public. These instruments rely on ethical, political and sustainable consumption discourses in order to sell one image of animal welfare in intensive animal production while the actual production at the same time presupposes a quite different paradigm of animal welfare. Specifically, product advertising utilizes representations tied to concepts of naturalness in depictions of both animal lives and product processes as "natural". Product marketing suggests a coherence between nature, ...
The key animal welfare issues in dairy production relate to bobby calves, cow-calf separation and painful procedures or conditions.. In order to produce milk, cows must give birth to a calf. Male calves are generally considered a low-value waste product by the industry and are usually slaughtered at five days of age. The RSPCA is concerned about the potential for poor treatment of these bobby calves on farm, during transport and at slaughter.. Calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, mainly to reduce the risk of disease in the calf and to ensure the calf is fed adequate colostrum. Cow-calf separation is a practice which is stressful for both cow and calf.. In addition, the removal of horns from calves without pain relief or anaesthetic, lameness and mastitis in cows, and the live export of dairy cattle for breeding purposes, all pose animal welfare concerns.. For dairy cows to have a good life, they need to be healthy and well fed, be protected from weather extremes, ...
On June 19, 2003, the McDonalds Corp. announced a ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in chickens raised for the companys 30,000 restaurants worldwide. The policy, to be fully implemented by the end of 2004, requires suppliers to eliminate feeding antibiotics used in human medicine to chickens to make them grow abnormally fast and large. McDonalds is promoting the policy as part of its overall commitment to social responsibility and animal welfare. In 2000, McDonalds became the first U.S. food company to impose minimum welfare standards on its egg suppliers when it announced suppliers must stop withholding food from hens to manipulate egg production (a practice known as forced molting), increase the amount of cage space for each hen from 48 to 72 square inches, and phase out debeaking. The move signaled acknowledgement that many farming practices are not only inhumane, but are also responsible for a growing number of health risks affecting both animals raised for food and ...
The 3Rs: Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement, are important from a legal, ethical and scientific standpoint. All research using animals in the US, for example at universities and pharmaceutical companies, is regulated by the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which is administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the US Department of Agriculture…
I live in Australia and we did have a flourishing sealing industry until the mid 19th century. Thank goodness it finished then and I am appalled that there are still 5 countries who rely (so they say) commercially on sealing. I just assumed, I guess, and silly of me to do so, that because Australia is no longer a party to this practice, that no-one else was either. I am so glad that I live in a country that increasingly recognises that animal protection and welfare is a high priority. Also, as a member of the Commonwealth, I am surprised and disappointed that Canada, still a Commonwealth country also, is still a party to this trade. I might also add, however, that in Australia, we do still have battles to win for the protection of our domestic and native animals, one battle being that of saving the dingo. One of those organisations of which I support is the Save the Fraser Island Dingo, a true battlefield in animal welfare. And as far as China is concerned - Canada, dont go there. With regard ...
The Acting Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (hereinafter Complainant) instituted this disciplinary administrative proceeding under the Animal Welfare Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. §§ 2131-2159) (hereinafter the Animal Welfare Act); the regulations and standards issued under the Animal Welfare Act (9 C.F.R. §§ 1.1-3.142) (hereinafter the Regulations and Standards); and the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 C.F.R. §§ 1.130- .151) (hereinafter the Rules of Practice), by filing a Complaint on July 6, 1994. On September 2, 1994, Respondents Counsel, Christopher M. Patterson, Esq., filed an Answer to the Complaint on behalf of Respondent. On December 11, 1995, Respondents Counsel filed a Motion to Withdraw Appearance, which motion Administrative Law Judge Edwin S. Bernstein (hereinafter ALJ) granted on December 18, 1995.. On December 21, 1995, Complainant filed an Amended Complaint which includes counts I-VI ...
New legal requirements are being introduced in New South Wales and will require all abattoirs to designate an Animal Welfare Officer to be present on the premises to monitor and take responsibility for the welfare of animals. Minister for Primary Industries, Katrina Hodgkinson, today announced the new animal welfare
This workshop comprised four complementary talks exploring possible ways in which recent research in neuroscience could be of interest to animal welfare scientists. Three of the talks centred on the hippocampus and the likely role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in positive welfare.. Bruno Frenguelli described data from laboratory rodents demonstrating that environmental enrichment (EE) can reduce or even abolish the age-related cognitive decline that is usually seen in mice housed in standard laboratory caging. If old mice were housed in enriched cages for ten weeks they become leaner, showed increased exploration of the elevated plus maze indicative of lower anxiety, showed no signs of neurological aging and improved spatial memory compared with control mice housed in standard cages. Bruno argued that EE works by releasing BDNF into the brain, which in turn leads to AHN and increases in dendritic spine density. This work suggests a mechanism for some of the known beneficial effects of ...
Understanding Asia The income per capita for developing countries in Asia in the early 70s were in estimation of 1/10th in comparison to developed countries in the west. Economics being the guiding factor for any enterprise and privately owned veterinary practices were rarely seen. Families were focused on sustaining their needs rather than their wants. The public, hence did not regard veterinary care as a priority...although many people at that time had adopted pets from the streets. These pets were kept entirely for utility purposes i.e., dogs to guard properties and cats to rid off rats. On the other-hand people who owned pedigree pets were more profit-orientated with their various breeding practices and hence welfare was not a valued consideration at all. And because of the local scenario that ridiculed the veterinary profession, the veterinarians themselves took a defensive stand and approached the science with secondary and not primary health care in mind. Like any snowballing effect, the ...
The Philadelphia Police Departments Mounted Police Unit was joined at its headquarters by U.S. Rep. Patrick Meehan, R-Pa., the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), the ASPCA (The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) and The Humane Society of the United States to garner public support for federal legislation to stop the inhumane killing of American horses for human consumption.
Institute of Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory - Animal Welfare Organisations Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF. . View contact details, opening hours and reviews. See what other people have said or leave your own review. Brought to you courtesy of My Local Services.
Index to OLAW Reports Dear Colleague letters, and published articles written by the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), NIH, concerning the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Provides for easy identification of topics address
Therefore, to base the whole argument of animal welfare and the ethical way we treat animals on something as nebulous as having solved the hard problem of consciousness seemed to be a really bad thing. Not at all a good thing for animals. I was interested in trying to find other arguments to support animal welfare; reasons why people should take notice of animals that didnt rest on having solved the hard problem of consciousness.. It seemed to me that if you think about human beings, the way to get them to change their behavior is to show them that their own self-interest lies in doing something. For example, if you argue that animal welfare improves human health, improves the health of their children, it gives them better food, it gives them better quality of life. Those arguments may actually be much more powerful for people who arent already convinced about animal welfare than trying to use an argument based on animal consciousness, when really we havent got the good basis for it that some ...
Learn more about Upper Peninsula Animal Welfare Shelter in Negaunee, MI, and search the available pets they have up for adoption on Petfinder.
Many people who dont own cats give felines a bad rap, according to a survey co-sponsored by the Morris Animal Foundation, a Denver-based animal welfare organization.. Commonly held misunderstandings and myths about cats are part of the reason felines get less veterinary care, are the subject of less health research and are euthanized at a higher rate when they enter shelters. the survey indicated.. This is despite the fact that there are more cats than dogs in American homes. the survey noted. The other sponsors were the American Pet Products Association and Maddies Fund, a charitable foundation in Alameda, Calif.. More than half of those surveyed had an overall negative attitude toward cats. Top causes for negative opinions were litter box smell, shedding, unprovoked biting and the perceived inability of cats to get along with other pets.. The three top-rated negative behaviors cited were "jumps on counters/tables," "scratches furniture" and "spits up hairballs.". "Interestingly, the primary ...
UK – Calls in the UK to label meat products with information about animal welfare at slaughter must not be hijacked by prejudice, according to the British Veterinary Association.
TESTIMONY OF Gail Golab, PhD, DVMDirector, Animal Welfare DivisionAmerican Veterinary Medical Association ConcerningCaptive Primate Safety Act(H.R. 2964)
UK - A network is being set up that will foster collaboration within the UK animal welfare research community, and will receive over £100,000 in funding from BBSRC.
Explore Study Abroad programs in Dublin, Ireland such as Ireland: Animal Welfare and Vet Programs in Dublin from ELI-Experiential Learning International
Animal welfare advocates are joining worker rights and food safety groups in opposition to a poultry industry proposal to speed up portions of processing lines at chicken plants.
Why are we not talking about animal welfare?. Anyone with any experience of Shechita, knows that the Shochet (slaughterman) undergoes years of intensive training. A perfectly clean and swift incision with a surgically sharp instrument (chalaf) severs the structures at the front of the neck - the trachea, oesophagus, carotid arteries and jugular veins. The speed and precision of the incision ensures the lack of stimulation of the severed structures and results in the immediate loss of consciousness; blood flow to the brain is completely halted. In addition, blood empties rapidly from the brain. Irreversible cessation of consciousness and insensibility to pain are achieved, providing the most effective stun in accordance with the EU definition of stunning which is any intentionally induced process which causes loss of consciousness and sensibility without pain including any process resulting in instantaneous death. There is no delay between the Shechita stun and subsequent death so the animal ...
Bell & Evans, Fredericksburg, Pa., HatchTech, Veenendaal, the Netherlands, and Viscon, Gravendeel, the Netherlands, have signed an agreement for the construction of the first Humane Animal Welfare Focused Chick Hatchery in the United States. The hatchery utilizes HatchTechs advanced technology using MicroClimer Setters, HatchCare units, along with a complete ventilation system, cooling and heating distributors, and hatchery management systems. This system will provide immediate access of fresh food, water, air and light for the newly hatched chicks, something currently unheard of in the US poultry . . .
A British animal welfare group said on Tuesday it had exposed a cruel and secretive trade in endangered baboons which were being sold from Tanzania to medical research organizations in the United States.
Largest online community empowering people to lead a healthy and green lifestyle while taking action on important causes such as human rights, animal welfare and global warming.
Largest online community empowering people to lead a healthy and green lifestyle while taking action on important causes such as human rights, animal welfare and global warming.
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Animal Welfare Leagues doors are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year to receive animals.. NO ANIMAL IS EVER REFUSED. ...
American Humane Associations Humane Heartland farm animal welfare program provides ongoing outreach to farmers in the implementation of humane practices for animals by way of the American Humane Certified program and rigorous, science-based standards. Humane Heartland also provides humane care training for workers, review of equipment that improves animal welfare, humane education, and thought leadership in animal welfare and food issues.
American Humane Associations Humane Heartland farm animal welfare program provides ongoing outreach to farmers in the implementation of humane practices for animals by way of the American Humane Certified program and rigorous, science-based standards. Humane Heartland also provides humane care training for workers, review of equipment that improves animal welfare, humane education, and thought leadership in animal welfare and food issues.
Meat inspection (MI) findings can act as a valuable source of information on pig health and welfare. The PIG WELFare INDicators (PIGWELFIND) project (Research Stimulus Fund 11/S/107) was developed to progress the development of ante and post mortem MI as a pig health and welfare diagnostic tool in Ireland. Three multi-stakeholder focus groups were organized to explore areas of conflict and agreement between stakeholders vision for including pig health and welfare indicators in MI and on how to achieve this vision. Each focus group consisted of eight stakeholders: pig producers, Teagasc pig advisors, pig processors, veterinarians involved in MI, private veterinary practitioners, and personnel with backgrounds in general animal health and welfare and food safety policy. In general, stakeholders expressed positive attitudes towards the use of MI data to inform pig health and welfare when standardization of recording and feedback is improved, and the MI system provides real-time benchmarking ...
1. Ewing, S.A.; Lay, D.C.; Eberhard, V.B. Farm Animal Well Being; Prentice Hall, 1999.. 2. Moberg, G.P.; Mench, J.A. The Biology of Animal Stress; CABI Publishing, 2000.. 3. UEP Scientific Advisory Committee on Animal Welfare. Recommendations for UEP Animal Welfare Guidelines; United Egg Producers: Atlanta, GA, 2000.. 4. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching; Federation of Animal Science Societies, 1999.. 5. Deen, J.; Xue, J. Sow Mortality in the US: An Industry Wide Perspective, Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, 1999; 91 94.. 6. Geiger, J.O.; Irwin, C.; Pretzer, S. Assessing Sow Mortality, Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, 1999; 84 87.. 7. Jensen, P.; Toates, F.M. Who needs behavioral needs? Motivational aspects of the needs of animals. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1993, 37, 161 181.. ...
Daily life in a factory farm is one of pain, frustration and misery. Learn more about the consequences, as well as ways to be a more constructive consumer.
Animal welfare lacks a good universal definition and a satisfactory distinction from the term "well being". However, a consensual definition is essential for practical, legislative and scientific purposes. Without a clear definition, animal welfare cannot be effectively studied or conclusively assessed to provide remedial measures to its violation [1-3]. Animal welfare is therefore defined as the ability of an animal to interact or cope comfortably with its environment, resulting in satisfaction of both its physical and mental state [4-6]. This satisfaction enhances expression of normal behavioural patterns by the animal [7,8].. In the context of welfare, "environment" refers to internal factors (within the animal) and external factors (in the animals physical environment) to which the animal responds with its physiological and psychological systems [6,9]. In contrast, animal "well being" is defined as the animals perception of its state in trying to cope with its environment [1,5]. Concisely, ...
Animal welfare during contagious disease outbreaks: Preventive isolation measures instead of large-scale culling programs?. Although the spring outbreaks of Highly Pathogen Avian Influenza in Europe and North America are finally behind us, the discussions on what caused these outbreaks and why specific parts of the industry were hit so severely are just beginning. In these discussions, the financial impact for the industry has the highest priority and animal welfare seems to be of secondary importance. It is likely that outbreaks may reappear in the fall months when temperatures begin to drop and wild birds begin to migrate for the winter, causing similar disease issues in coming autumn, jeopardizing the animal welfare rights of poultry again.. To minimize the impact on the poultry industry as well as to minimize the risk that animals need to be culled, its important to understand how the initial transmission of HPAI takes place and to analyze the several ways the virus could be transmitted ...
MEPs beefed up the European Commissions initial proposal, citing high mortality rates at all development stages of cloning and EU citizens animal welfare and ethical concerns.. "Due to the negative effects on animal welfare, cloning for farming purposes is rejected by a large majority of consumers. Furthermore, we do not need cloning to ensure meat supplies in the EU. Prohibiting cloning is therefore a matter of European values and principles. Consequently, the ban should apply not only to clones themselves but also to their reproductive material (semen and embryos), their descendants and any products derived from them, including imports. This is necessary because otherwise we would merely promote cloning in third countries," said Environment Committee co-rapporteur Renate Sommer (EPP, DE).. "There are two key points that we focused on from the outset: protecting the health of EU citizens and consumers and extending the ban to cover the descendants of cloned animals," said co-rapporteur law ...
Im known to most animal lovers and rescue groups as Critical Pets Rescue. Along with helping to rescue dogs from kill shelters, educating the public on animal welfare and cruelty issues, I have published (and delivered)over a dozen petitions seeking incarceration of animal abusers who have committed heinous acts of animal cruelty. Few survive, but most often the animals endure an agonizing death. I support and defend changes in state legislations regarding animal protection, welfare, and their basic rights to life; to actively seek changes in the laws to protect the animals...NOT the abusers! Loving animals goes beyond pet ownership. Its about standing up for their rights to live and be protected from abuse and cruelty. I will defend the Voiceless Victims until I cease to exist ...
Another feature of the IBF is the applied animal welfare: in more than 10 courses per year the basics of laboratory science and animal experiments are taught to scientists working with animals for the first time. Methodological specializations take place in the according research laboratories. That is how animal welfare regulations as well as scientific needs are accounted for. Only proceedings in accordance with animal welfare meet the requirements of research.. ...
The science of animal sentience underpins the entire animal welfare movement. Demonstrating objectively what animals are capable of is key to achieving a positive change in attitudes and actions towards animals, and a real, sustainable difference for animal welfare. This paper briefly summarises understanding and acceptance of animal sentience through the ages. Although not an exhaustive history, it highlights some of the leading figures whose opinions and work have most affected perspectives of animal sentience. There follows a review of the current state of animal sentience, what is known, and what the main limitations have been for the development of the study of sentience. The paper concludes with some thoughts for the future of the science, and where it should be going in order to most benefit animal welfare.
The U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is inviting public comments on a proposed rule to amend the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) concerning the humane handling, care and treatment of marine mammals in captivity. The proposed rule will be available for comment for 60 days. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) sets basic standards for humane care and treatment that must be provided for certain animals including marine mammals that are used in exhibition or research. The current standards for marine mammals were put in place in 1998. The proposed changes are based on recent documented scientific data and studies to better ensure humane handling and treatment of marine mammals in a way that is practical and enforceable. As it developed this proposed rule, APHIS considered information from professional organizations, hundreds of public comments, exhibitors and published scientific studies, as well as the agencys own experience with marine mammals.. The rule ...
In October 2016, the Ministry for Primary Industries began an investigation into allegations of breaches of the Animal Welfare Act 1999 at the Animal Control Unit of the Napier City Council.. The allegations related to the period between August 2015 and October 2016. The investigation was concluded in January 2017 and a report released in May 2017.. The report concluded there was either no or insufficient evidence of breaches of the Animal Welfare Act 1999.. ...
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of astaxanthin when used as a novel food in food supplements at maximum levels of 8 mg/day, taking .... ...
Introduction. A new generation of consumers not only choose meat products according to perceived eating quality and affordable pricing, but also consider the nutritional value and the ethical quality of the meat, animal welfare issues, and the degree of impact on the environment caused by the production system. Another reason for choosing ecologically or non-intensively produced meat is the belief that the taste and nutritional value of this type of meat are superior to those of conventionally produced meat (Nilzén et al., 2001; Edwards, 2005; Alfaia et al., 2007; 2009; Muchenje et al., 2009a; Mapiye et al., 2011). These are the reasons that in the last few years there has been an increase in demand for foodstuffs obtained from so-called organic, natural or biological livestock production systems. Meat from these biological production systems is thought to be more nutritious and more appealing to the senses (Nilzén et al., 2001; Sundrum, 2001; Edwards, 2005).. There is not much information on ...
Contemporary understanding of One Welfare highlights the intrinsic link between animal and human welfare and ethics, regarding physical and psychological well-being as equally important. These principles apply to all animals we keep, regardless of why we keep them. One factor influencing psychological welfare is how animals are prepared for their life, including how they are taught (trained) to behave. Where such preparation is lacking or inappropriate methods are used, animals will be...
The report of the European Unions Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare on Welfare Aspects of the Production of Foie Gras in Ducks and Geese, adopted on December 16, 1998, is an 89-page review of studies from several producing countries. It examines several indicators of animal welfare, including physiological indicators, liver pathology, and mortality rate. It strongly concludes that "force feeding, as currently practised, is detrimental to the welfare of the birds." Members of the committee describe how geese and ducks show "avoidance behaviour indicating aversion for the person who feeds them and the feeding procedure". Although the committee reported that there is no "conclusive" scientific evidence on the aversive nature of force feeding, and that evidence of injury is "small", in their overall recommendations, the committee stated that "the management and housing of the birds used for producing foie gras have a negative impact on their welfare".[18][19]. On physiology, ...
8.We heard widespread support for the inclusion of animal health and welfare within the new policy of public money for public goods. We recommend that Defra commits to exploring how the funding of animal health and welfare as public goods could be achieved through trials during the agricultural transition period. (Paragraph 75). We will continue to be a world leader in animal welfare after we leave the EU by maintaining and strengthening the UKs already world-class welfare standards. We want to work with stakeholders to define enhanced standards that go beyond our legislation, focusing on quality of life indicators as well as safeguarding health and welfare. As part of this we will consider ways to encourage farm management methods that enhance animal welfare. We also want to work in partnership with industry and the veterinary profession to reduce the impact of endemic diseases and health conditions. We want to develop a range of actions and tools in partnership with industry and vets, sharing ...
Foreword. Preface.. 1 Introduction.. 1.1 What Is Suffering?.. 1.2 Why Worry about Suffering?.. 1.3 When Can We Stop Worrying about Suffering?.. 1.4 Recognising Suffering in Animals.. 1.5 Can Animals Go Mad?.. 1.6 What Constitutes Animal Suffering?.. 1.7 Conclusions.. 2 Stress.. 2.1 Stress Physiology.. 2.2 Stress-related Disorders.. 2.3 Restraint Stress.. 2.4 Stress-induced Analgesia.. 2.5 Stress-induced Seizures and Fits.. 3 Anxiety and Fear.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Anxiety.. 3.3 Experimental Models.. 3.4 Fear.. 3.5 Fright.. 3.6 Phobias.. 3.7 Panic.. 3.8 The Role of the Amygdala.. 3.9 Losing Ones Mother.. 4 Emotional Numbness and Deprivation.. 4.1 Anhedonia.. 4.2 Depression.. 4.3 Social isolation in the Newborn.. 4.4 Sensory Deprivation in Early Life.. 4.5 Sensory Deprivation in Later Life.. 4.6 Social isolation and barren environments.. 4.7 Stereotypies and neurotic behaviours.. 4.8 Learned Helplessness.. 4.9 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.. 4.10 Sleep Disorders.. 4.11 Weaning.. 4.12 ...
in Livestock Science (2013), 155. In pig production, the interest for litter systems in relation with animal welfare and the ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows could promote the group-housing of ... [more ▼]. In pig production, the interest for litter systems in relation with animal welfare and the ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows could promote the group-housing of gestating sows on deep-litter. However, compared to slatted-floor systems, few data are available on the gaseous emissions associated with the different modalities of rearing sows on deep-litter. In this study, two modalities were compared: group housing on a 3 m2/sow deep-litter or on a 1.8 m2/sow deep-litter plus 1.2 m2/sow concrete floor. In both cases, sows were fed in individual feeding stalls (1.2 m2/stall) but the access was limited at feeding time in the first case and permanent in the second one. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were used. ...
The preparatory considerations for the restructuring of the slaughter legislation for cows, calves and sheep also had to include the slaughter of these animals in accordance with religiously mandated regulations without prior "stunning" (so-called ritual slaughter). Since long, factual, legal, and ethical issues confront each other inextricably in this matter. The opposition to a stunning-free slaughter has a long history. For example, the executive committee of the Federation of Animal Welfare Associations petitioned the Imperial German Parliament already in 1895 to proscribe the stunning-free slaughter. In 1910, 612 German slaughterhouse veterinarians and 41 German veterinary associations described stunning-free slaughter as cruelty to animals in a declaration to the Imperial German Parliament and demanded a legal prohibition. Even before, in 1901, 441 out of 463 experts described the stunning-free slaughter as contrary to animal welfare in a questionnaire aimed at all veterinarians as well as ...
Despite public outcry, the response from Forestry Minister Zulkifli Hasan has been disappointing. Zulkifli refuses to take action to detain suspects of an elephant slaughter in Aceh out of fear of provoking conflict, as the alleged killers are former combatants of the separatist Free Aceh Movement. "Our team, the forest rangers and the police need to be really careful, as we are dealing with the whole village. We cannot risk any human lives even though we want to resolve the case," Zulkifli said. From his statement, it is plain to see that the policy is not to risk any human lives to seek justice for animals. In response to Dians request that the minister urge President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to form a national commission for the protection animals, Zulkifli said a new team was unnecessary, as Indonesia already has conservation laws and animal protection regulations in place. Now with tens of thousands of people behind their cause, Aulia and Dian have stepped up their campaign by launching a ...
Download the questionnaires, technical documents and reports that describe the survey process and the key results for this study ...
Download the questionnaires, technical documents and reports that describe the survey process and the key results for this study ...
THE ANIMAL PROTECTION ACT - INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS AND BEST PRACTICES presented by SANDRA GORE and CHARLOTTE NIKSCHTAT. INTRODUCTION. The General Structure of Animal Welfare Legislation The purpose / underlying principles of the legislation Slideshow 68112 by sherlock_clovis
While the EU chicken-meat and egg sector shows some diversity in terms of farm and flock size, yield and types of farming within and between European countries, it is known to be one of the most intensive farming systems in the EU, with farms numbering hundreds of thousands of birds. This paper aims to provide an overview of the sectors structure in the EU and of the relevant legislation and policy instruments - from CAP support to farmers, and trade and marketing standards, to legislation with relevance to food safety, animal health and welfare, and environmental protection. The analysis focuses on the main issues affecting the sector, a number of which are linked to the large-scale and intensive methods of production widely used. Attention is also given to the outlook for the sector and international trade aspects, as the EU is one of the top four chicken-meat producers in the world. Attention is also given to the European Parliaments recent resolution on animal welfare, antimicrobial use and the
Firstly we need to examine the word cruel. What is cruelty? Is there cruelty in the world? Who created the cruelty if it exists?. Let us look at what constitutes cruelty first. Is childbirth an act of cruelty? Is a heart transplant an act of cruelty? Is refusing a child something he or she desires, knowing that it may harm the child, an act of cruelty? Is toil and labour for the sake of achieving ones goal cruel? As you would have come to realise, none of the above depictions constitutes cruelty. The common thread through all of them is that they all include pain, fatigue or emotional distress. So cruelty cannot simply be defined as pain or emotional distress.. So what does constitute cruelty? Lets look at some obvious examples: causing injury to somebody, for no reason except to inflict pain and suffering on the victim would definitely constitute one form of cruelty. Denying and child access to something that has no potential to harm the child, and that will in fact benefit the child, can ...
This paper is the result of an international initiative and is a first attempt to develop guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods (i.e. nautilus, cuttlefish, squid and octopus) following the inclusion of this Class of approximate to 700 known living invertebrate species in Directive 2010/63/EU. It aims to provide information for investigators, animal […]. ...
The fish come from open-sea farms in areas such as Loch Etive on the west coast of Scotland.. To replicate the natural migration of wild fish they start in fresh water before moving to sea lochs, allowing them to grow naturally, and resulting in a distinct flavour and texture.. Customers can find Scottish Loch Trout Fillets pre-packed fish aisle or on the counter, all carrying the Freedom Food label.. This is assurance the fish have been reared to the RSPCAs strict welfare standards throughout the supply chain.. Sue Lucas, Sainsburys product developer said: "Animal welfare and where food comes from is of huge importance to our customers. So were delighted that our fresh Loch trout now carries the Freedom Food label, independently marking it as higher welfare.". This is good news for consumers as increasing numbers of people choose fish on health grounds, yet worry about sustainability and animal welfare. Trout is one of the fish recommended in this years Switch the Fish campaign, Sainsburys ...
Donald Brooms Sentience and Animal Welfare (2014) is an intellectually and morally engaging book written with radical new concepts in mind. It deals with many issues that are central to the animal welfare debate such as brain complexity, cognitive ability, when in life sentience begins, and how it all affects the way we endorse welfare. It addresses how our insatiable quest to define the uniqueness of our own species has led us to ignore logic and scientific evidence. It also brings greater clarity to these precarious positions and outlines pragmatic approaches to tackling this complex topic of sentience and welfare.
Livestock: welfare assessment and issues (1) 農場動物 : 福利評估與論述 (1). Module 13 模組 13. This module will enable you to 本模組教學目標. Identify the primary causes of poor farm animal welfare 認識造成農場動物福利不良的主要原因 Differentiate between...
Teagasc researcher Dr Laura Boyle, Moorepark, is exploring ways to improve animal welfare and reduce antibiotic use on pig farms. Laura features with farmer Eugene Sheehan in Episode 3 of the TV programme 10 things to know about … Superbugs tonight on RTÉ One at 8.30pm. This episode looks at the alarming rise of superbugs.. Its crucial that we reduce our use of antibiotics in healthcare, but agriculture continues to one of the major factors in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many farmers add antibiotics to their animal feed to reduce the risk of disease, but is that really the best way to care for the animals? Presenter Kathriona Devereaux meets Teagasc researcher Laura Boyle who is exploring the link between poor welfare and antimicrobial usage on Irish pig farms and visits a pig farm that has dramatically reduced its use of antibiotics without it having any effect on the animals welfare.. Laura explains: "Stress associated with commercial production methods challenges pigs ...
from 2005). · Innovative approaches in pork production with entire males. COST Action IPEMA, CA15215. 2016-20. · Pig Castration for Traditional and Conventional Products: a report on methods and their impacts on animal welfare, meat quality and sustainability of European pork production Systems (CASTRUM). SANCO/214/G3/026. 2016. · Diversity of local pig breeds and production systems for high quality traditional products and sustainable pork chains (TREASURE) H2020-SFS-07a-2014 (Proposal number SEP-210177442). 2015-18. · Nuevas estrategias y metodologías nutricionales, reproductivas y de la eficiencia del sistema para la mejora de la sostenibilidad socioeconómica y ambiental de explotaciones de cerdos Ibéricos de elevada calidad. INIA-RTA2013-00063-C03-02. 2014-17. · A decade of applications for regulated products - Analysis of the applicants profil·le. P/EFSA/APDESK/2013/01.. 2014-15. · Influencia de la restricción y del aporte de fósforo en la dieta de cerdos hembras sobre el ...
Water Quality. The quality of the water on your property is just as important as the quantity. Poor quality water can impact productivity and lead to animal welfare concerns. There are several water palatability factors to keep in mind.. pH balance. Water palatability is generally determined by pH, salinity (mineral salts dissolved in the water), temperature, and suspended solids (dirt, algae, faeces etc).. Levels of these can be measured using a water test kit available from Local Land Services offices, but a rough guide to aim for is the 6.5 - 8.5 range.. Blue green algae. With low dam levels and high temperatures algal blooms can occur. Blue-green algae is of particular animal health importance. Signs are similar to that of salt poisoning but occur more quickly. Sudden death near water sources are usually the most common signs to look out for.. Grain poisoning. Care should be taken when feeding with high grain diets. In warm windy conditions water can become easily fouled. This fouling as ...
In the Winter 2014 AWI Quarterly, AWI reported that the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) had proposed changing the poultry slaughter regulations to allow poultry companies to accelerate their slaughter process by 25 percent, increasing the likelihood of inhumane handling of birds.
Ensuring High Standards. Only sources that meet AVAs animal health and food safety standards are permitted to export livestock to Singapore. At the point of arrival in Singapore, the animals are inspected to verify their health statuses and to ensure that standards detailed in AVAs Code of Practice (COP) for animal welfare are met. The COP was introduced in 2012 in anticipation of Australias Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System (ESCAS). As a regulatory framework, ESCAS requires Australian suppliers to provide assurance that exported livestock would be treated according to international standards. Singapore was approved to continue importing sheep from Australia after passing an independent audit. The COP also provides the basis for Singapore to consistently meet international animal welfare standards of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Similar to arrangements made in previous years, AVA inspectors were present throughout Korban slaughtering of both Australian and Irish ...
Organic poultry farming is the most responsively production system to produce healthy, good quality poultry meat and eggs in an ecologically way. Its designed to avoid the need for agrochemicals and to minimize damage to the environment and wildlife. Still, also organic poultry production is not free from the danger becoming infected by contagious diseases, like the current H5N2 outbreak in Canada and the USA. All currently commercially available depopulation techniques focus on stamping out the virus, in an attempt to stop the spreading, not on maintaining animal welfare standards: methods like macerating birds alive; using CO2 in containers or throughout the entire poultry house; by electrocution; or by occlusion of the trachea with firefighting foam. This makes these techniques irreconcilable with the principle of organic farming, because the culling process with he current methods leave little room for the animals welfare rights in the last day of its existence. Since June 2015, a new ...
Dr. Michael Greger, director of Public Health and Animal Agriculture in the farm animal welfare division of The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), focuses his work on the human health implications of intensive animal agriculture, and in this article explains why factory farming is the perfect recipe to breed diseases. The swine flu virus, causing alarm worldwide, is a great example of the devastating consequences of raising animals for food in massive concentrations and crowed spaces. To read the full article please search online for Swine flu and factory farms: fast track to disaster The way we treat farmed animals does not honor God in any way. Causing misery to Gods animals causes misery to us as well. When we abuse the power we have over Creation we are miserably failing as stewards of Gods Creation.. Your question and comments are ...
FDA-approved beta-agonists in cattle feed are widely used to help feedlot cattle efficiently produce more lean muscle, but one beta-agonist, Zilmax, was voluntarily suspended by its manufacturer due to animal welfare concerns. K-State researchers are looking into how heat stress and other environmental factors might play a role in this issue and affect cattle mobility and feed intake.