Title: How does infection alter animal migrations? Authors: Hoye, Bethany J.; Bauer, Silke S. Source: INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, 56 E96-E96, 1 MAR 2016 Brief summary of the paper: Migratory animals are thought to play a unique role in parasite dynamics and disease epidemics, both within and between resident communities. The importance of migration in disease…
Migrants have been hypothesised to use different migration strategies between seasons: a time-minimization strategy during their pre-breeding migration towards the breeding grounds and an energy-minimization strategy during their post-breeding migration towards the wintering grounds. Besides season, we propose body size as a key factor in shaping migratory behaviour. Specifically, given that body size is expected to correlate negatively with maximum migration speed and that large birds tend to use more time to complete their annual life-history events (such as moult, breeding and migration), we hypothesise that large-sized species are time stressed all year round. Consequently, large birds are not only likely to adopt a time-minimization strategy during pre-breeding migration, but also during post-breeding migration, to guarantee a timely arrival at both the non-breeding (i.e. wintering) and breeding grounds. We tested this idea using individual tracks across six long-distance migratory shorebird
Our results indicate that arrival timing on the breeding grounds, driven by conditions that experienced thousands of kilometres away on tropical wintering grounds, may influence the rates of polygyny and EP paternity in American redstarts, suggesting that non-breeding season events may carry over to influence the process of sexual selection. Specifically, we demonstrate that not only does winter territory quality influence apparent success through arrival timing (wherein variation in apparent success is driven largely by predation; Norris et al. 2004), but also carry-over effects from winter may influence behavioural processes such as female mate choice and male-male competition. Males overwintering in high-quality habitats arrive earlier on the breeding grounds than males overwintering in low-quality habitats (inferred by stable-carbon isotope analysis). In turn, early arriving males sire a higher proportion of their own offspring, sire EPO in the nests of late-arriving males, are more likely ...
The American redstart is a smallish warbler. It measures 11 to 14 cm (4.3 to 5.5 in) in total length and has a wingspan of 16 to 23 cm (6.3 to 9.1 in). Its length is boosted by a relatively long tail and it is one of the lightest birds in its family.[5] Weight is considerably less in winter than in summer. Males weigh an average of 8.6 g (0.30 oz) in summer but drop to 7.2 g (0.25 oz) in winter, while females drop even more from an average of 8.7 g (0.31 oz) to an average of 6.9 g (0.24 oz).[6][7] Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 5.5 to 6.9 cm (2.2 to 2.7 in), the tail is 4.9 to 5.8 cm (1.9 to 2.3 in), the bill is 0.7 to 0.9 cm (0.28 to 0.35 in) and the tarsus is 1.5 to 1.9 cm (0.59 to 0.75 in).[8] The breeding males are unmistakable, jet black above apart from large orange-red patches on their wings and tails. Their breast sides are also orange, with the rest of their underparts colored white. In their other plumages, American redstarts display green in their upperparts, along ...
Physiological challenges during part of the annual cycle (e.g. spring migration) can carry over and affect performance at subsequent phases (e.g. reproduction; Ebbinge and Spaans, 1995; Bauchinger et al., 2009; Legagneux et al., 2012), although the mechanisms that produce these carry-over effects are only rarely understood (Harrison et al., 2011). A particularly interesting but understudied potential mechanism for carry-over effects impacting reproductive performance concerns the antioxidant system and its ability to quench pro-oxidants. Generally, antioxidants provided to embryos are considered beneficial (Saino et al., 2003; McGraw et al., 2005; Berthouly et al., 2007, 2008; Marri and Richner, 2014; Jacob et al., 2015); however, if antioxidant supply is limited and requirements prior to reproduction are relatively high, then a females allocation of antioxidants to reproduction could be restricted and thus produce an important carry-over effect.. Birds rely on suites of antioxidant compounds, ...
The decline of long distance migratory songbirds has been linked to an increasing mismatch between spring arrival date and timing of food availability caused by climate change. It is unclear to what extent individuals can adjust migration timing or en route rate in response to annual variation in temperature at breeding sites. We tracked the ca. 7300 km spring migration of 52 purple martins Progne subis from the Amazon basin to two breeding sites in eastern North America. Spring 2012 was the warmest on record in eastern North America, but contrary to predictions, this did not result in earlier departure, faster migration, or earlier arrival at breeding areas compared with earlier years. Temperatures and rainfall in the Amazon basin at the time of departure were not higher in 2012, and conditions along migration routes did not give consistent signals of a warmer spring at the breeding site. Once in North America, individuals likely had limited opportunity to speed up their migration because this final
Many of the worlds migratory animals are in decline. This essay explores the unique scientific and political challenges of protecting migratory species while they are still common.
A novel system and method for a network overlay geolocation system operating in a host wireless communication system with repeaters (350 a , 350 b) is disclosed. Embodiments of the novel system and method enable the geolocation system to determine if signals being received by the geolocation system arrive directly from a target mobile appliance or if the signals are passing through a repeater (350 a , 350 b) and therefore are subject to a known time delay. Embodiments of the novel system and method provide a more accurate geolocation of mobiles served by repeater stations than capable in the prior art.
In this study, we investigated the effect of nine known exonic polymorphisms in six candidate genes for behavioural traits on the expression of migratory behaviour in a migratory bird species. Three independent tests indicate that long alleles at a microsatellite in the 3′-UTR of the ADCYAP1 gene are associated with high migratory activity in blackcaps, either measured as migratory restlessness of individuals in the laboratory or assessed as the proportion of migrants and migration distance in natural populations. Both the within-population analyses and the among-population comparison indicate that genotypic variation at this gene explains about 3 per cent of phenotypic variation in migratoriness, which amounts to a maximum of 6-8% of the additive genetic variance in this trait, assuming a mean heritability of this trait of 0.43 [26]. This represents a relatively large single-gene effect on a complex behavioural trait when compared with reported genetic effects on other complex traits ...
Migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south, undertaken by many species of birds. Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability, habitat, or weather. Sometimes, journeys are not termed true migration because they are irregular (nomadism, invasions, irruptions) or in only one direction (dispersal, movement of young away from natal area). Migration is marked by its annual seasonality.[9] Non-migratory birds are said to be resident or sedentary. Approximately 1800 of the worlds 10,000 bird species are long-distance migrants.[10][11]. Many bird populations migrate long distances along a flyway. The most common pattern involves flying north in the spring to breed in the temperate or Arctic summer and returning in the autumn to wintering grounds in warmer regions to the south. Of course, in the southern hemisphere the directions are reversed, but there is less land area in the far south to support long-distance migration.[12]. The primary ...
Researchers have isolated what are essentially tiny compass needles in the noses of rainbow trout that may explain these and many other animals incredible ability to navigate across vast distances.
The Road Ecology Center of the John Muir Institute of the Environment at the University of California, Davis performed an assessment of the impacts of roads on animal population viability. In their assessment they determined that roads and structures fragment animal populations. This reduces the numbers of animals found in an area and reduces the quality of the local environment. If their numbers and health are reduced because of infrastructure development their ability to migrate will also be negatively impacted since not all animals that perform a migration survive, the numbers of mature animals could be reduced. Roads, especially roads with a large amount of traffic can be very dangerous for migrating animals that could get hit by a vehicle. ...
Every year thousands of species from zooplankton to blue whales pack up and move to follow changing seasons in search of warmer weather and food.
Traditionally, bird migration has been treated separately relative to other movements within an individuals life history (1-2). Although long-distance migration operates on different scales and produces different patterns than those of other movement types in a birds life cycle, there are also many similarities (cf. ref. 3). As in other biotic movements, migration involves the assessment of internal state of the organism, external factors, and past behavior to make decisions about motion and navigation (4).. One significant challenge of migration research is measuring the extent to which migratory routes and schedules of individual migrants are influenced by external factors, including wind direction and speed (5-6), food availability and habitat (2), and the behavior of other migrants (1, 7). One important axis of variation among migratory birds is the extent to which environmental factors act as facilitators of, as opposed to barriers to, movement. Determining the effects of environmental ...
The Migratory Bird Program collaborates with other Federal and State agencies, tribes, and other organizations to manage migratory bird species through the support of partnerships that deliver regional, national and international management plans that conserve habitat for migratory birds and other wildlife. To learn more about the various bird conservation partnerships and initiatives the Migratory Bird Program participates in, see the following: ...
Just a few stopover sites can make or break an entire migration, offering crucial moments to rest, shelter, and refuel. With the help of eBird data, Cornell Lab modelers identified important mid-migration stopover habitat for nine migrant species. Map graphic by Jillian Ditner and Matt Strimas-M ...
Migratory animals are often blamed for the global spread of diseases, but new Deakin University research has shown their role may be less significant than previously thought.. With the rate of zoonotic diseases - pathogens that jump from animal hosts to humans - on the rise, migratory animals have been under increasing scrutiny and suspicion of aiding the spread of bird flu, Lyme disease, and even Ebola.. However, despite the fact that billions of animals fly, swim and walk around the globe every year on their seasonal migrations, researchers from Deakin Universitys Centre for Integrative Ecology (CIE) say there is surprisingly little direct evidence that migratory animals are frequently spreading pathogens long distances.. In humans, travelling increases our risk of getting ill because we come into contact with many new microbes that our immune system has never encountered before, said researcher and PhD candidate Alice Risely.. We wanted to work out if migrant animals are also more ...
It is widely recognized that migration has a great impact on households quality of life, and income is an important indicator for evaluating success of a migration (or mobility) strategy. Using data...
This paper covers the SD-WAN migration design for various types of architecture and takes you through process, routing considerations, and a step-by-step migration path.
As regular CFZ-watchers will know, for some time Corinna has been doing a column for Animals & Men and a regular segment on On The Track... particularly about out-of-place birds and rare vagrants. There seem to be more and more bird stories from all over the world hitting the news these days so, to make room for them all - and to give them all equal and worthy coverage - she has set up this new blog to cover all things feathery and Fortean. ...
Movement Ecology is an open-access, interdisciplinary journal disseminating novel insights into the ecology of movement of whole organisms. We welcome ...
This study evaluated the carry-over effects of ewe body reserves during early pregnancy on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism. Forty-nine multiparous ewes were divided in three categories according to their body condition score (BCS) at day 30 of pregnancy (BCS 3, 3.25-3.5). Live-weight (LW) and BCS gains from 1st to 4th month of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS 3 animals. In contrast, in the last month of pregnancy, there was BCS decrease in all groups, although LW continued increasing. There were no differences in LW or BCS across ewe categories during this period. Peripheral leptin levels throughout the three last weeks of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS , 3 than in the rest, but this difference did not persist after lambing. Plasma metabolites related to energy metabolism, milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by ewe BCS in early pregnancy. Long-chain saturated milk fatty acids (FA) (C16-C24) were greater in ewes with lowest BCS (,3 and 3). Ewes with greater BCS ...
Abstract: Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for evolving/maturing advanced receiver geolocation technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory laboratory RF threat environment simulators do not provide the required fidelity to accurately simulate the parameters needed to develop ultra-precise direction finding and geolocation capabilities. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing an Advanced RF Geolocation Simulation Testbed (ARGST) for rapid prototyping of advanced RF receiver processor geolocation. The ARGST flexible architecture will enable the development of advanced geolocation technologies for single and multiple aircraft within a controlled laboratory environment enabling repeatable test and step-by-step evaluation/debugging capabilities. ARGST will provide simulator technology to develop advanced ...
Abstract: Man/hardware-in-the-loop laboratory simulation is the most cost-effective methodology for evolving/maturing advanced receiver geolocation technologies because the battlefield can be brought to the laboratory through multi-spectral synthetic battlespace simulation. Current laboratory laboratory RF threat environment simulators do not provide the required fidelity to accurately simulate the parameters needed to develop ultra-precise direction finding and geolocation capabilities. DRA proposes to solve this challenging technology limitation by developing an Advanced RF Geolocation Simulation Testbed (ARGST) for rapid prototyping of advanced RF receiver processor geolocation. The ARGST flexible architecture will enable the development of advanced geolocation technologies for single and multiple aircraft within a controlled laboratory environment enabling repeatable test and step-by-step evaluation/debugging capabilities. ARGST will provide simulator technology to develop advanced ...
Osmond et al. 2013 looked at female carotenoid (yellowish) ornamentation in redstarts, restricting their study to nesting season in Ontario, and to just the bright (yellow) tail and flank ornamental patterns, and not the wing patches. Older females had brighter yellow tail feathers (but not flank) than yearling females. A model with both flank and tail brightness predicted 41% of the variation in yearling female fledging success, brighter females fledging fewer offspring, contrary to prediction. Pairing date, first egg date, and number of young fledged did not differ between yearling and older female age classes. Females with brighter tails fledged fewer young, but just in yearlings, whereas the number of visits older females made to nests declined with tail brightness. Older males made fewer visits to the nests of brighter colored older female mates, and spent less time at the nests based on females color brightness, although this relationship was not quite statistically significant. Females ...
The gray whale has the longest annual migration distance of any mammal. Gray whales leave Baja, California, and western Mexico in the spring, migrating to the Bering and Chukchi seas for the summer months. Tracking a sample of 50 whales for a year provided a mean migration distance of 11,064 miles with a standard deviation of 860 miles. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the variance for the migrating whales. Assume that the population of migration distances is Normally distributed ...
As regular CFZ-watchers will know, for some time Corinna has been doing a column for Animals & Men and a regular segment on On The Track... particularly about out-of-place birds and rare vagrants. There seem to be more and more bird stories from all over the world hitting the news these days so, to make room for them all - and to give them all equal and worthy coverage - she has set up this new blog to cover all things feathery and Fortean. ...
The behaviour of an Australian day migrant, the yellow-faced honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops, was studied in order to assess the role of the sun in migratory orientation. During autumn migration, all tests took place under a sunny sky; birds were tested while living in the natural photoperiod (control) and with their internal clock shifted 4 h fast and 4 h slow. In spring, all birds were shifted 3 h fast; tests in overcast conditions, with the birds relying on their magnetic compass, served as controls. In control tests in both seasons, the birds preferred directions corresponding to those observed in the wild. When tested under sunny conditions with their internal clock shifted, the birds changed their directional tendencies. However, their preferred directions were different from those expected if a time-compensating sun compass was being used. After about 6 days, the shifted birds directions were no longer different from the control direction. This behaviour argues against a major role of ...
to 1) assess winter habitat dynamics and validate the use of stable carbon isotopes as a measure of ... effects from winter habitat on arrival timing, reproduction, and post-fledging survival, and 3) explore ... carry-over effects between breeding events, molt, and subsequent winter habitat use. Combined, my results .... ...
to 1) assess winter habitat dynamics and validate the use of stable carbon isotopes as a measure of ... effects from winter habitat on arrival timing, reproduction, and post-fledging survival, and 3) explore ... carry-over effects between breeding events, molt, and subsequent winter habitat use. Combined, my results .... ...
The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem lies in the path of some of the most significant wildlife migration routes on the planet. However, major challenges await migratory animals as they leave Yellowstone National Park. The long-term conservation of these animals depends on the actions of landowners and other stakeholders far beyond the national park’s borders. As part of the National Park Service’s centennial celebration, and in conjunction with the May issue of National Geographic magazine, “Invisible Boundaries” uses stunning photographs, immersive video, interactive migration maps, cultural objects, and original artwork to explore the compelling story behind some of the most amazing animal migrations on the planet. Come examine why animals make these incredible journeys and learn about the cutting-edge conservation science that’s taking place in one of America’s crowning natural treasures—Yellowstone National Park. This exhibition is located in
Zonotrichia leucophrys In this photo you can see the white stripe on the head that gives the bird its name. Location: Observatory Street, Sitka, Alaska Previous: White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) ...
Overall, three main findings emerged. (i) Pigeons can discriminate magnetic compass directions with the left as well as the right eye. This suggests processing of magnetic compass information by either brain hemisphere. (ii) Brain systems associated with the left and the right eye seem to process magnetic cues differently. (iii) Regarding the correct detection of the goal direction, the right eye (left hemisphere) is superior, as in most other cases studied so far.. The first important finding is that pigeons are capable of magnetic compass orientation with the left as well as the right eye and, consequently, with both brain hemispheres. This contrasts with the findings in European robins (Wiltschko et al. 2002), silvereyes (Wiltschko et al. 2003) and domestic chicks (Rogers et al. 2008), but is in line with the recent findings in garden warblers (Hein et al. in press). Interestingly, Rogers et al. (2008) considered the possibility that either brain hemisphere of chicks might, in principle, be ...
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterflys migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of
Scollon, E. J., Carr, J. A., Rintoul, D. A., McMurry, S. T. and Cobb, G. P. (2012), Metabolism and distribution of p,p′-DDT during flight of the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31: 336-346. doi: 10.1002/etc.730 ...
Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus with pictures and description of what this butterfly needs and which native plants to put in your garden.
One of the continents best-studied and most familiar songbirds, the White-throated Sparrow is found at some season throughout much of North America south of the tree line and principally east of the Rocky Mountains. To many its distinctive whistled song is synonymous with the northern wilderness. During migration and throughout its winter range, this species is a common visitor at feeding stations. It breeds primarily in the boreal coniferous and mixed forest and, a short-distance migrant, winters mainly in the southeastern U.S. A habitat generalist, it tends to occur in shrubby edges or early successional stages or openings in the forest, nesting and foraging for seeds and insects on or near the ground.. Throughout its extensive range the White-throated Sparrow shows no subspecific variation. However, it exhibits plumage polymorphism (white-striped and tan-striped morphs - see color photos) in both sexes, most obvious in the breeding season, associated with a difference in an autosome. These ...
The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new non-model organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken,
A Blueprint for the Future of Migratory Birds Migratory Bird Program Strategic Plan 2004-2014 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Message from the Assistant Director for Migratory Birds and State Programs The Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service enjoys a rich and successful tradition. It has been instrumental, on its own and with partners, in delivering bird conservation throughout the hemisphere for several decades. It is a critical hub through which much is accomplished. This strategic plan outlines the future direction of the Migratory Bird Program and how it will continue to contribute to bird conservation in North America and around the world. Like a blueprint it lays out the goals and design for a promising future for migratory birds. This blueprint reflects the collective wisdom of many people and groups that care deeply about birds and their habitats. Birds are indicators of the health and quality of our environment and are enjoyed by a large proportion of our ...
A Blueprint for the Future of Migratory Birds Migratory Bird Program Strategic Plan 2004-2014 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Message from the Assistant Director for Migratory Birds and State Programs The Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service enjoys a rich and successful tradition. It has been instrumental, on its own and with partners, in delivering bird conservation throughout the hemisphere for several decades. It is a critical hub through which much is accomplished. This strategic plan outlines the future direction of the Migratory Bird Program and how it will continue to contribute to bird conservation in North America and around the world. Like a blueprint it lays out the goals and design for a promising future for migratory birds. This blueprint reflects the collective wisdom of many people and groups that care deeply about birds and their habitats. Birds are indicators of the health and quality of our environment and are enjoyed by a large proportion of our ...
Recent studies have begun to elucidate the genetic basis for phenotypic traits in salmonid species, but many questions remain before these candidate genes can be directly incorporated into conservation management. In Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a region of major effect for migration timing has been discovered that harbors two adjacent candidate genes (greb1L, rock1), but there has been limited work to examine the association between these genes and migratory phenotypes at the individual, compared to the population, level. To provide a more thorough test of individual phenotypic association within lineages of Chinook Salmon, 33 candidate markers were developed across a 220 Kb region on chromosome 28 previously associated with migration timing. Candidate and neutral markers were genotyped in individuals from representative collections that exhibit phenotypic variation in timing of arrival to spawning grounds from each of three lineages of Chinook Salmon. Association tests confirmed ...
Gene maps of monarch butterflies and related species suggest that an ice age shift explains their migrations, a study team suggests.
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) may seem to be one of the most delicate creatures alive. But despite its frail appearance, every year the monarch makes a long and perilous journey thousands of miles south to escape the harsh winters of the North. While on this journey, the monarch can often be seen resting on the butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) in Silver Lake Park. The monarch butterfly begins its migration in September and travels for 30-45 days. Monarchs originating east of the Rocky Mountains and as far north as Canada make their way to the quiet, cool mountains of the Transvolcanic Region in central Mexico, about 60 miles west of Mexico City in the state of Michoacan. Migrating monarchs can be observed along the Citys beaches and coastal parks. Monarchs from New York City travel as much as 2,100 miles, averaging 50 miles a day, to reach their destination by the end of October. Resting in the chilly treetops, the butterflies hibernate for four months, covering oyamel fir trees ...
The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (delta H-2) of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the ...
Associate Professor Sonia Altizers students and laboratory staff assisted with sequences of the monarch life cycle. People in my lab guided the photographers and assistants and provided materials to them to film monarch eggs, larvae, pupation, adults laying eggs, praying mantis eating monarchs, and more, said Altizer, an expert on monarch butterflies.She has conducted substantial research on the variation among monarch butterflies across their worldwide range, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of their long-distance migration, particularly as it relates to host-parasite interactions. Her study of the relationship between migration distance and monarch butterfly wing shape, co-authored with Andy Davis, assistant research scientist in the Odum School, was published in the journal Evolution in Feb. 2010 ...
Associate Professor Sonia Altizers students and laboratory staff assisted with sequences of the monarch life cycle. People in my lab guided the photographers and assistants and provided materials to them to film monarch eggs, larvae, pupation, adults laying eggs, praying mantis eating monarchs, and more, said Altizer, an expert on monarch butterflies.She has conducted substantial research on the variation among monarch butterflies across their worldwide range, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of their long-distance migration, particularly as it relates to host-parasite interactions. Her study of the relationship between migration distance and monarch butterfly wing shape, co-authored with Andy Davis, assistant research scientist in the Odum School, was published in the journal Evolution in Feb. 2010 ...
The Monarch Butterfly. The knowledge of citizen scientists, biologists, and naturalists informs this books coverage of every aspect of the monarch butterflys life cycle (breeding, migration, and overwintering) from the perspective of every established monarch population...
Amazing pictures of 5 Unique Pictures Of Dogs In Animal Shelters is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 500 x 484 px and the image size only 188 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: blue dog pictures for sale, bulldog puppies for sale, dog for sale pictures, dogs for sale pictures, english bulldog for sale, .. ...
We are a preferred migration and Gold partner of Microsoft Azure, delivering modern unified cloud-based data warehousing solutions via automated BIRD tools with unprecedented capabilities. A successful cloud migration plan starts with a clear, data-driven understanding of your current infrastructure. This assessment using our unique automation tool - Eagle, the planner offers a foundational understanding of the existing data warehouse and provides a robust migration strategy Eagle - The Automated Migration Planner Offers : Eagle assesses the existing data warehouses and provides a **unified holistic view of the current data warehouse and related dependencies.** Implementing granular level assessment enables Eagle to generate comprehensive report which helps in formulating a **powerful migration strategy with a systemic timeline.** Eagle provides **optimized data model recommendations and also assists in reviewing the impact of implementing the change performed in the current data model** which ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Many users use a location-based application on a portable device to be a navigator when driving. However, there exists an incident that two roads are located on the same geolocation, i.e., same values of latitude and longitude but different altitude, for very long distance where one road is located on the ground level and another one is elevated. This incident mostly confuses a location-based application to precisely retrieve the actual road that a vehicle is currently on and, consequently, causes the application to either navigate incorrectly or suggest a route that is a detour. Calling an altitude from a GPS sensor might be a possible solution but it came with problems of accuracy, especially for mid-grade GPS sensors that equipped with most smartphone in todays market. We proposed a concept of implementing a classification model that can classify whether a vehicle is on a ground road or an elevated road regardless of geolocation data. We trained and validated two models using a dataset that ...
Report sightings of migrating Monarch Butterflies. Journey North citizen scientists track monarch butterfly migration each fall and spring as Monarch Butterflies at Sanctuary in Mexico migrate to and from Mexico.
Every night across the worlds oceans, numerous marine animals arrive at the surface of the ocean to feed on plankton after an upward migration of hundreds of metres. Just before sunrise, this migration is reversed and the animals return to their daytime residence in the dark mesopelagic zone (at a depth of 200-1,000 m). This daily excursion, referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM), is thought of primarily as an adaptation to avoid visual predators in the sunlit surface layer1,2 and was first recorded using ship-net hauls nearly 200 years ago3. Nowadays, DVMs are routinely recorded by ship-mounted acoustic systems (for example, acoustic Doppler current profilers). These data show that night-time arrival and departure times are highly conserved across ocean regions4 and that daytime descent depths increase with water clarity4,5, indicating that animals have faster swimming speeds in clearer waters4. However, after decades of acoustic measurements, vast ocean areas remain unsampled and places for
Every night across the worlds oceans, numerous marine animals arrive at the surface of the ocean to feed on plankton after an upward migration of hundreds of metres. Just before sunrise, this migration is reversed and the animals return to their daytime residence in the dark mesopelagic zone (at a depth of 200-1,000 m). This daily excursion, referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM), is thought of primarily as an adaptation to avoid visual predators in the sunlit surface layer1,2 and was first recorded using ship-net hauls nearly 200 years ago3. Nowadays, DVMs are routinely recorded by ship-mounted acoustic systems (for example, acoustic Doppler current profilers). These data show that night-time arrival and departure times are highly conserved across ocean regions4 and that daytime descent depths increase with water clarity4,5, indicating that animals have faster swimming speeds in clearer waters4. However, after decades of acoustic measurements, vast ocean areas remain unsampled and places for
The month of September will start out with dynamic hummingbirds that will amaze you with their acrobatic flying feats. Only the females will visit the New York City area, and they are very territorial, even in migration-often chasing each other off the orange jewel weed blossoms that are their favorite treat. Warblers will begin to trickle in and become more plentiful as the month ends. American Redstarts, Ovenbirds, and Blue-winged, Black and White, Palm, Yellow-rumped, Black-throated Blue, Nashville, and Orange-crowned Warblers are just some of the warblers that will pass through.. One of the most spectacular hawk movements occurs in the middle of September. Broad-winged hawks migrating back to South America ride the Atlantic Flyway over NYBG, picking up warm air thermals and circling in kettles (50 hawks or more circling until they find a warm air thermal) over the Garden grounds. At times they can fill the sky and are quite a sight to behold. We have counted up to 5,000 hawks at a time ...
Rocky Mountain Greater Sandhill Cranes Map Credit: Jim Dubovsky, USFWS. The Mid-Continent population of Sandhill Cranes migrates through the Central Flyway from their breeding grounds inSiberia, Alaska, and Canada to their wintering grounds in Texas, New Mexico, southeastern Arizona, and Mexico. The population is estimated to be over ½ million birds, the largest crane population in the world. The Rocky Mountain of population of Greater Sandhill Cranes migrates through the eastern portion of the Pacific Flyway and western portion of the Central Flyway. The population is estimated to be about 20,000 birds.. The Harvest Information Program (HIP) survey provides critical scientific harvest information to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and State Wildlife Agencies responsible for the management of these birds. It is very important for all sandhill crane hunters to cooperate in this harvest survey, in doing so hunters help the management of this important migratory bird species. Each year, ...
Figure 1 Roseate Tern fitted with a geolocator mounted on a plastic leg ring on Rockabill Island in the Irish Sea at the start of the study in 2017 (a, b). Roseate Tern after being fitted with a geolocator on Coquet Island in 2018 (c) and a close up of the geolocator on a different bird after its return to Coquet Island the next year, with its geolocator intact and still functioning (d).. While geolocators lack the locational resolution of GPS devices, they are relatively inexpensive and analytical approaches for interpreting light-level data are now much more refined so that, with other measurements, such as temperature, they can provide good locational resolution at an appropriate spatial scale for migration-ecology studies.. From 20 birds tagged with geolocators at each site, but in different years, 31 were recovered and yielded 30 datasets for analysis, 16 from Coquet Island and 14 from Rockabill with no apparent adverse impacts on the birds physical condition and reproductive output. These ...
Abstract: In the Tieli Forestry Bureau of the Lesser Xingan Mountains in Northeast China, we recorded a total of 79 GPS coordinates of presence traces for red deer (Cervus elaphus) during winter field investigations in November 2014 and January 2015. We grouped 19 environmental predictor variables into four classes including terrain, landscape type, vegetation structure and human disturbance, we used the MaxEnt model to predict potential suitable winter habitat distribution for red deer and determine the contribution of each environment factor to the distribution characteristics. The accuracy of our prediction models was accessed by the area under the curve (AUC) values of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and validation showed that the results had high average AUCs: 0.949 for training data and 0.958 for testing data. The results of a Jackknife test indicated that landscape type had the strongest influence on winter habitat suitability of red deer among the 4 class variables. ...
Ryder, Thomas B.; Fox, James W.; Marra, Peter P.. 2011 Estimating migratory connectivity of gray catbirds (Dumetella Carolinensis) using geolocator and mark-recapture data. Auk, 128 (3). 448-453. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2011.11091 Rodríguez, Airam; Negro, Juan J.; Bustamante, Javier; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod. 2009 Geolocators map the wintering grounds of threatened Lesser Kestrels in Africa. Diversity and Distributions, 15 (6). 1010-1016. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00600.x Rodríguez, Airam; Negro, Juan J.; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod. 2009 Effects of geolocator attachments on breeding parameters of Lesser Kestrels. Journal of Field Ornithology, 80 (4). 399-407. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2009.00247.x Rose, Kathryn C.; Hart, Jane K.; Martinez, Kirk. 2009 Seasonal changes in basal conditions at Briksdalsbreen, Norway: the winter-spring transition. Boreas, 38 (3). 579-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2008.00079.x Raupach, M.R.; Canadell, J.G.; ...
With millions of birds descending on Delaware Bay during migration, the propensity for bird flu (H5N1) to spread among flocks-and potentially among humans-has been a pressing concern. And as animals, from gray whales to monarch butterflies make epic treks of thousands of kilometers each year, the role of these travelers in spreading highly pathogenic diseases along the way has been a key question for ecologists and epidemiologists alike.. At first brush, a long-distance voyage might sound like an excellent opportunity for substantial disease spread. But perhaps unexpectedly animal migration might actually help keep super-pathogenic diseases in check, argued a team of researchers behind a new review paper.. By placing disease in an ecological context, you not only see counterintuitive patterns but also understand the advantage of disease transmission, John Gittleman, dean of University of Georgias Odum School of Ecology and who was not involved in the paper, said in a prepared ...
Monarch Butterflies, as they do every fall, are heading south for the winter. Along the coast one can see pretty big numbers of them, especially on days when wind out of the north carries them to the shore. I am always amazed by long migrations, but it is usually birds I think of when considering long-distance migrants. To me, it is even more amazing that something as fragile as a butterfly can fly thousands of miles to a place it has never been and survive the winter.. On the last day of September Daisy and I were celebrating ten years together and we headed out to the coast to enjoy the waves and sand on a weekday when the crowds were sparse. Many monarchs were moving through, and quite a few of them were pausing to refuel from what is likely Seaside Goldenrod.. ...
The fall migration of cloudless sulphurs is the easiest to observe butterfly migration in the southeastern United States. On fine days in the fall, in the Southeast, any butterfly watcher driving an east-west road through open country will likely see these bright yellow butterflies crossing the road and can confirm that they are crossing much more frequently from north to south than from south to north. (Monarchs are migrating at the same time, but they generally fly too high to see and are heading for Mexico and hence may miss the Southeast.) During fall, the numbers of cloudless sulphurs crossing an east-west line bisecting the Florida peninsula at the latitude of Gainesville may approach the numbers of monarchs overwintering in clusters at highly localized sites in Mexico (Walker 1991, 2001). The seasonal migrations of cloudless sulphurs and monarchs are similar in that each species is abandoning large and favorable summer breeding areas that have lethally low winter temperatures for more ...
Beyond Pesticides, May 30, 2019) Last week, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) agreed to a 2020 deadline for reaching a decision on protection status for monarch butterflies under the Endangered Species Act. This agreement comes nearly five years after the filing of a petition by conservationists with the Center for Biological Diversity and Center for Food Safety led to the launch of an ongoing status review in 2014. While FWS deliberates, monarch butterflies continue their staggering, decades-long population decline, perhaps for the last of their decades.. In the 1990s, the eastern monarch population numbered nearly one billion butterflies, and the western population numbered more than 1.2 million. Last years winter counts recorded around 93 million eastern monarchs and fewer than 200,000 western monarchs. That loss is so staggering that in human-population terms it would be like losing every living person in the United States except those in Florida and Ohio, Tierra Curry, a senior ...
Behaviour In central and north-west Europe this species is mainly sedentary (del Hoyo et al. 1992) although other populations are chiefly migratory (Madge and Burn 1988). Migratory populations arrive on their breeding grounds from late-April (Kear 2005a) where they breed in single pairs or loose groups (del Hoyo et al. 1992) with hundreds often nesting at the same site (although not colonially) (Kear 2005a). Once incubation has commenced (Madge and Burn 1988) the males gather in flocks (Madge and Burn 1988, Kear 2005a) to moult (moult migrations occurring in some areas) between late-June and early-September when they become flightless for 3-4 weeks (Scott and Rose 1996) (females moult their flight feather 1-2 months later) (Scott and Rose 1996). The autumn migration begins in September (Kear 2005a), with a segregation of the sexes occurring in autumn and winter due to the difference in the timing of the moult (Scott and Rose 1996). The return spring migration begins in late-February (Kear ...
Ten years have passed since the first edition of this book. During that time the field of bird migration has experienced many advances which are reflected in this second edition. No other book exists to bring together the vast amount of information currently available on the subject of bird migration. Includes discussion of evolution and history of bird migration, physiology, orientation mechanisms and threats to migrations and is accessible to experts as well as amateurs.
Ten years have passed since the first edition of this book. During that time the field of bird migration has experienced many advances which are reflected in this second edition. No other book exists to bring together the vast amount of information currently available on the subject of bird migration. Includes discussion of evolution and history of bird migration, physiology, orientation mechanisms and threats to migrations and is accessible to experts as well as amateurs.
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Scientists have been seeing some bird species migrate earlier and earlier each year and now a team of UK and Icelandic researchers has shown that warming temperatures are behind the creeping back of this instinctive behavior, according to their report in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.. We have known that birds are migrating earlier and earlier each year - particularly those that migrate over shorter distances, said report author Jenny Gill, a biologist from the University of East Anglia in the UK. But the reason why has puzzled bird experts for years. Its a particularly important question because the species which are not migrating earlier are declining in numbers.. The study focused on a population of Icelandic black-tailed godwits that advanced their spring arrival date by two weeks over the span of 20 years. Black-tailed godwits are large shorebirds that have a sporadic breeding range that extends from Iceland to Russia. The birds ...
The monarch butterfly is sometimes called the milkweed butterfly because its ... http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/butterfly/species/Monarch.shtml ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6fd80-NTUxN
The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress towards a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.
Many people enjoy Autumn as their favorite season of the year. Temperatures are comfortable, most pesky insects are absent, animal migrations are evident, and beautiful Fall colors on the trees and shrubs are stunning. But why do these deciduous plants change color? Consider daylight, temperature, and chemistry.. Spring and summer growth and leaf production are due to photosynthesis, a process where plants use light to synthesize the cells chlorophyll into transforming carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates such as sugars and starch. The cells containing chlorophyll also give the plant its green color. But there are other pigments, besides green, within the leaves all year. Xanthophyll produces orange and yellow colors, anthocyanin develops shades of red. When daylight decreases and temperatures drop in the North, the leaves stop their food-making and the green chlorophyll breaks down, leaving the other pigments to dominate the new Autumn colors.. Soon after these vivid colors appear, the ...
Oberhauser, K.S., O. R. Taylor, S. M. Reppert, H. Dingle, K. R. Nail, R. M. Pyle, C. Stenoien. 2013. Are monarch butterflies true navigators? The jury is still out. PNAS 110(39):E3680.. Diffendorfer J.E., Loomis J.B., Ries L., Oberhauser K.S., Lopez-Hoffman L., Semmens D., Semmens B., Butterfield B., Bagstad K., Goldstein J., Wiederholt R., Mattsson B., Thogmartin W.E. 2013. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12065.. Zipkin, E., L. Ries, R. Reeves, J. Reetz, K.S. Oberhauser. 2012. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly. Global Change Biology 18:3039-3049. Pleasants, J., K.S. Oberhauser. 2012. Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: Effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x. Oberhauser, K.S., G. Lebuhn. 2012 . Insects and plants: Engaging undergraduates in authentic ...
Eventually, the mother an calf must travel back to colder climates in order to feed. The wintering waters are safe for giving birth, but that is because there is so little food, and thus very few predators. All Gray Whales migrate, and they actually take part in one of the greatest animal migrations in the world, travelling as far as 12,500 miles (20,000km) round trip each year. Females and calves are the first to leave the warm winter waters, destined for the nutrient rich seas of the north. But the trip is not easy! Not only is the swim difficult for the calves due to its distance, it is also incredibly dangerous thanks to all the predators (like Killer Whales) that are out to get them ...
i) Cost-benefit analysis. The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has determined that the expected welfare benefit of the annual migratory bird hunting frameworks ranges from $734 million to $1.064 billion, with a mid-point estimate of $899 million. The benefit estimate is based on an analysis from 2004. The Service updated the 2004 analysis with respect to duck hunting and determined that the total consumer surplus of the annual duck hunting frameworks is on the order of $220 to $360 million, with a mid-point estimate of $291 million.. (ii) Agency actions relevant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. sections 603-605, 607, and 609. The Service determined that the regulations will have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act. The Service issued a Small Entity Flexibility Analysis (Analysis) to comply with the requirements of the Act. The Analysis as relates to all migratory bird hunting was last updated in 2004. The 2004 Analysis ...
The Green DEI Lab (PI: D. Andre Green II) greendeilab.com at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor is seeking a postdoc who is excited to apply molecular, genetic/genomic, and developmental approaches to non-model systems to understand the proximate mechanisms that control the generation of biodiversity. We are currently most interested in describing the molecular genetic design of the iconic monarch butterfly migration and understanding how this design influences the migration strategy. Current research is focused on molecular eco-genomics, multisensory integration, and behavioral evolution. This work involves both laboratory-based experimentation and field work at domestic and international sites. The specific goals for this postdoctoral fellowship are intentionally open, designed to strike the best fit between the specific research objectives of the lab and the interests and expertise of the Fellow. With that in mind, this position is potentially a good fit for someone expert in at least ...
An initial step in solid tumor metastasis involves the migration of tumor cells through extracellular matrix. Several cancer cell migration strategies exist in vivo, and the local properties of collagen fibers are implicated in modulating migration behaviors. Yet, individual tumor cells also display heterogeneity in their intrinsic ability to migrate and metastasize. It remains unclear to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity contribute to the emergence of distinct migration phenotypes and whether certain migration phenotypes contribute more to metastasis than others. To study this, we generated 3D collagen matrices of varying densities and monitored single cancer cell migration in these matrices with time-lapse microscopy. We observed a collagen density threshold at 2.5mg/ml, above which 86% of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transition from single mesenchymal migration to collective cell migration, with a 50% increase in persistence after cell division. After seven days, these ...
After reading the application and interagency comments, here is what I discovered.. In March, the Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife updated its list of species of special concern.. This lists species suffering a reduction of numbers, loss of habitat and/or major impacts from development.. Within the proposed project footprint, a total of 21 species are endangered or of special concern. They include the wood thrush, veery, scarlet tanager, American redstart, black and white warbler, chestnut-sided warbler, yellow warbler, white-throated sparrow, northern parula, barred owl, eastern towhee, prairie warbler and olive-sided flycatcher.. Also included are the hoary and silver-haired bats. New studies show migratory or tree-roosting bats are attracted to insects that are drawn by the lighting and heat of the structures housing the wind-turbine generating components, causing an increase in bat strikes.. The bald eagle, Northern harrier and peregrine falcon were observed during the survey. ...