BOGGAN, J. K. 1991. A morphological study and cladistic analysis of Sinningia and associated genera with particular reference to Lembocarpus, Lietzia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea (Gesneriaceae: Gloxinieae) M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.. BURTT, B. L. & H. WIEHLER. 1995. Classification of the family Gesneriaceae. Gesneriana 1: 1-4.. CRISCI, J. V., M. M. CIGLIANO, J. J. MORRONE, & S.ROIG-JUÑENT. 1991. Historical biogeography of southern South America. Syst. Zool. 40:152-171.. INNIS, M. A., K. B. MYAMBO, D. H. GELFAND, & M. A. D. BROW. 1988. DNA sequencing and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 9436-9440.. IVANINA, L. I. 1965. Application of the carpological method to the taxonomy of Gesneriaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 383-402.. KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 720-735.. SMITH, J. F. 1996. Tribal relationships within the Gesneriaceae: A cladistic analysis of morphological ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results. APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). "The angiosperm phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change". Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 42. doi:10.1002/meet.14504201249. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and ...
The tribal relationships of the Gesneriaceae are investigated using ndhF sequences. A full analysis of 70 taxa including 16 species from the Scrophulariaceae, Bigoniaceae, and Acanthaceae as outgroups, resulted in two most-parsimonious trees of 5610 steps each. In all trees the Gesneriaceae were a monophyletic group and Paulownia was the closest single-species outgroup for the analysis. Further analyses eliminated all but the members of the Gesneriaceae and Paulownia in order to better asses relationships within the family. The smaller analysis resulted in a single most-parsimonious tree of 4613 steps. The Klugieae are identified as the sister to the remainder of the family and could potentially be separated as a distinct subfamily. The subfamilies Cyrtandroideae (excluding Klugieae) and Gesnerioideae are monophyletic. The placement of Coronallthereae in Cyrtandroideae does not have support from this analysis, whereas its placement in Gesnerioideae is supported. Alternatively Coronanthereae could be
Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75- of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a ...
... is a submergent aquatic species often found int the quite heavily vegetated areas of lakes and marshes. The plant has pretty little yellow flowers that protrude from the waters surface and from a distance resemble pea flowers.. The most interesting feature of Common Bladderwort, and others of the genus its the presence of bladders. These structure all the plants to consume animals and obtain nutrients. When an animal such as a waterflea gets close it triggers hairs on the bladder, which cause the bladder to suddenly swell. This creates a vacuum which sucks in the zooplankton. Even tiny, newly hatched fish can fall victim to the bladders. You can tell when the bladders are full because they are dark and filled with digesting zooplankton, and other invertebrates.. Together with Pitcher Plant and Sundews the bladderworts make up a fascinating number of carnivorous plants.. Also see Horned Bladderwort. ...
Anon. 2003. APNI: Australian Plant Names Index. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html.. Bell, C. D. and R. W. Patterson. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). Am. J. Bot. 87:1857-1870.. Brand, A. 1907. Polemoniaceae. Pages 1-203 in A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich IV(250). Engelmann, Leipzig. Campbell, D.R., R. Alarcon, and C. A. Wu. 2003. Reproductive isolation and hybrid pollen disadvantage in Ipomopsis. J. Evolution. Biol. 16:536-540.. Carlquist, S., V. M. Eckhart, and D. C. Michener. 1984. Wood anatomy of Polemoniaceae. Aliso 10:547-572.. Dawson, M. L. 1936. The floral morphology of the Polemoniaceae. Am. J. Bot. 23: 501-511.. Ferguson, C. J. and R. K. Jansen. 2002. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of eastern Phlox (Polemoniaceae): implications of congruence and incongruence with the ITS phylogeny. Am. J. Bot. 89:1324-1335. Galen, C. 2000. High and dry: Drought stress, sex-allocation trade-offs, and selection on flower size in the alpine wildflower ...
In the past, classification systems were typically produced by an individual botanist or by a small group. The result was a large number of systems (see List of systems of plant taxonomy). Different systems and their updates were generally favoured in different countries. Examples are the Engler system in continental Europe, the Bentham & Hooker system in Britain (particularly influential because it was used by Kew), the Takhtajan system in the former Soviet Union and countries within its sphere of influence and the Cronquist system in the United States.[1] Before the availability of genetic evidence, the classification of angiosperms (also known as flowering plants, Angiospermae, Anthophyta or Magnoliophyta) was based on their morphology (particularly of their flower) and biochemistry (the kinds of chemical compounds in the plant). After the 1980s, detailed genetic evidence analysed by phylogenetic methods became available and while confirming or clarifying some relationships in existing ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-07-06 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-06-26 ...
The carambola is a tropical and subtropical fruit which can be grown at elevations up to 1,200 metres (4,000 feet). It prefers full sun exposure, but requires enough humidity and annual rainfall of at least 1,800 mm (70 in). It does not have a soil type preference, but requires good drainage.[citation needed]. Carambola trees are planted at least 6 m (20 ft) from each other and typically are fertilized three times a year. The tree grows rapidly and typically produces fruit at four or five years of age. The large amount of rain during spring actually reduces the amount of fruit, but, in ideal conditions, carambola can produce from 90 to 180 kilograms (200 to 400 pounds) of fruit a year. The carambola tree flowers throughout the year, with main fruiting seasons from April to June and October to December in Malaysia,[16] for example, but fruiting also occurs at other times in some other locales, such as South Florida.[4]. Growth and leaf responses of container-grown `Arkin carambola (Averrhoa ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego poglądu na taksonomię roślin okrytonasiennych w obliczu szybko rozwijających się metod systematyki molekularnej.. Efektem pracy grupy jest opublikowany w 1998 system klasyfikacji roślin (tzw. system APG I, ang. APG system). System bazował na danych molekularnych (dwóch genów chloroplastowego DNA i jednego genu kodującego rybosomy) analizowanych metodami kladystycznymi[1].. W kolejnych latach ukazywały się wersje zrewidowane. W roku 2003 opublikowano system APG II[2], w 2009 APG III[3][4][5] i w 2016 roku APG IV[6].. ...
Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences are used to estimate the phylogeny of 53 members of Polemoniaceae, representing all but two genera of the family. Fitch parsimony analysis of equal-weighted nucleotide sites result in 1080 minimal-length trees. However, when alignment-ambiguous positions are removed and an II: 10 transition to transversion weighting is imposed only eight trees are found. These data are used to address two issues: I) patterns of diversification in Polemoniaceae, and 2) the circumscription and monophyly of the genus Gilia. Although the monophyly of Polemoniaceae is well supported, relationships inferred among the earliest diverging lineages are altered by character weighting, treatment of indels, and taxon inclusion. In spite of the lack of reliable resolution at the basal nodes, ITS data provide evidence that Gilia, as currently interpreted, is polyphyletic and comprises at least five independent lineages.
Podostemaceae: Podostemaceae, riverweed family of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the order Malpighiales, with 48 genera and 270 species of aquatic plants that look like mosses,
Sarcandra glabra is a perrenial, spreading evergreen undershrub, that is reaching up to 1.5m in height and somestimes more in width. In nature it usually grows under trees, near streams or lakes, but it can be found both on swamps and dry sandy lands, from sea level to elevations around 2000m beyond. For best growth it should have moist, acid soil, rich in organic matter and partial shade. It have interesting from botanical point of view, shape of flovers, which because of its micro size, are no addiction to beauty of the garden. But a lot of charm has its tiny, bright red-orange fruits (yellow-orenge fruit Sarcandra plants can be found too, but are rare), that are staying on branches for long time, making this plant being very ornamental. It is usually called as berries, while in fact it have a structure of a drupe. Sarcandra glabra is frost resistant to around -10*C, but can be cultivated as a houseplant in regions with colder winter. It is quite drought and heat resistant plant. Fresh leaves ...
In the United States, commercial cultivation and broad consumer acceptance of the fruit only dates to the 1970s. That acceptance is attributable to Morris Arkin, a backyard horticulturalist, from Coral Gables, Florida. During the late 1960s, Arkin began cultivating plants and trees in his backyard, eventually developing a kind of carambola, or star fruit, that became commercially viable and was named after him. Until the early 1970s, carambola had been grown only as specimen trees in botanical gardens and experiment stations and as a curiosity in home landscapes. However, because of its attractive star shape when cut in cross-section and yellow to golden color, it began to grow in popularity. Fruit from early introductions were however, sour and sometimes considered unpalatable. This limited market and public acceptance, inhibiting development and expansion of carambola as a commercial fresh fruit. Arkin cultivated the Arkin variety - a sweet carambola with good handling characteristics - in ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4]. The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya.. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7]. ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4] The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7] ...
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While the monocotyledons have remained extremely stable in their outer borders as a well-defined and coherent monophylectic group, the deeper internal relationships have undergone considerable flux, with many competing classification systems over time.[33]. Historically, Bentham (1877), considered the monocots to consist of four alliances, Epigynae, Coronariae, Nudiflorae and Glumales, based on floral characteristics. He describes the attempts to subdivide the group since the days of Lindley as largely unsuccessful.[83] Like most subsequent classification systems it failed to distinguish between two major orders, Liliales and Asparagales, now recognised as quite separate.[84] A major advance in this respect was the work of Rolf Dahlgren (1980),[85] which would form the basis of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Groups (APG) subsequent modern classification of monocot families. Dahlgren who used the alternate name Lilliidae considered the monocots as a subclass of angiosperms characterised by a single ...
The evolutionary history of flowering plants is poorly known, represented by remnant fossils only weakly identified as angiosperms. Until recently, fossil evidence of early angiosperms was based on vegetative materials and pollen. None of these fossils, however, showed the presence of ovules or seeds enclosed in carpels, the true distinction of the angiosperm lineage.. A team of paleontologists and paleobotanists led by Ge Sun of Jilin University, China, and David Dilcher of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, recently announced the discovery of a new basal angiosperm family, Archaefructaceae (Ge Sun et al. 2002). The new family is represented only by the two species, Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis. Five virtually complete fossils of these plants, including flowers, seeds, and fruits, were found in the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, northeastern China. The fossils are believed to be between 125 and 145 million years old, placing them within the Lower ...
Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Leaves: Leaves initially arise from cell divisions in the shoot apical meristem. A slight bulge (a leaf buttress) is produced, which in dicots continues to grow and elongate to form a leaf primordium. (Stipules, if present, appear as two small protuberances.) Marginal and submarginal meristems on opposite flanks of the primordium initiate leaf-blade formation. Differences in the local activity of marginal meristems cause the lobed shapes of simple leaves and the leaflets in compound leaves. An increase in width and in the number of cell layers is brought about by marginal meristems. Subsequent expansion and increase in length is achieved by
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of...
Buy Fossilium Catalogus Plantae, Volume 108 (9789057821844): Index of Angiosperm Leaf Species Names C, 1823-2005: NHBS - J van der Burgh, HWJ van Amerom, Backhuys
Read "Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Lamiales • Familia: Lentibulariaceae Rich. (1808) ...
Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5%) than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%), the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene
Read "How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?, Oikos" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The angiosperms. Greek: angeion case; sperma seed. By far the most diverse group of plants that has ever existed with more than 240,000 different species. Why are there so many species. Angiosperms. Time scale. Origin of angiosperms. Mosses. Ferns . Slideshow 154268 by...
Mon. afternoon (8/2) - Moss phylogeny (Goffinet and Hedderson) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: molecular and developmental (Qiu and Zimmer) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Liverwort & Hornwort phylogeny (Crandall-Stotler and Hasegawa) Tues. evening (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: structural and paleobotanical (Endress and Friis) Tues. evening (8/3) - Fern phylogeny (Pryer and DuBuisson) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Angiosperm phylogeny (within major clades) (Soltis, Soltis, and Chase) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Lycophyte phylogeny (Taylor & Wikstrom) Wed. evening (8/4) - Green Plant Phylogeny (overall) (Buchheim and Kenrick) In addition, the GPPRCG has facilitated a Keynote Symposium that will place the green plants into the context of the rest of the tree of life (organized by Mishler and Huss): Fri. morning (8/5) - Phylogeny of Life (where Mishler will give the overview talk on green plants, drawing from the 8 symposia above ...
The common ancestor to Genlisea and Utricularia may have had forks at the tip of the leaves. Both genera have traps with tube openings at a fork. In the Genlisea clade the trap elongated and the forks developed into long spirals. In the Utricularia clade the trap shortened, folded back, and developed the sophisticated trap door mechanism at the leaf fork.. The most basal species of Genlisea and Utricularia have a common feature that gives an additional clue as to how those genera evolved from a proto-Pinguicula. They have two kinds of leaves. Some Pinguicula species such as Pinguicula lusitanica have only one kind of leaf. However, a very similar species, Pinguicula villosa, has two kinds of leaves. The carnivorous summer leaves of Pinguicula villosa look just like the leaves of Pinguicula lusitanica, but the non-carnivorous winter leaves of Pinguicula villosa form a hibernacula. These winter leaves are barely differentiated and serve to protect the apex of the plant during the arctic winters. ...
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The Carambola or Star Fruit is an unique and flavorful fruit. The fruits flavor ranges from very sour to mildly sweetish and tastes something like a mix of apple, pineapple, and kiwi fruit. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star.
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
Carambola (Starfruit) - Averrhoa Carambola facts about plant, fruit, nutrition, health benefits, traditional uses, name in different languages and precautions.
REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS. APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) II. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linneam Society, London, v. 141, p. 399 - 436, 2003. [ Links ] BISPO, P. C.; VALERIANO, M. M.; KUPLICH, T. M. Variáveis geomorfométricas locais e sua relação com a vegetação da região do interflúvio Madeira- Purus (AM-RO). Acta Amazônica, Manaus, v. 39, n. 1, mar. 2009. [ Links ] CARVALHO, P. E. R. Espécies Arbóreas Brasileiras. Colombo: EMBRAPA Florestas, 2003. v. 1. 1039p. [ Links ] CORTINES, E.; VALCARCEL, R. Influence of pioneer-species combinations on restoration of disturbed ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Revista Árvore. v. 33, n. 5, p. 925- 934, jul./ago., 2009. [ Links ] DEAN, W. A ferro e fogo: a história e a devastação da Mata Atlântica brasileira. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996. 491p. [ Links ] DURIGAN, G.; NOGUEIRA, J. C. B. ...
Article Removal of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) using fresh water algae (Utricularia tenuissima, Utricularia tenuis & Zygogonium ericetorum) from contaminated water. A study was conducted to check the efficiency of different fresh water algae for...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1-20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06 ...
Система APG IV - современная таксономическая система классификации цветковых растений, разработанная «Группой филогении покрытосеменных» (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, APG) и опубликованная в марте 2016 года в Ботаническом журнале Лондонского Линнеевского общества в статье «An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV»[1]. Основные разработчики системы - участники «группы филогении покрытосеменных»: James W. Byng[en][* 1][* 2], Mark W. Chase[* 3][* 4], Maarten J. M. Christenhusz[en][* 1][* 3], Michael F. Fay[en][* 3], Walter S. Judd[en][* 5], David J. Mabberley[en][* 6], Alexander N. Sennikov[* 7], Douglas E. Soltis[en][* 5], Pamela S. Soltis[en][* 5], Peter F. ...
The highest elevation flowering plant ever recorded in Europe, a lush moss flora, one of the coldest places of permanent animal life (collembola, mites) and indications of mycorrhizal fungi were evide
A series of divisions separating eight peripheral cells from a core of eight inner cells heralds histogenesis in the embryo. The result is the formation of a sixteen-celled, globular embryo, in which the peripheral cells form the protoderm (precursor cells of the embryonic epidermis), and the inner cells differentiate into the procambium and ground meristem (precursors of the vascular tissues and ground tissues, respectively) of the mature embryo. This initiates the formation of radial-pattern elements made up of concentric tissue layers in the basal part of the embryo ...
ZFMK: Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig - Leibniz-Institute for animal biodiversity is part of the Leibniz Association, a network of 89 scientifically, legally and economically independent research institutes and scientific service facilities. Leibniz Institutes perform strategic- and thematically-oriented research and offer scientific service of national significance while striving to find scientific solutions for major social challenges. More information: http://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/. Weitere Informationen:http://For more information visit: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1470 ...
The significance of the 4C value (where C is the amount of DNA in the unreplicated haploid genome) in angiosperm plants is discussed. The DNA amount is a stable feature used in biosystematics. Although this parameter varies even in closely related taxa, there is no correlation between the DNA amount and the structural and functional organization of plants. The role of DNA amount, including excess DNA, in plant evolution is considered. Some rules governing the distribution of DNA amount among different plant taxa are postulated, together with the possibility of using the data in systematics, phylogeny, and solutions of problems of genetic apparatus organization and evolution. The decrease in DNA value per genome during plant evolution and the high level of species formation in taxa with large DNA values have been shown. Plant taxa with a small DNA value per genome have a high percentage and higher degree of polyploidy. The nature of the differential staining of euchromatin and heterochromatin bands of
Angiosperm evolution has given rise to an overwhelming diversity of floral morphologies adapted to pollination by a multitude of different vectors. This diversity is mirrored in the high variability of breeding systems and reproductive strategies across angiosperms. Hence, it is hypothesized that floral form and function have important effects on diversification [1-4]. There is an extensive body of literature on floral morphology, pertaining both to extant and extinct taxa [5-11]. However, the distribution of flower morphological diversity across major subclades, let alone across the angiosperms as a whole, has rarely been addressed using an explicitly analytical and synthetic approach [12,13]. Such broad-scale analyses of disparity (morphological diversity) have so far been largely restricted to animal groups [14-17].. Morphospace analyses are used to study macro-evolutionary patterns and trends in disparity within and among clades. While disparity analyses are traditionally conducted on large ...
Learn about growing ipomopsis flowers, part of the Phlox family and also known as the Hummingbird Plant, Red Gilia, Texas Plume, or Scarlet Trumpet.
sciencehabit writes The carnivorous humped bladderwort, found on all continents except Antarctica, is a model of ruthless genetic efficiency. Only 3% of this aquatic plants DNA is not part of a known gene, new research shows. In contrast, only 2% of human DNA is part of a gene. The bladderwort, na...