BOGGAN, J. K. 1991. A morphological study and cladistic analysis of Sinningia and associated genera with particular reference to Lembocarpus, Lietzia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea (Gesneriaceae: Gloxinieae) M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.. BURTT, B. L. & H. WIEHLER. 1995. Classification of the family Gesneriaceae. Gesneriana 1: 1-4.. CRISCI, J. V., M. M. CIGLIANO, J. J. MORRONE, & S.ROIG-JUÑENT. 1991. Historical biogeography of southern South America. Syst. Zool. 40:152-171.. INNIS, M. A., K. B. MYAMBO, D. H. GELFAND, & M. A. D. BROW. 1988. DNA sequencing and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 9436-9440.. IVANINA, L. I. 1965. Application of the carpological method to the taxonomy of Gesneriaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 383-402.. KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 720-735.. SMITH, J. F. 1996. Tribal relationships within the Gesneriaceae: A cladistic analysis of morphological ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results. APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). The angiosperm phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 42. doi:10.1002/meet.14504201249. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and ...
The tribal relationships of the Gesneriaceae are investigated using ndhF sequences. A full analysis of 70 taxa including 16 species from the Scrophulariaceae, Bigoniaceae, and Acanthaceae as outgroups, resulted in two most-parsimonious trees of 5610 steps each. In all trees the Gesneriaceae were a monophyletic group and Paulownia was the closest single-species outgroup for the analysis. Further analyses eliminated all but the members of the Gesneriaceae and Paulownia in order to better asses relationships within the family. The smaller analysis resulted in a single most-parsimonious tree of 4613 steps. The Klugieae are identified as the sister to the remainder of the family and could potentially be separated as a distinct subfamily. The subfamilies Cyrtandroideae (excluding Klugieae) and Gesnerioideae are monophyletic. The placement of Coronallthereae in Cyrtandroideae does not have support from this analysis, whereas its placement in Gesnerioideae is supported. Alternatively Coronanthereae could be
Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75- of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a ...
Common Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris) is a submergent aquatic species often found int the quite heavily vegetated areas of lakes and marshes. The plant has pretty little yellow flowers that protrude from the waters surface and from a distance resemble pea flowers.. The most interesting feature of Common Bladderwort, and others of the genus its the presence of bladders. These structure all the plants to consume animals and obtain nutrients. When an animal such as a waterflea gets close it triggers hairs on the bladder, which cause the bladder to suddenly swell. This creates a vacuum which sucks in the zooplankton. Even tiny, newly hatched fish can fall victim to the bladders. You can tell when the bladders are full because they are dark and filled with digesting zooplankton, and other invertebrates.. Together with Pitcher Plant and Sundews the bladderworts make up a fascinating number of carnivorous plants.. Also see Horned Bladderwort. ...
Anon. 2003. APNI: Australian Plant Names Index. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html.. Bell, C. D. and R. W. Patterson. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). Am. J. Bot. 87:1857-1870.. Brand, A. 1907. Polemoniaceae. Pages 1-203 in A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich IV(250). Engelmann, Leipzig. Campbell, D.R., R. Alarcon, and C. A. Wu. 2003. Reproductive isolation and hybrid pollen disadvantage in Ipomopsis. J. Evolution. Biol. 16:536-540.. Carlquist, S., V. M. Eckhart, and D. C. Michener. 1984. Wood anatomy of Polemoniaceae. Aliso 10:547-572.. Dawson, M. L. 1936. The floral morphology of the Polemoniaceae. Am. J. Bot. 23: 501-511.. Ferguson, C. J. and R. K. Jansen. 2002. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of eastern Phlox (Polemoniaceae): implications of congruence and incongruence with the ITS phylogeny. Am. J. Bot. 89:1324-1335. Galen, C. 2000. High and dry: Drought stress, sex-allocation trade-offs, and selection on flower size in the alpine wildflower ...
In the past, classification systems were typically produced by an individual botanist or by a small group. The result was a large number of systems (see List of systems of plant taxonomy). Different systems and their updates were generally favoured in different countries. Examples are the Engler system in continental Europe, the Bentham & Hooker system in Britain (particularly influential because it was used by Kew), the Takhtajan system in the former Soviet Union and countries within its sphere of influence and the Cronquist system in the United States.[1] Before the availability of genetic evidence, the classification of angiosperms (also known as flowering plants, Angiospermae, Anthophyta or Magnoliophyta) was based on their morphology (particularly of their flower) and biochemistry (the kinds of chemical compounds in the plant). After the 1980s, detailed genetic evidence analysed by phylogenetic methods became available and while confirming or clarifying some relationships in existing ...
Conandron ramondioides with actinomorphic flower in Gesneriaceae is an endemic species distributed in Taiwan, Southeast of China a
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-07-06 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-06-26 ...
The carambola is a tropical and subtropical fruit which can be grown at elevations up to 1,200 metres (4,000 feet). It prefers full sun exposure, but requires enough humidity and annual rainfall of at least 1,800 mm (70 in). It does not have a soil type preference, but requires good drainage.[citation needed]. Carambola trees are planted at least 6 m (20 ft) from each other and typically are fertilized three times a year. The tree grows rapidly and typically produces fruit at four or five years of age. The large amount of rain during spring actually reduces the amount of fruit, but, in ideal conditions, carambola can produce from 90 to 180 kilograms (200 to 400 pounds) of fruit a year. The carambola tree flowers throughout the year, with main fruiting seasons from April to June and October to December in Malaysia,[16] for example, but fruiting also occurs at other times in some other locales, such as South Florida.[4]. Growth and leaf responses of container-grown `Arkin carambola (Averrhoa ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego poglądu na taksonomię roślin okrytonasiennych w obliczu szybko rozwijających się metod systematyki molekularnej.. Efektem pracy grupy jest opublikowany w 1998 system klasyfikacji roślin (tzw. system APG I, ang. APG system). System bazował na danych molekularnych (dwóch genów chloroplastowego DNA i jednego genu kodującego rybosomy) analizowanych metodami kladystycznymi[1].. W kolejnych latach ukazywały się wersje zrewidowane. W roku 2003 opublikowano system APG II[2], w 2009 APG III[3][4][5] i w 2016 roku APG IV[6].. ...
Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences are used to estimate the phylogeny of 53 members of Polemoniaceae, representing all but two genera of the family. Fitch parsimony analysis of equal-weighted nucleotide sites result in 1080 minimal-length trees. However, when alignment-ambiguous positions are removed and an II: 10 transition to transversion weighting is imposed only eight trees are found. These data are used to address two issues: I) patterns of diversification in Polemoniaceae, and 2) the circumscription and monophyly of the genus Gilia. Although the monophyly of Polemoniaceae is well supported, relationships inferred among the earliest diverging lineages are altered by character weighting, treatment of indels, and taxon inclusion. In spite of the lack of reliable resolution at the basal nodes, ITS data provide evidence that Gilia, as currently interpreted, is polyphyletic and comprises at least five independent lineages.
Podostemaceae: Podostemaceae, riverweed family of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the order Malpighiales, with 48 genera and 270 species of aquatic plants that look like mosses,
Sarcandra glabra is a perrenial, spreading evergreen undershrub, that is reaching up to 1.5m in height and somestimes more in width. In nature it usually grows under trees, near streams or lakes, but it can be found both on swamps and dry sandy lands, from sea level to elevations around 2000m beyond. For best growth it should have moist, acid soil, rich in organic matter and partial shade. It have interesting from botanical point of view, shape of flovers, which because of its micro size, are no addiction to beauty of the garden. But a lot of charm has its tiny, bright red-orange fruits (yellow-orenge fruit Sarcandra plants can be found too, but are rare), that are staying on branches for long time, making this plant being very ornamental. It is usually called as berries, while in fact it have a structure of a drupe. Sarcandra glabra is frost resistant to around -10*C, but can be cultivated as a houseplant in regions with colder winter. It is quite drought and heat resistant plant. Fresh leaves ...
In the United States, commercial cultivation and broad consumer acceptance of the fruit only dates to the 1970s. That acceptance is attributable to Morris Arkin, a backyard horticulturalist, from Coral Gables, Florida. During the late 1960s, Arkin began cultivating plants and trees in his backyard, eventually developing a kind of carambola, or star fruit, that became commercially viable and was named after him. Until the early 1970s, carambola had been grown only as specimen trees in botanical gardens and experiment stations and as a curiosity in home landscapes. However, because of its attractive star shape when cut in cross-section and yellow to golden color, it began to grow in popularity. Fruit from early introductions were however, sour and sometimes considered unpalatable. This limited market and public acceptance, inhibiting development and expansion of carambola as a commercial fresh fruit. Arkin cultivated the Arkin variety - a sweet carambola with good handling characteristics - in ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4]. The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya.. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7]. ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4] The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7] ...
Wing, Scott L. and Tiffney, B. H. 1987. The Reciprocal Interaction of Angiosperm Evolution and Tetrapod Herbivory. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 50 (1-2):179-210 ...
Magnoliid genomes provide novel insight into early angiosperm evolution, showing how whole-genome duplication and proliferation of transposable elements have shaped these genomes. Now, two papers giving differing views of early angiosperm phylogeny, raise questions about the relationships among eudicots, monocots and magnoliids.. ...
Best Carnivorous Plants Store - The ultimate offer of seeds, plants, hibernacula and turions (winter buds) of carnivorous plants for sale at a good rate in the plant and seed bank
Perennial herb 6 - 20 cm tall Stem: submersed or free-floating. Leaves: submersed, 1 - 5 cm long, often two-parted at base, each segment forking several times, progressively getting shorter and narrower toward tip, end segments circular in cross section, the central axis (rachis) becoming zigzag or indistinct. The leafy branches float beneath the water surface and have numerous well-developed bladders that are often dark red to black and more than 2 mm across. Flowers: borne six to twenty on a stalk (scape) 1 mm or more in diameter, subtended by bracts, yellow petals are two-lipped with upper and lower lip nearly equal in length, lower lip having a half-spherical projection. The spur (extended sac at base of petals) is two-thirds as long as the lower lip, curving forward. Fruit: a two-valved capsule on recurved stalks, containing small seeds. Similar species: Utricularia radiata, Utricularia intermedia, Utricularia minor, Utricularia geminiscapa, and Utricularia gibba are other aquatic or ...
While the monocotyledons have remained extremely stable in their outer borders as a well-defined and coherent monophylectic group, the deeper internal relationships have undergone considerable flux, with many competing classification systems over time.[33]. Historically, Bentham (1877), considered the monocots to consist of four alliances, Epigynae, Coronariae, Nudiflorae and Glumales, based on floral characteristics. He describes the attempts to subdivide the group since the days of Lindley as largely unsuccessful.[83] Like most subsequent classification systems it failed to distinguish between two major orders, Liliales and Asparagales, now recognised as quite separate.[84] A major advance in this respect was the work of Rolf Dahlgren (1980),[85] which would form the basis of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Groups (APG) subsequent modern classification of monocot families. Dahlgren who used the alternate name Lilliidae considered the monocots as a subclass of angiosperms characterised by a single ...
The word angiosperm is made from two words ANGION which means hidden and SPERMA which means seed. These are flowering plants. They have seeds enclosed within fruits. Flowers are the most attractive part of any angiospermic plant. It adds to the beauty of these plants. Flowers are the characteristic features of angiosperms. Flowers attract insects and birds and help in pollination. Reproduction is of sexual type. These undergo double fertilization and endosperms are formed. Angiosperms are further divided into dicots and monocots. For example, peas, sunflower, maize, etc. Angiosperms are the most evolved group of the whole Plant Kingdom. Angiosperms provide us with all crop plants that are used as food and fodder plants. These are economically very important of all other plants. ...
The evolutionary history of flowering plants is poorly known, represented by remnant fossils only weakly identified as angiosperms. Until recently, fossil evidence of early angiosperms was based on vegetative materials and pollen. None of these fossils, however, showed the presence of ovules or seeds enclosed in carpels, the true distinction of the angiosperm lineage.. A team of paleontologists and paleobotanists led by Ge Sun of Jilin University, China, and David Dilcher of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, recently announced the discovery of a new basal angiosperm family, Archaefructaceae (Ge Sun et al. 2002). The new family is represented only by the two species, Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis. Five virtually complete fossils of these plants, including flowers, seeds, and fruits, were found in the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, northeastern China. The fossils are believed to be between 125 and 145 million years old, placing them within the Lower ...
അംബോറില്ലേൽസ് നിരയിലെ ഏക കുടുംബമായ അംബോറില്ലേസീയിലെ ഏക ജനുസാണ് അംബോറില. ഈ ജനുസിലും ഒറ്റ സ്പീഷിസ് മാത്രമേയുള്ളൂ, അംബോറില ട്രിക്കോപോഡ. (ശാസ്ത്രീയനാമം: Amborella trichopoda). അടിക്കാടുകളായി കാണപ്പെടുന്ന ചെറുവൃക്ഷങ്ങളായ ഇത് ന്യൂ കാലിഡോണിയയിലെ ഗ്രാന്റ് ടെറ ദ്വീപിലെ തദ്ദേശവാസിയാണ്.[4][4] സപുഷ്‌പിസസ്യങ്ങളിലെ ഏറ്റവും ചുവട്ടിൽ പ്രതിഷ്ഠിക്കപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുള്ള ഈ സസ്യം സസ്യപഠിതാക്കൾക്ക് വളരെ ...
Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Leaves: Leaves initially arise from cell divisions in the shoot apical meristem. A slight bulge (a leaf buttress) is produced, which in dicots continues to grow and elongate to form a leaf primordium. (Stipules, if present, appear as two small protuberances.) Marginal and submarginal meristems on opposite flanks of the primordium initiate leaf-blade formation. Differences in the local activity of marginal meristems cause the lobed shapes of simple leaves and the leaflets in compound leaves. An increase in width and in the number of cell layers is brought about by marginal meristems. Subsequent expansion and increase in length is achieved by
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of...
Buy Fossilium Catalogus Plantae, Volume 108 (9789057821844): Index of Angiosperm Leaf Species Names C, 1823-2005: NHBS - J van der Burgh, HWJ van Amerom, Backhuys
Angiosperm and Gymnosperm Definition. Angiosperm and Gymnosperm Examples. Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm. 27 key differences you should know.
Read Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Lamiales • Familia: Lentibulariaceae Rich. (1808) ...
Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5%) than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%), the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene
Read How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?, Oikos on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The angiosperms. Greek: angeion case; sperma seed. By far the most diverse group of plants that has ever existed with more than 240,000 different species. Why are there so many species. Angiosperms. Time scale. Origin of angiosperms. Mosses. Ferns . Slideshow 154268 by...
Mon. afternoon (8/2) - Moss phylogeny (Goffinet and Hedderson) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: molecular and developmental (Qiu and Zimmer) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Liverwort & Hornwort phylogeny (Crandall-Stotler and Hasegawa) Tues. evening (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: structural and paleobotanical (Endress and Friis) Tues. evening (8/3) - Fern phylogeny (Pryer and DuBuisson) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Angiosperm phylogeny (within major clades) (Soltis, Soltis, and Chase) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Lycophyte phylogeny (Taylor & Wikstrom) Wed. evening (8/4) - Green Plant Phylogeny (overall) (Buchheim and Kenrick) In addition, the GPPRCG has facilitated a Keynote Symposium that will place the green plants into the context of the rest of the tree of life (organized by Mishler and Huss): Fri. morning (8/5) - Phylogeny of Life (where Mishler will give the overview talk on green plants, drawing from the 8 symposia above ...
APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol 161: 3. Pp. 105-121.. Brummitt, R.K. 2007. Picramniaceae. In: V.H. Heywood, R.K. Brummitt, A. Culham and O. Seberg (eds.). Flowering plant families of the world. Pp. 253-254. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. Mabberley, D.J. 2008. Mabberleys plant book. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ Thomas, W.W. 2004. Picramniaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Pp. 294-295. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.. Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards). The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version 3rd March 2009. ...
The common ancestor to Genlisea and Utricularia may have had forks at the tip of the leaves. Both genera have traps with tube openings at a fork. In the Genlisea clade the trap elongated and the forks developed into long spirals. In the Utricularia clade the trap shortened, folded back, and developed the sophisticated trap door mechanism at the leaf fork.. The most basal species of Genlisea and Utricularia have a common feature that gives an additional clue as to how those genera evolved from a proto-Pinguicula. They have two kinds of leaves. Some Pinguicula species such as Pinguicula lusitanica have only one kind of leaf. However, a very similar species, Pinguicula villosa, has two kinds of leaves. The carnivorous summer leaves of Pinguicula villosa look just like the leaves of Pinguicula lusitanica, but the non-carnivorous winter leaves of Pinguicula villosa form a hibernacula. These winter leaves are barely differentiated and serve to protect the apex of the plant during the arctic winters. ...
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Velloziaceae are xeromorphic and sometimes tree-like monocots (but the trunk is made up largely of adventitious roots) that may be recognised by their usually 3-ranked leaves with persistent bases and spiny margins. The inflorescences are terminal, although often appearing to be axillary, and often have one flower. The flowers are rather large, with violet petal-like tepals and a long style; there may be a corona, and the stamens can be many. Evolution: Divergence & Distribution. Mello-Silva et al. (2011) interpreted the split of Acanthochlamys from the rest of the family and other generic disjunctions in terms of drift-induced vicariant events.. African Velloziaceae are all polyploid, the base number for the family perhaps being x = 6 (de Melo et al. 1997; Costa et al. 2017).. Ecology & Physiology. African Velloziaceae include many dessication-tolerant taxa common on inselbergs and a number of arborescent taxa (Porembski & Barthlott 2000; Farrant 2000: Xerophyta; Naidoo et al. 2009: Xerophyta ...
The Carambola or Star Fruit is an unique and flavorful fruit. The fruits flavor ranges from very sour to mildly sweetish and tastes something like a mix of apple, pineapple, and kiwi fruit. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star.
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
Utricularia species capture small prey in traps. The prey spectrum of aquatic Utricularia species includes a large variety of organisms (e.g. copepods, cladocerans, crustacea, rotifers, algae). This study focuses on selected attributes (species richness, density, biovolume, C and N contents) of microalgae captured inside the traps of aquatic Utricularia spp.. A total of 850 traps of four aquatic bladderwort species (Utricularia australis, U. foliosa, U. gibba and U. vulgaris) from tropical (Ivory Coast) and temperate (Canada, Germany) regions has been investigated concerning the algae captured. In total, 302 microalgal taxa have been identified with Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Charophyceae being most species rich. The number of microalgae species captured was different among the Utricularia spp. It was relatively low inside the traps of U. gibba and U. foliosa from tropical Africa, with the greatest species diversity observed within the Charophyceae (Desmidiaceae). The highest ...
[Objective] The aim was to research the technique conditions on polyphenol extraction from carambola dregs with microwave method.[Method] The effect of 5 factors on polyphenol extraction rate from carambola was studied through single factor by using microwave method,and the best technique conditions for extracting polyphenol from carambola dregs were screened through orthogonal test.[Result] The single factor experiment showed that the optimum effect of extracting the polyphenol from carambola dregs could be obtained when the size of raw material was 30 meshes,microwave power 560 W,ethanol concn.60%,solid-liquid ratio 1∶50,extracting time 60 s and the extracting was twice.The orthogonal test indicated the influence of 4 factors on polyphenol extraction from carambola dregs with microwave was in the order as: solvent concn. solid-liquid ratio extracting time power.The best technique conditions for extracting polyphenol from carambola dregs with microwave method were as: the ethanol concn.was 50%,size
Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499-1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the
Polyploidy was first discovered by Winkler in 1916 during his observations of a spontaneous autopolyploid induced by mechanically damaged tissue (Grant, 1971). Winge (1917) proposed an explanation for polyploidy using an arithmetic series he had observed in Chrysanthemum (2n=18, 36, 54, 72, and 90) and Chenopodium (2n=18, 36) (Grant, 1971). Winge hypothesized that polyploidy occurred by successive increases in the original somatic chromosome number. The most comprehensive work on polyploidy and its relationship to plant evolution is the book Plant Speciation by Vern Grant (1981). It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
The Ray Ethan Torrey Botanical Greenhouse currently housed by the Department of Biology includes nearly 700 genera in more than 225 families. The collection is especially rich in basal angiosperms, including members some of the most primitive families of flowering plants.. Of particular interest in this regard are plants of Amborella trichopoda of the family Amborellaceae, which is widely considered to represent the most primitive living angiosperm. This rare plant, a native of New Caledonia, is one of a handful of living flowering plants that are primitively vesselless, instead making wood that, like that of gymnosperms, has only tracheids and lacks vessel members.. Another rare, primitive angiosperm in the collection is Austrobaileya, of the family Austrobaileyaceae. This plant, a native of Queensland, Australia, has exceedingly primitive, leaf-like stamens that have no anther- rather the pollen sacs, technically microsporangia, attach directly to a laminar stamen instead of forming the ...
Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla
PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. UNIT SIX Chapters 35,36,37,38,39. Angiosperm Structure. Angiosperms are further divided into 4 major categories: Basal Angiosperms (older angiosperms like Water lilies) Magnoliids (newer like the Magnolia) Monocotyledons a.k.a. monocots (newer still) Slideshow 1211230 by Jimmy
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The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees,[21] including conifers, cycads, ginkgophytes and gnetales; they produce seeds which are not enclosed in fruits, but in open structures such as pine cones, and many have tough waxy leaves, such as pine needles.[22] Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the true dicotyledons, so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are also some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots; these include Amborella, Magnolia, nutmeg and avocado,[23] while trees such as bamboo, palms and bananas are monocots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; this supports the plant as it grows larger. The vascular system of trees allows water, nutrients and other chemicals to be distributed around the plant, and without it trees would not be able to grow as large as they do. Trees, as relatively tall plants, need to draw water up ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436. dostupno online. ...
The newly sequenced genome of the Amborella plant addresses Darwins abominable mystery -- the question of why flowers suddenly proliferated on Earth millions of years ago. The genome sequence sheds new light on a major event in the history of life on Earth: the origin of flowering plants, including all major food crop species. On 20 December 2013, a paper by the Amborella Genome Sequencing Project that includes a full description of the analyses performed by the project, as well as implications for flowering plant research, will be published in the journal Science. The paper is among three on different research areas related to the Amborella genome that will be published in the same issue of the journal ...
Background and aims: Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bilirubin in both the arils and flowers of Strelitzia reginae, the Bird of Paradise Flower. In the arils of both species, bilirubin is present as the primary pigment, and thus functions to produce color. Previously, no tetrapyrroles were known to generate display color in plants. We were therefore interested in determining whether bilirubin is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom, and whether it contributes to color in other species.
1. Utricularia minutissima Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 204. 1804. 斜果挖耳草 xie guo wa er cao Utricularia brevilabris Lace; U. brevilabris var. parviflora Pellegrin; U. evrardii Pellegrin; U. lilliput Pellegrin; U. nigricaulis Ridley; U. nipponica Makino; U. siamensis Ostenfeld.. Annuals, terrestrial. Rhizoids capillary, simple. Stolons capillary, sparsely branched. Traps on rhizoids, stolons, and leaves, stalked, ovoid, ca. 0.2 mm, mouth lateral; appendage 1, dorsal, subulate, with 1 or 2 ventral pairs of trichome rows. Leaves few, from peduncle base and stolons, glabrous; leaf blade narrowly obovate to linear, 0.3-2 cm × 0.4-0.8 mm, membranous, vein 1, base attenuate onto petiole, margin entire, apex slightly obtuse. Inflorescences erect, 3-12 cm, 1-10-flowered, glabrous; peduncle terete, 0.2-0.4 mm thick; scales few, similar to bracts; bracts basifixed, narrowly ovate, 0.5-1 mm, apex acute. Pedicel erect, ± as long as bracts, filiform; bracteoles similar to bracts but sometimes narrower or ...
7. Utricularia graminifolia Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 195. 1804. 禾叶挖耳草 he ye wa er cao Utricularia caerulea Linnaeus var. graminifolia (Vahl) P. K. Bhattacharyya; U. conferta Wight; U. equiseticaulis Blatter & McCann; U. parviflora Buchanan-Hamilton ex Smith; U. pedicellata Wight; U. purpurascens Graham; U. subrecta Lace; U. uliginoides Wight.. Perennials or perhaps sometimes annuals, terrestrial. Rhizoids and stolons capillary, branched. Traps on rhizoids, stolons, and leaves, stalked, globose, 0.5-1.3 mm, mouth basal; appendages 2, dorsal, simple, subulate. Leaves numerous, from stolon nodes, glabrous; leaf blade linear to narrowly obovate, 0.4-2 cm × 0.8-3 mm, membranous, veins 3, base attenuate onto petiole, margin entire, apex rounded to subacute. Inflorescences erect, 2.5-30 cm, 1-6-flowered, glabrous; peduncle terete, 0.4-1 mm thick; scales few to many, similar to bracts; bracts basifixed, ovate, 2-2.5 mm, apex acuminate. Pedicel ascending, 3-13 mm, filiform, narrowly winged; ...
This phylogenetic tree traces the lineage of Cuscuta pentagaon from phylum to order. We start with the phylum, Angiosperms, and can follow the tree to the class Eudicots, through a few sublevels, and finally to the order Solanales. A known relative of Cuscuta pentagona in the order Lamiales is sage, which Cuscuta also parasitizes (Ombrello). This tree uses DNA to determine relatedness. The sequences of 545 rbcL, atpB, and 18S rDNA genes were used as well as values of 2538 rbcL sequences. This information can be seen in the caption of the figure. More can be read on the original site by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.. Return to Home ...
Unlike the gymnosperms where the ovules are naked, in the angiosperms or flowering plants, the pollen grains and ovules are developed in specialised structures called flowers. The female sex organs in a flower is the carpel. Pistil consists of an ovary enclosing one to many ovules. Within ovules are present highly reduced female gametophytes termed embryosacs ...
The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Juncus gerardii . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Plants have been growing on land for at least 450 million years. The bryophytes comprising the three phyla liverworts, mosses and hornworts, are considered to be the closest extant relatives to the plants that colonized land. Bryophytes has been described as evolutionary unchanging sphinxes of the past regarding both morphological and genetic potential. This suggestion has some support in limited studies of molecular evolution within bryophytes, but has also been questioned based on e.g., studies of species diversification rates. To shed more light on this controversy, the overall aim of this thesis is to investigate rates and patterns of bryophyte molecular evolution.. Our data suggest that the per nucleotide mutation rates in bryophytes are lower than those in angiosperms. Likewise, angiosperms are also more dynamic in terms of genome size, structural rearrangements, genome duplications and transposon activity. However, our data show that mutation rates of bryophytes are higher or at least ...
Yu J.,Xue J. H.,Zhou S. L.. New universal matK primers for DNA barcoding angiosperms[J]. Journal of Systematics and Evolution,2011,49(3):176-181 ...
S: By: Shundar Ahad AP Biology Mrs. Caro. FC: AP Biology Summer Project. 1: Amylase- This is an enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch into simple sugars. The saliva glands are located under the tongue.. 2: Porifera- Porifera are multicelled organisms that have many watter intake and outtake vessels. We call them sponges, the kids call him Spongebob.. 3: Stem - woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.. 4: . Angiosperm- Angiosperm is the sex organ of plants. This helps the plant reproduce and comes in a variety of systems. The most popular angiosperm are flowers and fruits, which attract all kinds of organisms to spread pollen and seeds. In this case I am showing you a flower, and the pollen inside it.. 5: Stem - woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.. 6: Chlorophyta- Chlorophyta is a division of green algae. These green algae can be found ...
Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia Norman O. Frederiksen. Micropaleontology Volume 44, No. 1 pp. 45-68 ...
What if all Insects Died?. If insects were to disappear, the world would fall apart - theres no two ways about it, said Goggy Davidowitz, a professor in the departments of entomology and ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona.. Although the world would fall apart, there would be no pesky mosquito bites or fleas on dogs. Insect spread diseases such as malaria and dengue fever, which affects millions and kills hundreds of thousands of people a year would be over.. There are most certainly pros and cons of losing insects. One of the biggest cons would be that approximately 80% of the worlds plant life is angiosperms, which means in order to reproduce they have to have pollen physically transferred to one another, which without inspects would not happen.. Between 50% to 90% of the human diet, depending on the country, comes directly from flowering (angiosperm) plants.. Global climate change, is also throwing off the synchronicity of insect hatchings and flower blooms ...
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Rosopsida Batsch - klasa roślin okrytonasiennych wydzielona w systemie Reveala (wraz z czterema innymi) w miejsce dwuliściennych (po odkryciu ich parafiletycznego charakteru). W nowszych systemach (system APG I, APG II) klasy nie są wyróżniane, a rośliny okrytonasienne klasyfikowane są w systemie kladów uporządkowanych z użyciem rang rzędów i rodzin. Zgodnie z aktualną wiedzą[1][2] taksony skupione przez Reveala w klasie Rosopsida są w istocie grupą niemal monofiletyczną i odpowiadają tzw. dwuliściennym właściwym (z wyjątkiem odrębnie przez Reveala sklasyfikowaną klasą Ranunculopsida odpowiadającą rzędowi Ranunculales w systemie APG II). Klasyfikacja taksonów niższego rzędu w klasyfikacji Reveala odbiega w wielu miejscach od bardziej aktualnych ujęć systematycznych prezentowanych w systemie APG II (zresztą współtworzonego przez Jamesa Reveala wchodzącego w skład Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). W 2007 roku Reveal opublikował wspólnie z Robertem F. Thorne nową ...
In the APG II seestem (2003) for the classification o flouerin plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group).[1] Maist o the taxa belangin tae this clade had been referred tae the Asteridae in the Cronquist seestem (1981) an tae the Sympetalae in earlier seestems. The name asterids (nae necessarily caipitalised) resembles the earlier botanical name but is intendit tae be the name o a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense o the ICBN. This clade is ane o the twa maist speciose groups o eudicots, the ither bein the rosids. It consists o:[1] ...
4. The polystelic condition in the axis of plants is supposed to have developed due to parenchymatic syngenesis of several monostelic axes. The actinostelic condition is supposed to be the product of radial fusion of steles in polystelic axis. Such an explanation is diametrically opposed to the widely accepted concept of stelar theory (Stewart, 1964).. 5. Andrews (1963) has given a series of diagrams of Palaeozoic seeds to explain the origin of cupule. Pettitt (1970) found them to be more or less of the same age.. 6. The theory has received little attention by angiosperm centred morphologists. Its application to stamens (Puri, 1947, 1951, 1955), venation pattern of leaves (Foster, 1950), morphological nature of angiosperm leaves and sporophylls, and carpels (Eames 1961) have been criticized from time to time.. To sum up it would be worth to quote the reaction of Andrews and Eames. Andrews (1961) says, Zimmermanns scheme for the pteropsids, or atleast some pteropsids, has much supporting ...
Broad leafed flowering plants are plant species with wide flat leaves that develop flowers. The leaf characteristics of broad leaf plants include various traits like arrangement, shape, margin and texture. Broad leaf flowering plants come in both deciduous and evergreen varieties.
This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Chirita (family Gesneriaceae). The record derives from WCSP (in review) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details ...