Alpha-amylase is widespread among living organisms. Salivary Amylase and Other Enzymes in Saliva, Regina Bailey is a board-certified registered nurse, science writer and educator. In humans, amylases are produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas. Salivary amylase is the primary enzyme in saliva. Salivary amylase breaks starch into a disaccharide called maltose. Salivary amylase is the primary enzyme in saliva. Learn more. As a group, kallikreins are enzymes that take high molecular weight (HMW) compounds, like kininogen, and cleave them to smaller units. Salivary kallikrein breaks down kininogen into bradykinin, a vasodilator. Like amylase, it helps with the digestion process. Amylases are common in plants, particularly in association with the starch stores of seeds and underground perennating organs such as rhizomes, tubers and taproots. The α-amylases occur in animals and include pancreatic and salivary amylase; the β-amylases occur in higher plants. Salivary amylase breaks down ...
The ratio between amylase and creatinine in serum and urine. Also referred as fractional excreted of amylase. ALCR is calculated as ...
Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminalStreptococcus bovis strains was investigated. Two strains Amy+ and Amy− were obtained. Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. The presence of the gene responible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the α-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA ofS. bovis andBacillus subtilis after a complete restriction withEcoRI.
The amylases are a group of hydrolases that split complex carbohydrates constituted of I D glucose units. The two recognised types of amylases are ? amylase (e.g. plant and bacterial exoamylase) and human I amylases which can attack the I 1, 4 linkage anywhere along a polyglucan chain.. Human I amylase consists of two major isoenzymes, pancreatic and salivary, which are encoded by two different genes. Pancreatic amylase is synthesised only in pancreatic tissue by acinar cells. Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). The evaluation of the pancreatic isoamylase may have a greater clinical specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic disorders than total amylase assessment. ...
The major sources of amylase are the pancreas and the salivary glands. The most common cause of elevation of serum amylase is inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). In acute pancreatitis, serum amylase begins to rise within 6-24 hours, remains elevated for a few days and returns to normal in 3-7 days. Other causes of elevated serum amylase are inflammation of salivary glands (mumps), biliary tract disease and bowel obstruction. Elevated serum amylase can also be seen with drugs (e.g., morphine) which constrict the pancreatic duct sphincter preventing excretion of amylase into the intestine ...
Introduction. Kiu Yi, IP 13M The effect of temperature on amylase activity Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate if temperature will affect the amount of starch broken down as enzyme activity can change by different temperature. This is because as temperature rises the rate of chemical reactions increases due to the temperature increases the rate of the molecules motion. More interactions will be existed between an enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme used in this lab exercise is amylase, which is commonly found in saliva and germinating seeds, catalyzes the breakdown of starch. It also reacts quickly when heat is present during the process of it reaction. However, if the temperature is higher than the optimum point, enzymes can be denatured and they can no longer bind to a substrate and catalyze reactions. My hypothesis is therefore the amylase activity would increase as the temperature rise, until a certain high temperature at which the amylase would denature and be ...
The polymorphic patterns of human salivary amylase of a large number of individuals of Caucasian origin were determined by using isoelectric focusing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine diffe
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic islet-acinar cell interaction. T2 - Amylase messenger RNA levels are determined by insulin. AU - Korc, Murray. AU - Owerbach, David. AU - Quinto, Carmen. AU - Rutter, William J.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Pancreatic amylase messenger RNA progressively decreases in rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Insulin reverses this effect, inducing a selective increase in amylase messenger RNA in the pancreas. Parotid amylase messenger RNA is not significantly affected by either diabetes or insulin.. AB - Pancreatic amylase messenger RNA progressively decreases in rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Insulin reverses this effect, inducing a selective increase in amylase messenger RNA in the pancreas. Parotid amylase messenger RNA is not significantly affected by either diabetes or insulin.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019795914&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019795914&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - ...
Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities occurring in trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest were investigated. Trifoliate yam tubers were harvested and stored under tropical ambient (28°C) and cold room conditions (4°C) for 12, 24 and 36 h. The D. dumetorum starches were extracted from the tubers under study and samples were evaluated for changes in their rheological properties (paste characteristics) during storage and to study the action of amylases on D. dumetorum starch after harvesting. The post-harvest activities of α and β-amylases were also studied to evaluate their rate of action on D. dumetorum starch. Storage caused decreases in the rheological properties (paste characteristics) of the tubers within 36 h of harvest. Similarly, α and β-amylase activities in the tubers more than doubled within 24 h after harvesting. Blanching, however, effectively decreased the action of amylases on D. dumetorum starch during storage, with subsequential increase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of a family of rat amylase genes. AU - MacDonald, Raymond J.. AU - Crerar, Michael M.. AU - Swain, William F.. AU - Pictet, Raymond L.. AU - Thomas, Gilles. AU - Rutter, William J.. PY - 1980/12/1. Y1 - 1980/12/1. N2 - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by at least seven intervening sequences.. AB - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by ...
This is one of the Enzymology protocol on Effect of Temperature on Amylase activity (Enzymology Protocol). Download Salivary amylase activity assay Protocol
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, followed by a sustained (5-30 min), but less marked, secretory rate (2-3-fold above basal). ...
How to Use It Depending on the potency of the amylase inhibitors , typical intake is 1,500 to 6,000 mg before meals. Where to Find It Amylase inhibitors can be extracted from several types of plants, especially those in the legume family. Currently available Amylase inhibitors are extracted from either white kidney bean...
Amylase test, 5x100 tablets [P1302] - Equl Amylase Test The amylase assay Equl Amylase Test is used in a variety of fields for precise determination of α-amylase activity. The presence of the α-amylase enzyme in for instance saliva, food and honey makes Equl tablets useful for forensic saliva tests, diastase tests in honey or amylase tests in
Amylase Tests: Definition Amylase is a digestive enzyme made primarily by the pancreas and salivary glands. Enzymes are substances made and used by the body to trigger specific chemical reactions. The primary function of the enzyme amylase is to break down starches in food so that they can be used by the body. Amylase testing is usually done ... Blood test results reveal Blood disorders in Blood tests and also with a Blood test with Rare Blood types. Good Blood tests make possible state-of-the-art lab procedures that can be provided directly to the public in private and these Blood tests can be provided affordably. Most guidelines now suggest an amylase concentration 2-4 times the upper limit of normal is optimal for diagnostic accuracy, but this may reduce the sensitivity of the test to as low as 60%. 2, 3, 5 The sensitivity is also influenced by other factors, including the timing of the test and the cause of the pancreatitis. The amylase level is also helpful to see how the treatment for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of nucleotide polymorphism in cis-regulatory and coding regions on amylase activity and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Goto, Hiroki. AU - Szmidt, Alfred. AU - Yamazaki, T.. AU - Inomata, N.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, there are many amylase (AMY) isozymes encoded by the duplicated genes, but their adaptive significance remains unclear. One approach to elucidate this issue is to understand the molecular basis of functional differences between the allelic classes. In this study, the effects of nucleotide polymorphism in 5′-flanking (cis-regulatory) and coding regions on AMY activity were examined, both on glucose and starch food media and in larvae and adults, using three chimeric Amylase (Amy) genes, Amyc111, Amyc161 and Amy fc661. In this notation, the first number in the superscript indicates the sequence of the 5′-flnaking region (similar to Amy 1 or Amy6), the second number refers to the coding ...
In todays world, there seems to be a widespread belief that carbohydrates (more commonly referred as carbs) are bad for you. This couldnt be farther from the truth.. Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates are one of the 3 main macro-nutrients essential to the human body. Amylase is the digestive enzyme responsible for digesting carbohydrates and converting them into glucose and other forms of sugar. In this article, we will be taking a closer look at what exactly amylase is - and why it plays such a major role in your body.. So without further ado, let us begin!. What is amylase?. As we mentioned above, amylase is a digestive enzyme found in the human body. It is more specifically found in the pancreas and the salivary gland where it breaks down sugar and starch and converts them into more simple forms of sugar that can later be used for energy. While amylase is mainly found in humans, it is also found in other animals as well as plants.. Why is amylase important?. Amylase plays a key ...
We have recently summarized the evidence that the amylase of the serum is of heterogenous origin (1). Studies in this laboratory on the regulation of blood amylase levels (2, 3) have shown that [1] normal blood amylase is controlled in part at extrapancreatic sites, [2] blood amylase is lowered in states of increased carbohydrate utilization, and [3] the amylase responses to alterations of carbohydrate metabolism are markedly altered by liver disease but unaffected by total pancreatectomy. These findings led to the conclusion that the liver contributes to the blood amylase level and is an important site of regulation. Similar conclusions ...
Serum amylase and lipase measurements are often used to diagnose acute pancreatitis. This study addresses the question of whether it is advantageous to order serum amylase and lipase tests simultaneously. We evaluated performance of the two tests separately and in combination through a retrospective study of patients for whom both amylase and lipase determinations were ordered. Initial analysis of test performance was conducted with a uniformly applied criterion based on determination of optimal sensitivity-specificity pairs. Individual tests and combinations of tests, including the AND and OR rules and discriminant functions, were examined. Only the discriminant approach demonstrated better performance than the lipase test alone. This finding was subsequently confirmed by logistic regression analysis. We conclude that ordering both tests simultaneously can be advantageous in diagnosing acute pancreatitis when a bivariate approach is used; however, this must be weighed against the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolated pancreatic acini from suckling and weanling rats. T2 - Changes in amino acid incorporation and carbachol-stimulated amylase secretion with age. AU - Pollack, Paul F.. AU - Verbridge, Jill. AU - Thornburg, William. AU - Koldovsky, Otakar. AU - Korc, Murray. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - To characterize the changes in pancreatic function during postnatal development, isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from rats aged 8-9, 12-14 and 20 days and from adult rats. Isolated acini maintained a normal microscopic appearance and viability as judged by exclusion of trypan blue and linear incorporation of tritiated leucine into total protein. The rate of incorporation in 8-day-old acini was 20% of that observed in adult rats. Significant dose-dependent increases in amylase release in response to carbachol were observed in all age groups; stimulated amylase secretion was significantly less in the 8- to 9- and 12- to 14-day-old animals than in the 20-day-old and adult rats. ...
Scientists published a paper in Nature Genetics Sunday in which they studied an enzyme called amylase thats produced in saliva and breaks down starch. Human amylase genes share a common ancestry with the amylase gene found in our close relative, the chimpanzee. But they are different in some important ways. Instead of one amylase gene, we have several. Human amylase genes range from 2 to 15 copies, averaging three times as many as chimpanzees. But our extra copies not sprinkled randomly across the worlds population. European Americans and tuber-eating African hunter-gatherers known as the Hadza have a lot of copies. Yakuts, who live in Siberia and eat mostly fish, and Mbuti pygmies who eat mostly animals they hunt, have fewer.. See a pattern? The people with few amylase genes are hunters who dont have much starch in their diet. The people with a lot of genes eat a lot of starch. How did this pattern arise? As cells give rise to eggs and sperm, chunks of their DNA sometimes get accidentally ...
Increased variability and abnormalities in pancreatic enzyme concentrations in otherwise asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes Jaret Malloy, Kate Gurney, Kevin Shan, Ping Yan, Steve ChenAmylin Pharmaceuticals LLC, San Diego, CABackground: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with obese nondiabetic individuals. Serum lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations are used in conjunction with clinical findings to diagnose pancreatitis.Methods: In two large clinical trials of overweight/obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects, lipase and pancreatic amylase were measured at screening and 2–5 weeks later at baseline (prior to treatment with study medication).Results: Lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations were above the upper limit of normal (ULN) in 13% and 6% of type 2 diabetic subjects, respectively, and were approximately three-fold (3 ×) higher than the proportion of nondiabetic subjects with levels
α-amylases are enzymes which hydrolyze starch molecules to give diverse products including dextrins and progressively smaller polymers composed of glucose units which causes hyperglycemia and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we estimated the α-amylase activity, HbA1C and blood glucose in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Study group s follows: 20 Healthy subjects, 30 newly detected patients and 43 type 2 diabetics on treatment with metformin and pioglitazone combination and 30 pioglitazone alone treated. In all subjects blood sugar was estimated and anti diabetic activity criterion was taken for the diagnosis. In the same subjects fasting and post-prandial α-amylase activity was estimated, HbA1c levels were compared with α-amylase activity in healthy and treated subjects. The α-amylase activity in type 2 diabetic patients was significantly different from control subjects and significant relation between α-amylase activity and HbA1c was observed in diabetic subjects ...
α-amylase is a very important enzyme, which is widely used in food processing, food industry, brewing, fermentation, textile industry and pharmaceutical industry, etc. It is one of the most widely used enzymes. As it has wide application, α- amylase has great commercial value.. In this report, ASKCI will further disclose market potential and commercial opportunities for α-amylase industry in China. Recommendations will be given at the end of the report to describe the prospect and provide suggestions for strategy making.. Browse Full Report Visit - http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/market-analysis-and-prospect-of-alpha-amylase-industry-in-china-2015-2020-proposal. 1)The Aim of Report. -To provide readers with comprehensive and in-depth understanding of Chinese α-amylase industry;. -To analyze the market of the industry;. -To discover drivers and barriers of the industry;. -To reveal opportunities for α-amylase industry in China.. 2)Benefit from the Report. -Obtain latest info of ...
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Computer graphics representation of taka amylase, an enzyme. Amylases are a group of related enzymes that break down starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides. Plants contain both the alpha and beta types of amylases; animals possess only the alpha form, found in pancreatic secretions and (in humans) in saliva. Amylases break the long polysaccharide chains, leaving a mixture of the sugars glucose and maltose. Blue sticks, light blue ribbons. - Stock Image A605/0025
Technically, starch blockers are amylase inhibitors. Amylase is one of the main enzymes the body uses to digest starch. In theory, when amylase is blocked, starch can pass through the body undigested. If the body is unable to digest a part of the meal the calorie intake will be lower which can aid in weight loss. However, theory is one thing, reality another and clinical studies of amylase inhibitors have not established definitive benefits.1-3 For example, one published study failed to find that use of a phaseolus product reduced the usual blood sugar rise that follows a meal.7 Several possible reasons for this discrepancy have been proposed, such as that the amylase inhibitor may be broken down and made ineffective in the stomach, the product may supply enough of its own amylase to counteract any benefit, and that another enzyme, glucoamylase, may be able to take over when amylase cant do the job. However, according to the manufacturer of a current product, more concentrated extracts of ...
Amylases are enzymes that help convert starch into sugars. It is common in mammal saliva where it helps to start digestion. If youve ever chewed a starchy food for long enough for it to become sweet, amylases are responsible for that. Amylases are also instrumental in the process of fermentation.. ...
α-Amylase hydrolyzes the 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside (CNPG3) to release 2-chloro-nitrophenol and form 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltoside (CNPG2), maltotriose (G3) and glucose (G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.(G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.. ...
Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect ...
Introduction. The Effect that Temperature Has on the Rate at which the Enzyme (Amylase) can Breakdown its Substrate Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out the effect that the temperature has on the rate at which the enzyme (Amylase) can breakdown its substrate, which is Starch. Amylase: Enzyme having physiological, commercial, and historical significance, also called diastase. It is found in both plants and animals. Amylase hydrolyzes starch, glycogen, and dextrin to form in all three instances glucose, maltose, and the limit-dextrins. Prediction: I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase. Since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. This is backed up by the collision theory, according to this theory; reacting molecules must collide with ...
Amylase er en gruppe enzymer som spalter stivelse (polysakkarider) til sukker (disakkarider). Amylase finnes i spytt og i sekresjoner fra bukspyttkjertelen. Den starter virkningen på stivelse alt i munnhulen. Stivelse består egentlig av de to polysakkaridene amylose og amylopektin (begge er såkalte K3a karbohydrater ). Amylase spalter amylosen, som er lange sukkerkjeder, til to og to glukoseenheter (disakkarider) av gangen, slik at det kan dannes maltose. På samme måte spalter amylasen amylopektin, men prosessen stopper opp når den når fram til forgreningene (1-6 bindingene) og danner nye svært forgrenede molekyler som er den del av polysakkaridet dekstrin. Dette spaltes av et annet enzym (isomaltase) til maltose (et disakkarid). Et forhøyet nivå av amylase i blod og urin kan være et signal på betennelse i bukspyttkjertelen, såkalt pancreatitt. ...
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1 that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose. It is the major form of amylase found in humans and other mammals. It is also present in seeds containing starch as a food reserve, and is secreted by many fungi. Although found in many tissues, amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and saliva, each of which has its own isoform of human α-amylase. They behave differently on isoelectric focusing, and can also be separated in testing by using specific monoclonal antibodies. In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21 (see AMY1A). Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch into maltose and dextrin. This form of amylase is also called ptyalin /ˈtaɪəlɪn/ It will break large, insoluble starch molecules into soluble starches (amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, and achrodextrin) producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. Ptyalin acts on linear ...
Amylase crystals are a herblore secondary used in the creation of stamina potions. A player can mix amylase crystals with a Super energy potion at 77 Herblore to make a stamina potion. One amylase crystal creates a single dose of stamina potion from a Super energy(1), and as such, four amylase...
Fran, We use the monoclonal anti- Pancreatic Amylase Cat# MU099-UC from Biogenex. Formaldehyde-fixed(16-24hrs) paraffin-embedded, 4 micron thick sections are dried overnight at 45C, de-waxed in Xylene 3X10 min., rinsed X2 in 100% ETOH, endogenous peroxidase blocked in 5% H2O2 in methanol for 30 min., 95% ETOH X2 @ 1min, 70%ETOH-water. Sections are pretreated by digestion for 10 min@RT in 0.6% w/v Ficin dissolved in 0.01M NaOH containing 0.1mg CaCl2 per 100ml, pH is adjusted to pH7.8 with 1/N HCl. Following blocking in 1% v/v Normal Goat Serum (NGS) in TBS, sections are incubated for 1 hour at RT in 1:100 dilution of Ab in 1%NGS in TBS. Detection is with LSAB(Zymeds Histostain, GaM), chromogen is AEC. The results have always been consistent on our controls( pancreas fixed in NBF for several time points), test specimens are prone to reflect the quality of fixation and processing( particularly short fixation!). Hope this helps Bryan , ---------- , From: [email protected][SMTP:[email protected]] , ...
In this experiment, students investigate and compare amylase activity in different life stages of barley. The experiment allows students to make connections between concepts and processes previously covered in lectures and reading materials and is relevant to learning and skills development in the scientific method and related areas such report writing and the interpretation of results. With regard to theoretical and conceptual knowledge, the practical investigates the function of an enzyme in a living organism and explores concepts around the ontogenic regulation of metabolism in an organism as it develops. Development of skills in the scientific method and the communication of science are also important components of this exercise.. ...
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A 2013 study published in the Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research was designed to determine the serum amylase, blood glucose and the serum lipid profile in 110 type 2 diabetes patients compared to healthy individuals of the same age and sex. The research showed that for the diabetic subjects wherever blood sugar levels were higher, serum amylase activity was found to be significantly lower. This finding was reflective of pancreas malfunction and speaks to the importance of a healthy pancreas producing healthy amounts of amylase. ...
Amylase in the blood is important for undisturbed performance of all body functions. Check the level of Amylase in the body and avoid disease.
Amylase is a an enzyme that is somewhat unique in that it is produced at two points in your body. It first activates as a component of saliva, where it begins the breakdown of starches into smaller, more easily digested components. Further on in the digestive process, it is created again in the pancreas. At this point, it is referred to as pancreatic amylase, and it works to
Bacillus licheniformis RM44 was isolated from hot spring near Karachi and screened forthe production of extracellular amylase Amy RM44. Amy RM44 was purified to homogeneityon a single step by affinity chromatography using insoluble corn starch. The molecular weightof Amy RM44 was estimated to be 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. Nine foldpurification was achieved with the specific activity of 870 U/mg that provides the total yieldof the enzyme up to 31%. Studies on purified AmyRM44 characterization revealed that theoptimum temperature of enzyme was 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was proved to be highly thermostableas it retained 50% activity after 2 h at 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was stable over wide range of pHwith optimum activity at pH 5. Enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by SDS andEDTA. Amy RM44 also exhibited its activity towards various carbohydrates such as dextrin,pullulan, α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin.
The optimum pH of salivary amylase is approximately 6.7 to 7, according to Worthington Biochemical Corporation, meaning very slightly acidic. If the pH is significantly out of this range, the enzyme...
Essential Therapeutics Digestive Enzymes is a high potency pancreatic supplement that breaks down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to prevent malabsorption and gastric discomfort.
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing amylase. Find information on amylase use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
An amylase test measures the amount of this enzyme in a sample of blood taken from a vein or in a sample of urine. Many conditions can change amylase levels. Your doctor will discuss any significant abnormal results with you in relation to your symptoms and past health.. Results are normally available within 72 hours. The normal values listed here-called a reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab, and your lab may have a different range for whats normal. Your lab report should contain the range your lab uses. Also, your doctor will evaluate your results based on your health and other factors. This means that a value that falls outside the normal values listed here may still be normal for you or your lab.. ...
Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology. Annals of Gastroenterology.Journal part.Scientific article.Article.2007 . Creators: Kokozidis G, Kinigopoulou P., Kapetanos D., Paikos D., Papaioannou A., Progia E., Kitis G., ..Pancreatitis is the most common of the serious complications of ERCP, with rates between 2 and 40%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of serum levels of amylase, lipase and elastase after ERCP, in the prediction and diagnosis of pancreatitis. Patients: Forty three consecutive patients underwent ERCP for various indications. Methods: Serum samples were taken before, one hour and six hours after the procedure. Amylase was evaluated with enzymatic colourimetric test (Olympus, normal2N) the first hour and 26 (60%) the sixth. Twenty seven (62%) had serum lipase elevation (|2N) the first hour and 30 (70%) the sixth. Four (9%) had increased elastase (|2N) the first hour and 2 (4%) the sixth. The only enzyme that was significantly elevated in the patients who developed
In Diabetic ketoacidosis when pain abdomen is one of the major clinical finding, serum amylase levels are obtained, to rule out the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (since the latter too can present with acute pain abdomen). If the serum amylase levels are found high in patients with Diabetic ketoacidosis, it may not be due…
Background. Serum lipase and amylase are biochemical analyses used to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Despite lipase having been shown internationally to be a more sensitive and specific test, amylase remains a popular first-line test. Objective. To provide a local basis for the recommendation of the best first-line laboratory test, an assessment of their performance in our local setting was undertaken. Methods. From a prospective dataset on patients with acute abdominal pain and raised serum lipase and/or amylase values, the sensitivity and specificity of serum lipase, amylase and the two in combination was calculated for the diagnosis of AP, as defined by the Atlanta criteria. Results. During the study period, 476 patients presented with acute upper or generalised abdominal pain and raised serum amylase and/or lipase values. The median age of the patients was 43 years (range 14 - 85), and 58% were men and 42% women. Of the patients, 322 (68%) presented with abdominal conditions
Allcosmeticsource.com Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping [EP170508011]- Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping What is Fungal amylase 1000000u/g? Fungal amylase, also known as fungal alpha amylase (1, 4- alpha -D- glucan hydrolase), is refined by Aspergillus oryzae Wahl deep culture, extraction and other processes. The enzyme is endo amylase, which can rapidly hydrolyze the starch, amylose and amylopectin aqueous solution of alpha -1,
To the Editors: Hyperamylasemia has been described in association with numerous solid malignant tumors (1, 2), but its association with hematologic malignancies has not been extensively studied. In a preliminary study, we found that 32% of patients with hematologic malignancies had hyperamylasemia (2). To gain more information regarding the incidence and significance of hyperamylasemia in patients with hematologic malignancies, we studied serum amylase activity in 35 patients and followed them over time (3, 4).. Forty-one consecutive patients with various hematologic malignancies were evaluated in our hematology clinic. Six patients were excluded because of concurrent illness or misdiagnosis of a hematologic ...
A CCK-deficient mouse model was successfully generated by gene targeting in ES cells. The RIA data presented here confirm that this new mutant mouse strain does not produce CCK. CCK-deficient mice are viable and grow at a normal rate. Aging mice (1 yr and older) continued to thrive, with no obviously abnormal pathologies. The body weight, rate of weight gain (Fig. 1 B), and total daily food intake (data not shown) of CCK-deficient mice do not differ from wild-type mice, suggesting that CCK is not essential for maintaining normal energy balance (intake vs. expenditure).. Analysis of pancreatic enzyme content in CCK-deficient mice fed the basal diet revealed an increase in amylase enzyme activity (Table 3). Because chymotrypsinogen content remained unaltered in the mutant, we concluded that the increase in amylase is not due to a general reduction in enzyme secretion but a specific increase in amylase synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of CCK on amylase synthesis ...
Background and Aims: This study examined the stress levels, the stressors and biomarker such as Alpha (α)-Amylase enzyme which is secreted under distress conditions. The aim was to determine the relationship between these three variables. Methods: The study respondents were made up of cancer outpatients from 3 hospitals namely the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Seberang Jaya and Johor Baru, Pantai Ipoh and Putrajaya. The Personal Stress Inventory (PSI) questionnaire was used to identify stressors, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to determine the psychological distress levels. The Salimentary Oral Swab (SOS) Technique was used to collect the saliva and then the Salivary α-Amylase Assay Kit was used to analyse for α amylase. Results: The majority of respondents were stressed due to their sensitive emotion and nervousness in their daily lives (68.7%), they had poor memory and short attention spans of carrying out job tasks (67.3%) as well as they were emotionally
Four mulberry silkworm races viz., Pure Mysore, Nistari, NB4D2 & CSR2 and two hybrid (Pure Mysore × CSR2 and Nistari × NB4D2 ) silkworms were selected for the present study. The specific activity of amylase in the haemolymph as well as midgut tissue was estimated. The qualitative analysis of amylase was carried out by Native-PAGE. The commercial characters viz., fecundity, larval weight, larval duration, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, filament length, denier and renditta were selected. The results of quantitative analysis were subjected for statistical analysis against selected commercial characters to know the level and kind of correlation between them. The results of statistical analysis clearly showed that haemolymph amylase has highly positive correlation with selected commercial characters except larval duration. In contrast, the midgut amylase indicated highly positive correlation with larval duration only. The zymograms of amylase also exhibited variation among the selected ...
Objective To investigate the effects of microbial enteral nutrition on serum amylase,hs-CRP and gastrointestinal function in children with acute pancreatitis at different stages. Methods A total of 120 children with acute pancreatitis who received treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to June 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study. All the children were randomly divided into the super-early group and the early group. The super-early group was treated with microbial enteral nutrition support after 24 hours of admission.In the early group,the microbial enteral nutrition support intervention was performed at 72 hours after admission. After treatment,the serum amylase,hs-CRP and gastrointestinal function were compared and analyzed. Results The rate of good nutrition tolerance in the early group was significantly lower than that in the super-early group( P 0. 05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mortality group. The length of hospital stay was 36. 94 ± 7. 19 d
Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains and CH1 domains. The antigen-binding fragment of such heavy chain antibodies is therefore comprised in one single domain, the camelid heavy chain antibody VH (VHH). Here we report on the structures of three dromedary VHH domains in complex with porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Two VHHs bound outside the catalytic site and did not inhibit or inhibited only partially the amylase activity. The third one, AMD9, interacted with the active site crevice and was a strong amylase inhibitor (K(i) = 10 nm). In contrast with complexes of other proteinaceous amylase inhibitors, amylase kept its native structure. The water-accessible surface areas of VHHs covered by amylase ranged between 850 and 1150 A(2), values similar to or even larger than those observed in the complexes between proteins and classical antibodies. These values could certainly be reached because a surprisingly high extent of framework residues are involved in the interactions ...
The pancreas and the glands that produce saliva also produce amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest food, notes MedlinePlus. Amylase enters the bloodstream when the pancreas becomes inflamed...
Semin Gastrointest Dis ; Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis: Is CT guided fine needle aspiration helpful in patients with infected necrosis. Acute pancreatitis dietary management MD, Mittal A, van den Heever M, et al, for the Pancreas Network of New Zealand. MRI may also identify early duct disruption that Acute pancreatitis dietary management not seen on CT. The serum amylase level is IU per liter, the serum lipase level is IU per liter, the serum alanine aminotransferase level is Acute pancreatitis dietary management per liter, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level Acute pancreatitis dietary management IU per liter. For patients with mild acute pancreatitis, nasojejunal feedings can be avoided unless patients are unable to tolerate oral intake for over 1 week. Most of these collections resolve Acute pancreatitis dietary management. Evaluation of severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Radiol Clin North Am. Generally, however, pancreatic stents are difficult to monitor, ...
A maltogenic amylase (MAG1) from alkaliphilic Bacillus lehensis G1 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterised for its hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties. The enzyme exhibited high stability at pH values from 7.0 to 10.0. The hydrolysis of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) produced malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. In addition to hydrolysis, MAG1 also demonstrated transglycosylation activity for the synthesis of longer malto-oligosaccharides. The thermodynamic equilibrium of the multiple reactions was shifted towards synthesis when the reaction conditions were optimised and the water activity was suppressed, which resulted in a yield of 38% transglycosylation products consisting of malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed the presence of malto-oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerisation than maltoheptaose, which has never been reported for other maltogenic amylases. The
Starch is an inexpensive and renewable raw material for numerous industrial applications. However, most starch-based products are not cost-efficient due to high-energy input needed in traditional enzymatic starch conversion processes. Therefore, α-amylase with high efficiency to directly hydrolyze high concentration raw starches at a relatively lower temperature will have a profound impact on the efficient application of starch. A novel raw starch digesting α-amylase (named AmyZ1) was screened and cloned from a deep-sea bacterium Pontibacillus sp. ZY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AmyZ1 was a member of subfamily 5 of glycoside hydrolase family 13. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant AmyZ1 showed high activity at pH 6.0-7.5 and 25-50 °C. Its optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 35 °C, respectively. Similar to most α-amylases, AmyZ1 activity was enhanced (2.4-fold) by 1.0 mM Ca2+. Its half-life time at 35 °C was also extended from about 10 min to 100 min. In comparison, AmyZ1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unexpected mode of action of sweet potato β-amylase on maltooligomer substrates. AU - Fazekas, Erika. AU - Szabó, Katalin. AU - Kandra, L.. AU - Gyémánt, G.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - β-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.2), one of the main protein of the sweet potato, is an exo-working enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of α(1,4) glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides and removes successively maltose units from the non-reducing ends. The enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase GH14 family and inverts the anomeric configuration of the hydrolysis product. Multiple attack or processivity is an important property of polymer active enzymes and there is still limited information about the processivity of carbohydrate active enzymes. Action pattern and kinetic measurements of sweet potato β-amylase were made on a series of aromatic chromophor group-containing substrates (degree of polymerization DP 3-13) using HPLC method. Measured catalytic efficiencies increased with increasing DP of the ...
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Name of Enzyme Substrate Location Task Products Salivary Amylase (likes pH level of around 6.2-7.4) Amylose in the mouth Saliva which is released from the salivary glands Aid in the hydrolysis of the starch amylose into the disaccharide maltose (glycocidic bond) Maltose, and Amylose Pepsinogen No substrate, inactive form of pepsin Produced in the gastric… ...
Oral health is related to general health and one of the most prevalent chronic diseases is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can have adverse effects on oral health and vice versa. Saliva analysis can be used as a non-invasive method to obtain information about diseases status like diabetes. The aim of present study was to evaluate the salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and salivary amylase levels and their associations with oral-dental manifestations in patients with controlled and non-controlled type 2 diabetes. This case-control study was carried out on 90 subjects who referred to the Diabetes Center of Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Participants were divided into three groups: 1) uncontrolled diabetic patients (n = 30); 2) controlled diabetic patients (n = 30); and 3) healthy individuals (n = 30). Unstimulated salivary levels of I-A and amylase were measured. All participants underwent a dental and periodontal examination to explore the oral and dental
TY - CHAP. T1 - Elevation of pancreatic enzymes in bile of PBM. AU - Fujimoto, Takaaki. AU - Ohtsuka, Takao. AU - Nakamura, Masafumi. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital anomaly in which the reciprocal reflux between pancreatic and bile juice occurs because the conflu- ence of the pancreatic and bile ducts lies outside of the area of contractile influence of the sphincter of Oddi. The reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct and subse- quent elevated pancreatic enzyme level in bile are usually recognized in PBM. Amylase is the most popular pancreatic enzyme for assessment in daily prac- tice, and assessment of amylase level in bile is useful to definitively confirm the presence of PBM, and the mixture of pancreatic and bile juices may produce various physiological and pathological alterations. In PBM, the amylase level in bile in patients with biliary cancers has been reported to be higher than that with benign biliary diseases; however, ...
Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. This results in precipitation, making the minerals unavailable for absorption in the intestines.[2][3] Phytic acids are common in the hulls of nuts, seeds and grains and of great importance in agriculture animal nutrition and eutrophication wise due to the mineral chelation and bound phosphates released in to the environment. Without the need to use milling to reduce phytate (including nutrient),[4] the amount of phytic acid is commonly reduced in animal feeds by adding histidine acid phosphate type of phytases to them.[5] Protease inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and other proteases in the gut, preventing the digestion and subsequent absorption of protein. For example, Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor is found in soybeans.[6] Lipase inhibitors interfere with enzymes, such as human pancreatic lipase, that catalyze the hydrolysis of some lipids, including ...
Research question What is the effect of temperature Amylase activity? Word count-1453 Background research Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up a...
I have done a native PAGE and activity staining for amylase which consists of initial incubation with 1% starch for 30mins followed by 2% potassium iodide and 0.2% iodine. the activity bands appear translucent on a blue background. but when i cut the activity bands it always appears blue. now i wish to process these cut gel bands for MALDI TOF for which i have to destain. please can anyone help me with destaining process?????. ...
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2. Activation of ERK pathway in Pancreatic Acinar Cells (Figure 1). ERK activation is usually monitored by following the dual phosphorylation of the Thr and Tyr residues in the Thr-Glu-Tyr activation sequence brought about by MEK as there are a number of good phosphospecific antibodies directed at this epitope. It can also be shown by phosphorylation of myelin basic protein either in a test tube or by an in gel technique following gel electrophoresis and renaturization. Both Western blots and the in gel kinase procedure reveal the two forms of ERK at approximately 44 and 42 kDa; in fact, the molecules were originally referred to as p42 and p44 MAPK with p42 being what is now referred to as ERK2 and p44 now being ERK1. Using isolated rat or mouse pancreatic acini in vitro, ERK1/2 is activated by CCK, bombesin, substance P, and carbachol, all of which activate G protein coupled receptors coupled to Gq and calcium mobilization but not by secretin or VIP which activate receptors coupled to Gs and ...
Introduction: Amylase is an enzyme found in human saliva. This enzyme can digest starch molecules and break them down to sugar molecules. (A starch molecule is a polymer of sugar molecules). Learning about the role of enzymes in digestion can help us to understand the body metabolism and the way that foods digest and become usable for the body. ...
2c and d), this observation is proof of the existence not only of a commensalism, but a synergism between B. amyloliquefaciens and S. cerevisiae. Synergism is regarded as the ability of two or more organisms to bring about changes (usually chemical) that neither can accomplish alone [16]. The same kind of synergism may also exist between L. fermentum 04BBA15 and S. cerevisiae, since there was a rise of α-amylase production when the two strains were cultivated together. Synergism in both cases could be explained by the fact. that in starch broth B. amyloliquefaciens 04BBA15 and L. fermentum 04BBA19 hydrolyze starch which leads to the increase in glucose or other oligosaccharids that the yeast S. cerevisiae needs for a normal growth since it is unable to convert starch into glucose. Part Epigenetic inhibitor manufacturer of the glucose U0126 supplier release through starch hydrolysis is immediately utilized by S. cerevisiae. The increase in α-amylase production could be attributed to the rapid ...
A total of 36 studies out of 17,845 were identified and included. Of these 36 studies, only 5 were clinical trials involving 580 patients, and the remaining 31 were animal studies with 1623 rats or mice. 24 studies focused on the treatment of AP with NSAIDs and 12 on AP-associated systematic complications. Both preclinical and clinical studies showed that NSAIDs may have beneficial effects against AP-related injuries. 9 of the 14 preclinical studies stated that NSAIDs reduced the serum amylase level significantly, and 6 of 7 showed that NSAIDs lowered the lipase level markedly. 17 experimental studies all demonstrated that NSAIDs reduced the inflammation. Histopathological examinations indicated that NSAIDs significantly improved the histopathological damages. Similarly, clinical evidence showed that NSAIDs are effective in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, relieving pain, ameliorating systematic complications and reducing mortality. In the included 5 clinical studies, serious adverse ...
A total of 36 studies out of 17,845 were identified and included. Of these 36 studies, only 5 were clinical trials involving 580 patients, and the remaining 31 were animal studies with 1623 rats or mice. 24 studies focused on the treatment of AP with NSAIDs and 12 on AP-associated systematic complications. Both preclinical and clinical studies showed that NSAIDs may have beneficial effects against AP-related injuries. 9 of the 14 preclinical studies stated that NSAIDs reduced the serum amylase level significantly, and 6 of 7 showed that NSAIDs lowered the lipase level markedly. 17 experimental studies all demonstrated that NSAIDs reduced the inflammation. Histopathological examinations indicated that NSAIDs significantly improved the histopathological damages. Similarly, clinical evidence showed that NSAIDs are effective in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, relieving pain, ameliorating systematic complications and reducing mortality. In the included 5 clinical studies, serious adverse ...
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In the pig parotid gland, ATPDase was mainly associated with duct epithelium, with very little, if any, immunoreactivity on acinar cells. Myoepithelial cells dispersed among acini produced a significant signal. There have been reports of Ca2+-dependent ATPases associated with isolated parotid acinar cells, but as judged by their biochemical properties, these ATPases are different from ATPDases. However, a nucleoside triphosphatase described by Sato et al. (29) in bovine parotid gland and an apyrase described by Valenzuela et al. (34) in a microsomal fraction of rat salivary gland appear to correspond to the ATPDase described in this study and hence could well be associated with ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In agreement with these findings, some studies on rat parotid acini show very little ecto-ATPase activity (9). Some P2Zpurinoceptors have been described on rat parotid acinar cells, which respond to ATP and mediate a Ca2+increase caused by both an influx and a mobilization from ...
1. Enzymes are complex proteins produced by living cells that catalyze specific biochemical reactions usually at body temperature (98.6 F or 37 C). Enzymes are usually sold in powder form and are obtained from animal, plant (particularly fungal), and bacteriological sources. In addition to their source designation, enzymes are also described in terms of unit definition, activity, and purity.. 2. The α-amylases attack randomly along the amylose chain (the major component of wheat starch) to convert it into dextrins (short-chained polysaccharides), which are very water soluble. The β-amylases attack amylose only from one end at a time and are therefore much less effective compared to α-amylases. Diastases contain both α- and β-amylases and, therefore, are not as effective as the α-amylases alone. Proteases cleave the bonds of proteins leading to shorter chain polypeptides and finally to amino acid molecules, which are water soluble. Trypsins, which come from the ferments of pancreatic ...
Results Absence and reduced intracellular levels of 5-HT inhibited the secretion of zymogen granules both ex vivo and in vitro and altered cytoskeleton dynamics. In addition, absence of 5-HT resulted in attenuated pro-inflammatory response after induction of pancreatitis. TPH1−/− mice showed limited zymogen release, reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 and minimal leucocyte infiltration compared with wild-type animals. Restoration of 5-HT levels in TPH1−/− mice recovered the blunted inflammatory processes observed during acute pancreatitis. However, cellular damage, inflammatory and fibrotic processes accelerated in TPH1−/− mice during disease progression.. ...
Pancreatic amylase is not produced by your little one (in sufficient quantities) until they are a year old - sometimes even later. The rule of thumb here is that it is not until your little ones molar teeth are fully developed that they have sufficient quantities of pancreatic amylase to properly digest grains - this can be anywhere from 13 - 24 months of age.
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A study, published in the Internal Journal of Medical Science, conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, in which 60 slightly overweight people were given either placebo or Phase 2, a highly concentrated phaseolus extract, once daily.. This single daily dose was given 30 minutes prior to a large meal rich in carbohydrates. Over the 30 days of the study, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract had significantly greater reduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo.. research notes: Layer, P., et al. Effect of purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate tolerance in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. MAYO Clinic Proceedings 61, 6 (June, 1986) 442-447.. Brugge, W.R. and M. S. Rosenfeld. Impairment of starch absorption by a potent amylase inhibitor. American Journal of Gastroenterology 82, 8 (August, 1987) 718-722.. Layer, P., et al. ...
contains a pure and clean source of New Zealand bovine pancreas glandular which is loaded with enzymes, B-vitamins, and minerals designed to support normal blood sugar levels and healthy pancreatic function
Check your inbox for an e-mail with a link to download the recipes Digestive enzymes aid in the absorption of nutrients and assist in the breaking down fwt the food particles you eat. This process allows the food that you eat to be used as energy, to support the building of new muscle and nerve cells, as well as protecting your blood from toxins.. Inadequate enzyme production can lead to digestive discomfort, gas, bloating, low energy and allergy-like emzymes to food. The three main categories of digestive enzymes are amylase, protease and lipase. Amylase in needed to break down carbohydrates, dodn whole grains, white flours, sugars and starchy vegetables. Amylase is found in pancreatic and intestinal juices, but is also found in your saliva.. This means that the digestive process of carbohydrates actually begins in the mouth, making chewing your food really well even more important. Protease helps you to digest protein. The proper digestion of protein is vital. Undigested protein particles can ...
DiseaseFix brings interesting disease graphics, videos, pictures, photos, and images on Acute Pancreatitis. Watch graphics along with explanatory content at one place for Acute Pancreatitis. Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.
This test measures the level of the enzyme amylase in the blood serum. This enzyme is specific to the pancreas and raised levels suggest damage to the pancreas as in acute and chronic pancreatitis. I would usually do this test along with liver function tests. Another useful test for the pancreas is faecal elastase. Pancreatitis can be caused by excessive alcohol, gall stones, cancer or antioxidant deficiency. Another useful test to diagnose pancreatitis is stool elastase levels. ...
We found that copy number of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) is correlated positively with salivary amylase protein level and that individuals from populations with high-starch diets have, on average, more AMY1 copies than those with traditionally low-starch diets. Comparisons with other loci in a subset of these populations suggest that the extent of AMY1 copy number differentiation is highly unusual. This example of positive selection on a copy number-variable gene is, to our knowledge, one of the first discovered in the human genome. Higher AMY1 copy numbers and protein levels probably improve the digestion of starchy foods and may buffer against the fitness-reducing effects of intestinal disease ...
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Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI) can be found in all gluten containing cereals and are, therefore, ingredient of basic foods like bread or pasta. In the gut ATI can mediate innate immunity via activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on immune cells residing in the lamina propria, promoting intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal, inflammation. Inflammatory conditions can induce formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and, thereby, endogenous protein nitration in the body. Moreover, air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can cause exogenous protein nitration in the environment. Both reaction pathways may lead to the nitration of ATI. To investigate if and how nitration modulates the immunostimulatory properties of ATI, they were chemically modified by three different methods simulating endogenous and exogenous protein nitration and tested in vitro. Here we show that ATI nitration was achieved by all three methods and lead to increased immune reactions. We found that ATI nitrated by
Zenpep with NDC 0023-6114 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Allergan, Inc.. The generic name of Zenpep is pancrelipase lipase, pancrelipase protease, pancrelipase amylase.
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The present study investigated the potential of thermophilic bacteria isolated from hot springs to simultaneously produce protease and amylase enzymes. Amo
PER VRETBLAD; Biospecific Affinity Chromatography of Sweet-Potato β-Amylase. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December 1974; 2 (6): 1327-1328. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0021327. Download citation file:. ...
Amylase increased was found in Emergency Central. Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Daviss Drug, McGraw-Hill Medicals Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals.
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