Processing is a traditional pharmacy technology based on traditional Chinese medicine theory. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ingredients should be processed before being used as a medicine. Processed bitter almonds are widely used in the clinic in TCM for the treatment of cough and asthma. In this work the amygdalin profile of three producing areas in China was determined, with respect to three differently processed bitter almond products: raw, stir-fried and scalded. Identification of the compounds was done by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Results indicated that amygdalin, neoamygdalin and amygdalin amide were identified in the different processed bitter almonds. Meanwhile, amygdalin was used as a standard to calculate the quantification of amygdalin and the concentration ratio of neoamygdalin and total amygdalin by HPLC-DAD. The data suggested that composition of amygdalin isomers in bitter almonds was
In the present study, we noted that treatment of the RCC cell lines Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498 with amygdalin caused significant inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. Similar growth reduction after amygdalin application has been noted in non-small cell lung cancer (19) and bladder cancer cells (18) in vitro, as well as cervical cancer cells in vivo (20). Based on our data we conclude that the inhibition of growth induced by amygdalin is not due to apoptosis or necrosis. Other cancer cells such as cervical, bladder and prostate cancer cells react to amygdalin with apoptosis, leading to growth inhibition (18,20,21). Thus, the mode of action of amygdalin seems to depend on the type of cancer.. Although inhibition of growth in all three RCC cell lines was accompanied by changes in the percentage of cells in different cell cycle phases, the changes were not homogeneous. Treatment of Caki-1 and A498 cells with amygdalin caused an increase in G0/G1-phase cells by reducing the S- (Caki-1 and A498) ...
Prunasin is a cyanogenic glycoside related to amygdalin. Chemically, it is the glucoside of (R)-mandelonitrile. Prunasin is found in species in the genus Prunus such as Prunus japonica or P. maximowiczii and in bitter almonds. It is also found in leaves and stems of Olinia ventosa, O. radiata, O. emarginata and O. rochetiana and in Acacia greggii. It is also found in dandelion coffee, a coffee substitute. Sambunigrin, a diastereomer of prunasin derived from (S)-mandelonitrile instead of it the (R)-isomer, has been isolated from leaves of the elder tree (Sambucus nigra) Prunasin is hydrolyzed to produce hydrogen cyanide. Plants containing prunasin may therefore be toxic to animals, particularly ruminants. Prunasin beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that uses (R)-prunasin and H2O to produce D-glucose and mandelonitrile. Amygdalin beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that uses (R)-amygdalin and H2O to produce (R)-prunasin and D-glucose. Sanchez-Perez, R.; Belmonte, F. S.; Borch, J.; Dicenta, F.; Møller, B. ...
Amygdalin has been advocated by some as a "cure" or a "preventative" for cancer, but due to a lack of scientifically accepted evidence of its efficacy, it has not been approved for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[3] The U.S. governments National Institutes of Health reports that two clinical trials with laetrile have been published. One Phase I study found that amygdalin caused minimal side effects; the side effects that were seen were similar to the symptoms of cyanide poisoning. One Phase II study with 175 patients had some patients reporting improvements in symptoms, but all patients showed cancer progression 7 months after completing treatment, and it was determined no further tests were necessary. While no double-blind clinical trials may have been conducted, a clinical trial was carried out in 1982 by the Mayo Clinic[4] and three other U.S. cancer centers under NCI sponsorship. Laetrile and "metabolic therapy" were administered as recommended by their ...
The judges of this competition? Our dean and two professors. The audience? Our entire class.. The stakes were high.. We had two weeks to prepare. All I knew about Laetrile at the time was that Steve McQueen, the actor, had gone to Mexico to buy this drug as a last ditch effort to treat his hopeless cancer. I also had a vague idea Laetrile was made from ground up apricot pits.. I headed for the stacks. It was the year before the legal research online search tool, LEXIS, was introduced to our school, so we lived in the law library. I started by learning about Laetrile. Turns out that the product derives from amygdalin (from the ancient Greek "amygdalin" meaning almond.) First investigated in 1830, amygdalin is a glycoside (molecule bonded to sugar) isolated from the seeds of a tree known as bitter almonds. Beginning in the early 1950s, both amygdalin and Laetrile (a modified form or amygdalin), also called Vitamin B although neither are vitamins) were promoted as cures for cancer.. When I did my ...
Laetrile is another name for a natural product called amygdalin. Amygdalin is a chemical ingredient found in the pits of many fruits, raw nuts, and plants. It
Although the NCI (National Cancer Institute) mailing had not been designed to uncover negative case reports, 220 physicians submitted data on more than 1,000 patients who had received Laetrile without any beneficial response. In July 1980, the NCI undertook clinical trials of 178 cancer patients who received Laetrile, vitamins and enzymes at the Mayo Clinic and three other prominent cancer centers. The study included patients for whom no other treatment had been effective or for whom no proven treatment was known. All patients had tumor masses that could easily be measured, but most of the patients were in good physical condition. Since Laetrile proponents were unable to agree on the formula or testing protocol for Laetrile, NCI decided to use a preparation that corresponded to the substance distributed by the major Mexican supplier, American Biologics. The preparation was supplied by the NCI Pharmaceutical Resources Branch and verified by a variety of tests. The dosage of Laetrile was based on ...
Although the NCI (National Cancer Institute) mailing had not been designed to uncover negative case reports, 220 physicians submitted data on more than 1,000 patients who had received Laetrile without any beneficial response. In July 1980, the NCI undertook clinical trials of 178 cancer patients who received Laetrile, vitamins and enzymes at the Mayo Clinic and three other prominent cancer centers. The study included patients for whom no other treatment had been effective or for whom no proven treatment was known. All patients had tumor masses that could easily be measured, but most of the patients were in good physical condition. Since Laetrile proponents were unable to agree on the formula or testing protocol for Laetrile, NCI decided to use a preparation that corresponded to the substance distributed by the major Mexican supplier, American Biologics. The preparation was supplied by the NCI Pharmaceutical Resources Branch and verified by a variety of tests. The dosage of Laetrile was based on ...
In addition to apricot seeds, B17 is found in wild blackberries, wild crabapples, elderberries, apple seeds, cherry seeds, nectarine seeds, peach seeds, pear seeds, plum seeds, prune seeds, fava, bamboo, alfalfa, eucalyptus and cassava. Other foods that contain lesser amounts of B17 are boysenberries, huckleberries, raspberries, strawberries, squash seeds, black beans, black eyed peas, lentils, lima beans, kidney beans, garbanzo beans, cashews, macadamia nuts, spinach, watercress, sweet potatoes and yams.. Only Available in the US. This product is non refundable.. Ingredients: Amygdalin, magnesium stearate (vegetable source).. ...
amygdalin definition: A glycoside, C20H27NO11, frequently found in seeds also plant components of numerous people in the rose family members, particularly kernels associated with the apricot, peach, and…
Staherb Natural Ingredients plant extract Dihydromyricetin Chlorogenic Acid corosolic acid Amygdalin luteolin Ursolic acid Rosmarinic acid Magnolol Emodin Apigenin Grape Seed P.E.
Vitamin B17 is also known as amygdalin and is found inside apple pips and apricot kernels etc. This naturally derived supplement has a concentrated formula of 100 mg per tablet.
Healthy cells contain rhodanese, and enzyme thats not found in cancer cells. Cancer cells have beta-glucosidase. Rhodanese has the ability to neutralize benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide in B17. It turns these into a useful compounds, and the body can use it.. Beta-glucosidase releases benzaldehyde and cyanide from laetrile, and targets cancer cells.. Laetrile also helps the body synthesize more vitamin B12. Statistics shows that many Americans lack this vitamin. When combined with high doses of vitamin C, the nutrients create a huge synergistic power. Plant-based diet is suggested by nutritionists, and your body will get enough vitamins and minerals. Laetrile needs the help of many nutrients to work efficiently. Multi-vitamin supplements will "soothe" the deficiencies.. Laetrile therapy. Laetrile is efficient, but it shouldnt be considered as a primary cancer treatment.. The right doses can do wonders, and laetrile deserves more attention. Its contained in the seeds/kernels of apricot, plum, ...
While it holds true that those seeds include cyanide, the majority of professionals concur that it would take a great deal of them to toxic an individual. And, in this case, theres a lot more that we might not be effectively examining.. In this case, exactly what we ought to be taking a look at in our research study is amygdalin, the substance which contains cyanide. New anecdotal proof from Australia reveals that consuming apricot seeds in big amounts - lots, daily, for months - might assist remove cancer.. Heres exactly what we understand: Amygdalin has 4 particles - 2 glucone, one cyanide, and one benzaldehyde. Heres exactly what takes place: Cancer cells draw in amygdalin substances, as they desire the glucose, however, the other 2 particles - cyanide and benzaldehyde - wind up eliminating cancer cells ...
Advocates for laetrile assert that there is a conspiracy between the US Food and Drug Administration, the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community, including the American Medical Association and the American Cancer Society, to exploit the American people, and especially cancer patients.[29]. Advocates of the use of laetrile have also changed the rationale for its use, first as a treatment of cancer, then as a vitamin, then as part of a "holistic" nutritional regimen, or as treatment for cancer pain, among others, none of which have any significant evidence supporting its use.[29]. Despite the lack of evidence for its use, laetrile developed a significant following due to its wide promotion as a "pain-free" treatment of cancer as an alternative to surgery and chemotherapy that have significant side effects. The use of laetrile led to a number of deaths.[29] The FDA and AMA crackdown, begun in the 1970s, effectively escalated prices on the black market, played into the conspiracy ...
Amygdalin is extracted from almond cake by boiling alcohol; on evaporation of the solution and the addition of ether, amygdalin is precipitated as white minute crystals.
One needs to be on a good organic diet while avoiding all processed foods when treating cancer. Sugar is an absolute no-no for any cancer treatment. It just feeds the cancer cells. Sugar can allow cancer cells to thrive while ignoring amygdalin`s poisons, leaving too many healthy cells with the burden of avoiding any incidental cyanide breakdowns from abundant amygdalin ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
In organic chemistry, mandelonitrile is the cyanohydrin derivative of benzaldehyde. Small amounts of mandelonitrile occur in the pits of some fruits. Mandelonitrile is the aglycone part of the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The naturally occurring (R)-(+) enantiomer finds use as an intermediate in the preparation of optically active α-hydroxy carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy aldehydes, α-hydroxy ketones, and 2-amino alcohols. Mandelonitrile can break down into cyanide and benzaldehyde, a reaction that can be catalyzed by the enzyme mandelonitrile lyase. Racemic mandelonitrile may be prepared similar to many other cyanohydrins. In a one pot reaction, benzaldehyde is reacted with sodium bisulfite to give the corresponding adduct, which further reacts with aqueous sodium cyanide to give the racemic product: Sigma-Aldrich product page The Merck Index (12th ed.). 1996. Kruse, C.G. In Collins, A.N. Sheldrake, G.N. Crosby, J., Eds. Chirality in Industry Chichester, UK , (1992), 279 Corson, ...
I have always been told that almonds are a delicious healthy snack. However, what a lot of Americans dont know is that their are actually 2 different types of almonds, and while sweet almonds are indeed a delicious snack, its cousin bitter almonds has a different story.
In 1832 bitter-almond oil was supposed to be to bitter almonds what a hundred and one other essential oils are to their vegetable sources. Of its chemistry nothing was known except the fact that it contains loosely combined prussic acid, and that, when kept for a long time, it is liable to deposit a crystalline solid, as various other essential oils do. Liebig and WT6hler, being struck by the absence from even powdered bitter almonds of the intense smell characteristic of the oil, set about tracing the latter to its origin, and soon solved the question. In 1830 Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard had succeeded in extracting from bitter almonds a crystal-line nitrogenous solid, soluble without decomposition in alcohol and in water, which they called amygdaline. What Liebig and Wohler found was that, when bitter-almond meal is mashed up with water, this amygdaline, by the action of the water and a ferment (common to both sweet and bitter almonds), breaks up into sugar, prussic acid, and bitter-almond ...
Cyanide is commonly thought of as a gas, but you also can be poisoned by it if you ingest wild cherry syrup, prussic acid, bitter almond oil, or large amounts of apricot pits. Cherry seeds, peach and plum pits, corn, chickpeas, cashews, and some other fruits and vegetables contain cyanogenic (i.e., cyanide-forming) glycosides (such as amygdalin) that release hydrogen cyanide when chewed or digested. As a result, some cyanide can also be found in fruit jams that contain these pit and pip extracts, such as quince. However, since the concentration of cyanide in these compounds is small, accidental cyanide poisoning from a food source is rare. But, if the correct materials are deliberately concentrated it can make an effective poison, as the Romans and Egyptians knew. They used to grind up peach kernels to make poisons ...
Amygdalin-B17 is used in infusion therapies and in natural chemotherapies. Amygdalin, Laetrile or B17 is a natural substance, which can be found in apricot stones, but B17 is also present in stones from peaches, nectarines, cherries, plums or apples and is also present in buckwheat, broccoli, spinach, cauliflower or cashew nuts.. From a chemical point of view, B17 consists of one molecule benzaldehyde (which is a painkiller) and one molecule hydrogen cyanide (cyanhydric acid).. Healthy cells are not affected by this process as they contain an enzyme called Rhodanese. The Rhodanese enzyme can convert cyanhydric acid (present within B17) into thiocyanate. Thiocyanate has positive effects on the organism as thiocyanate lowers the blood pressure and is a substance which the organism uses to produce the nerve nutrition B12.. Benzaldehyde (present within B17) is transformed within healthy cells with the help of oxygen into the painkiller benzoic acid.. The characteristics of B17 lead to the conclusion ...
Have you heard about apricot kernels and a compound known as amygdalin, laetrile, or Vitamin B17? Discover the history of this powerful anti-cancer agent.
β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21); β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23); β-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25); β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31); β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37); β-D-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.38); phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.62); exo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.74); 6-phospho-β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.85); 6-phospho-β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.86); strictosidine β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.105); lactase (EC 3.2.1.108); amygdalin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.117); prunasin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.118); vicianin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.119); raucaffricine β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.125); thioglucosidase (EC 3.2.1.147); β-primeverosidase (EC 3.2.1.149); isoflavonoid 7-O-β-apiosyl-β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.161); ABA-specific β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.175); DIMBOA β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.182); β-glycosidase (EC 3.2.1.-); hydroxyisourate hydrolase (EC 3.-.-.- ...
Benzaldehyde; Artificial Almond Oil; Benzaldehyde FFC; Benzenecarbonal; Benzenecarboxaldehyde; Benzoic aldehyde; Phenylmethanal; Almond artificial essential oil; NCI-C56133; Oil of Bitter Almond; Benzene carbaldehyde; NA 1989; Artificial bitter almond oil; Benzene methylal; Benzoyl hydride; Ethereal oil of bitter almonds; Benzylaldehyde; Benzaldéhyde; ...
Synonyms: toxic Definition: of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison Usage: suffering from exposure to toxic substances Hypernyms: cyanogenetic, cyanogenic Definition: capable of producing cyanide Usage: amygdalin is a cyanogenetic glucoside Hypernyms: deadly, venomous, virulent Definition: extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom Usage: venomous snakes; a virulent insect bite Hypernyms: hepatotoxic Definition: toxic to the liver Hypernyms: nephrotoxic Definition: toxic to the kidney Hypernyms: ototoxic Definition: toxic to the organs of hearing or balance or to the auditory nerve Usage: some drugs are ototoxic Hypernyms: toxicant, poisonous Definition: having the qualities or effects of a poison ...
Synonyms for glucoside in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for glucoside. 3 words related to glucoside: glycoside, amygdalin, saponin. What are synonyms for glucoside?
Eating more than three small raw apricot kernels, or less than half of one large kernel, in a serving can exceed safe levels. Toddlers consuming even one small apricot kernel risk being over the safe level. A naturally-occurring compound called amygdalin is present in apricot kernels and converts to cyanide after eating. Cyanide poisoning can cause nausea, fever, headaches, insomnia, thirst, lethargy, nervousness, joint and muscle various aches and pains, and falling blood pressure. In extreme cases it is fatal.
In continuation of this series on the health benefits of seeds, I bring you this article on Vitamin B17. Also known as Amygdalin, Vitamin B17 is a naturally occurring anti-tumour agent, a natural chemotherapeutic agent found in over 1000 plants.
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This product can potentially help with Rhino-pharyngitis, amygdalin, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, angina pectoris. Contact our naturist expert for a free consultation, Monday through Friday after 2:30 pm (619) 429 6012. Recommended use:40 drops in 3 cc. of water, one or two times a day between meals. Allow it to stay unde
As per the latest report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Sterile Injectables Market (Drug Type: Monoclonal Antibodies, Cytokines, Insulin, Immunoglobulin, Vaccines, Peptide Hormones, Peptide Antibiotics, Blood Factors and Others; Therapeutic Area: Cancer, Infectious Diseases, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, Neurological Diseases, Musculoskeletal Diseases and Others)- Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017-2025," the global sterile injectables market was evaluated at US$ 324.1 Bn in 2016, expanding at a CAGR of 7.1%.. Browse the full report Sterile Injectables Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017-2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/sterile-injectables-market. Market Insights:. Injectables are administered into the blood stream to ensure rapid recovery, convenience to patients and reduced complications. Sterile injectables are preferred in medical treatment due to its rapid mode of action, simple administration approach and ...
Why do so many food plants contain cyanide? There are two answers, Olsen says. Cyanide acts as a primitive pesticide that discourages insects that feed on plants. The very earliest farmers, selecting plants to bring into cultivation, might have found these "clean" plants particularly attractive. By selecting plants that hadnt been chewed up by insects, they may have inadvertently selected ones that were cyanogenic.. But the second and perhaps more important reason is that as plant toxins go, cyanide is a manageable one. The cyanide in apples and peaches, for example, is in their seeds and pits, which usually are discarded.. In addition, Olsen says, even if an edible plant part contains the poison, it is easy to get rid of by crushing the plant then washing the mash. Crushing releases the water-soluble cyanide, which is carried off in the water.. Disabling the genes that code for cyanide production also is straightforward. It took only one genetic mutation, for example, to turn the toxic bitter ...
Note: This cell line was derived from a 4th passage nude mouse xenograft of tumor fragments obtained from a patient prior to therapy. This cell line is a pseudodiploid human cell line an and has a high concentration of receptors for EGF. This cell line has lost both chromosomes 8 and 11 while SNU-C2A has lost only chromosome 11. Penicillin-streptomycin were added to culture media (final concentration, 100 U/mL ...
Sponsor: Daniel G. Nocera. Using sunlight, Ciamician carried out, with his colleague Paolo Silber, the first systematic studies on the behaviour of organic substances towards light. He is regarded as the father of modern organic photochemistry. But his interests ranged widely, and he also made major contributions to the chemistry of pyrroles, the functions of plant glucosides and alkaloids, and various physical chemical areas such as spectroscopy. He did most of his work at the University of Bologna, Italy.. ...
We can chase the illusion of destruction or create a healthy environment that promotes self-healing. Cancer is no different. The purpose of care is to detoxify the body, create a healthy environment, and stimulate the bodys immune function.
We can chase the illusion of destruction or create a healthy environment that promotes self-healing. Cancer is no different. The purpose of care is to detoxify the body, create a healthy environment, and stimulate the bodys immune function.
Hi, this is my first post. I have been recently diagnosed with T1 G3 BC. I am wondering if anyone has had any experience with... - Page 9
In "The Happening," common plants release a neurotoxin that threatens the survival of the human race. This movie premise may be far-fetched, but scientists say summer is a good time to familiarize yourself with toxic plants that can be harmful to your health. ...
Toxic Plants of North America, Second Edition http://www.deffe.com/control/img/2013/01/14/32049-guest_1358152143_50f3c1cf0ec8a/medium/1358152170_0813820340.jpg Author(s): George E. Burrows, Ronald J. Tyrl Published Online: 7 NOV 2012 12:55PM EST Print ISBN: 9780813820347
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Related entry: Amygdala.-Almond. SYNONYM: Syrupus emulsivus.. Preparation.-Sweet almond, one hundred and forty grammes (140 Gm.) [4 ozs. av., 411 grs.]; bitter almond, forty grammes (40 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 180 grs.]; sugar, two hundred grammes (200 Gm.) [7 ozs. av., 24 grs.]; orange-flower water, one hundred cubic centimeters (100 Cc.) [3 fl℥, 183♏]; water, one hundred and thirty cubic centimeters (130 Cc.) [4 fl℥, 190♏]; syrup, a sufficient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]. Rub the almonds, previously blanched, in a mortar, with one hundred grammes (100 Gm.) [3 ozs. av., 231 grs.] of the sugar and thirty cubic centimeters (30 Cc.) [1 fl℥, 7♏] of water to a smooth paste. Mix this well with the orange-flower water and two hundred cubic centimeters (200 Cc.) [6 fl℥, 366♏] of syrup, and strain with strong expression. To the residue add one hundred cubic centimeters (100 Cc.) [3 fl℥, 183♏] of water, and express again. In the strained ...
The almonds you know and love are sweet almonds, and contain a trace amount of cyanide. Bitter almonds have more cyanide per nut, making them far more dangerous for humans.
I dont like the opening only one word popped into my mind: cheap! but bubble gum or air freshener would have worked just as well. So this is the she-wolf? Frankly, I don t get the train of thought that resulted in that name. Louve opens with a sweet, sweet bitter almond / cherry accord that doesn t smell very rich or refined to me just sweet. It has a definite marzipan thing going for it at first, and then it seems to change to cherry cough syrup for its heart notes, but those are just preliminaries they have very little to do with the remainder of the fragrance. The main run of the fragrance is a sweet, powdery almond accord that moves in close to the skin, and stays there for a long, long time. It is a feminine scent that is quite pleasant certainly refined, uberly powdery, I suppose, but I don t find it very intriguing it s a very nice skin scent ...
I immediately knew that I had never seen this mushroom either in the field or in any literature. The cap was covered in a brown powder, and the stipe (stem) had a distinctly bitter almond smell. A search through all my books revealed no close match, so the internet was the next port of call. I had almost chosen Rozites caperatus as the likely candidate when I was very lucky to find a comment on a swiss website that mentioned that some Rozites could be mistaken for Phaeolepiota aurea. A quick check confirmed that this extremely rare mushroom was the correct identification. Its a nettle associate, documented in european literature, but not in English. The almond smell is due to the presence of cyanide compounds, but strangely I was the only person out of four who could detect it, and for me it was so strong I recoiled from the smell. There are a few Irish records. Provisional red data list ...
I immediately knew that I had never seen this mushroom either in the field or in any literature. The cap was covered in a brown powder, and the stipe (stem) had a distinctly bitter almond smell. A search through all my books revealed no close match, so the internet was the next port of call. I had almost chosen Rozites caperatus as the likely candidate when I was very lucky to find a comment on a swiss website that mentioned that some Rozites could be mistaken for Phaeolepiota aurea. A quick check confirmed that this extremely rare mushroom was the correct identification. Its a nettle associate, documented in european literature, but not in English. The almond smell is due to the presence of cyanide compounds, but strangely I was the only person out of four who could detect it, and for me it was so strong I recoiled from the smell. There are a few Irish records. Provisional red data list ...