Title:Morphological and Functional Features of the Sex Steroid-Responsive Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala of Adult Rats. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 11. Author(s):A.A. Rasia-Filho, D. Haas, A.P. de Oliveira, J. de Castilhos, R. Frey, D. Stein, V.M. Lazzari, F. Back, G.N. Pires, E. Pavesi, E.C. Winkelmann-Duarte and M. Giovenardi. Affiliation:UFCSPA/Physiology, R. Sarmento Leite 245, Porto Alegre 90170-050 RS, Brazil.. Keywords:Anxiety, extended amygdala, Fos immunoreacitivity, ibotenic acid, innate fear, neuronal morphology, sexual dimorphism, sexual behavior. Abstract:The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) expresses receptors for gonadal hormones and integrates sex steroid-sensitive subcortical networks. Male-female differences are found in the morphology, connectivity, and local neuropil structure of MePD. For example, dendritic spine density is sexually-dimorphic and changes with the estrous cycle and following gonadal hormones manipulations. Due to its connectivity, the MePD may affect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of adenosine A2A receptor gene expression in a model of binge eating in the amygdaloid complex of female rats. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria. AU - Pucci, Mariangela. AU - Giusepponi, Maria Elena. AU - Romano, Adele. AU - Lambertucci, Catia. AU - Volpini, Rosaria. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Emanuela. AU - Gaetani, Silvana. AU - Maccarrone, Mauro. AU - DAddario, Claudio. AU - Cifani, Carlo. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Pharmacological treatment approaches for eating disorders, such as binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, are currently limited. Methods and aims: Using a well-characterized animal model of binge eating, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of the A2A Adenosine Receptor (A2AAR) and dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) genes. Results: Gene expression analysis revealed a selective increase of both receptor mRNAs in the amygdaloid complex of stressed and restricted rats, which exhibited binge-like eating, when compared to ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mariana Zancan, Aline DallOglio, Taís Malysz Sarzenski, Martin Ian Maher, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Alberto A Rasia-Filho].
We previously analyzed the arborization patterns of rat ventral pallidal (VP) axons that coursed caudally to innervate the thalamus and brainstem (Tripathi et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:1133-1157, 2013). Here, we have reconstructed 16 previously undetected axons from the same tracer deposits that follow a more lateral trajectory. Virtually all 16 axons emanating from the different VP compartments collateralized in the extended amygdala system (EAS) and amygdaloid complex. The most frequent targets of axons from the lateral and medial (VPm) VP compartments were the rostral sublenticular extended amygdala, the extended amygdala (EA), the central nucleus of the amygdala and the posterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. In contrast, axons from the rostral extension of the VP preferentially innervated the anterior amygdaloid area, the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, and the anterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. We additionally found and reconstructed a single corticopetal ...
The amygdala is under inhibitory control from the cortex through the activation of local GABAergic interneurons. This inhibition is greatly diminished during heightened emotional states due to dopamine release. However, dopamine excites most amygdala interneurons, suggesting that this dopaminergic gate may be mediated by an unknown subpopulation of interneurons. We hypothesized that this gate is mediated by paracapsular intercalated cells, a subset of interneurons that are innervated by both cortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic afferents. Using transgenic mice that express GFP in GABAergic interneurons, we show that paracapsular cells form a network surrounding the basolateral complex of the amygdala. We found that they provide feedforward inhibition into the basolateral and the central amygdala. Dopamine hyperpolarized paracapsular cells through D1 receptors and substantially suppressed their excitability, resulting in a disinhibition of the basolateral and central nuclei. Suppression of the ...
Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of abnormal amygdala responses in patients with PD. In comparison with NCs, patients with PD in both the drug-off and drug-on states showed a reduced amygdala response during the perceptual processing of angry and fearful faces. Our results also provide the first in vivodemonstration in human subjects of dopamine modulation of the amygdala. Dopamine repletion appeared to partially restore the response of the amygdala in PD patients, as evidenced by the increased BOLD response in the drug-on state relative to the drug-off state.. The potentiated amygdala response in the dopamine-replete state relative to the hypodopaminergic state may reflect dopamine gating of amygdala inputs and subsequent increased amygdala neuronal activity. Recently, Hariri et al. (2002), using this same BOLD fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects, reported a robust potentiation of the response of the amygdala by dextroamphetamine, a nonspecific monoaminergic agonist that primarily ...
The consequences of acute xylene publicity to the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory technique were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats have been injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene every day for three consecutive times. 3 hr following the last dose, they ended up killed and also the brains were being eradicated. The brains ended up dissected in the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The assorted Mind components were being analyzed for improvements of their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining procedure ...
The basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala contributes to the consolidation of memories for emotional or stressful events. The nucleus contains a high density of CRF1 receptors that are activated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF …
A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response. We used a pre-post-test design without a control group. Twenty currently depressed participants underwent an emotion processing task during fMRI. These participants were then treated with an antidepressant for 6 weeks. We used amygdala region-of-interest analysis to evaluate the hemodynamic response during exposure to colored emotional pictures
Synonyms for Amygdalar cortices in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amygdalar cortices. 2 synonyms for amygdala: amygdaloid nucleus, corpus amygdaloideum. What are synonyms for Amygdalar cortices?
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT since it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20Hz) ...
The present discussion of SP and associated HHEs is much indebted to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977; McCarley & Hobson, 1979). According to that theory, REM is initiated via inhibitory activity of the REM-off cells in reciprocal interaction with REM-on cells (See section on SP and REM for a more detailed discussion). These brain-stem mechanisms inhibit motor output and sensory input and provide the cortex with internally generated activation. The function of the cortical centers is one of synthesizing quasi-random activation into meaningful patterns. Although the activation-synthesis model has not emphasized affective components, the pervasiveness of fear and the sensed presence in the phenomenology of SP indicates that the role of the amygdala may need to be considered central in understanding the SP night-mare. We hypothesize that the experience of a threatening presence during SP is associated with the thalamic projections to the amygdala. During REM, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Basolateral Amygdalae and Frontotemporal Network Functions for Threat Perception. AU - Hortensius, Ruud. AU - Terburg, David. AU - Morgan, Barak. AU - Stein, Dan J.. AU - van Honk, Jack. AU - de Gelder, Beatrice. PY - 2017/4/5. Y1 - 2017/4/5. N2 - Although the amygdalae play a central role in threat perception and reactions, the direct contributions of the amygdalae to specific aspects of threat perception, from ambiguity resolution to reflexive or deliberate action, remain ill understood in humans. Animal studies show that a detailed understanding requires a focus on the different subnuclei, which is not yet achieved in human research. Given the limits of human imaging methods, the crucial contribution needs to come from individuals with exclusive and selective amygdalae lesions. The current study investigated the role of the basolateral amygdalae and their connection with associated frontal and temporal networks in the automatic perception of threat. Functional activation ...
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Scientists and mental health professionals have made major strides in understanding and treating major depression, including the discovery of the role played by imbalances in brain chemicals such as serotonin and noradrenaline. But there is increasing evidence that there is more to the story: depression also involves structural changes in areas of the brain that are involved in mood, memory, and decision-making. Depression is often precipitated by stressful experiences. The brain interprets our experiences and decides if they are threatening, and then controls our behavioral and physiological responses to them. Data obtained from animal experiments show that harmful physiological changes result from the inability of the brain and body to respond to repeated stress with adaptive modifications in structure and function. Three brain areas - the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala - are particularly susceptible to pathological changes in size and function. These areas are ...
According to a press-release from UCLA, researchers recruited 41 epilepsy patients and monitored activity in their amygdalae, an area located deep within the brain which is believed to regulate emotions, in response to visual stimuli -- photos of people, buildings, and animals, respectively. Since most previous studies into amygdalae focused on reactions to human faces, neuroscientists were surprised to find that they didnt elicit the most profound reaction. Our study shows that neurons in the human amygdala respond preferentially to pictures of animals, meaning that we saw the most amount of activity in cells when the patients looked at cats or snakes versus buildings or people, says Florian Mormann of CalTech, and the studys lead author. This preference extends to cute as well as ugly or dangerous animals and appears to be independent of the emotional contents of th... Full article: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2011/09/humans-are-hardwi... ...
The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple…
This will help to track the use of this data in the literature. In addition, consider also citing the paper related to this collection. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
Looking for online definition of cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? cortical amygdaloid nucleus explanation free. What is cortical amygdaloid nucleus? Meaning of cortical amygdaloid nucleus medical term. What does cortical amygdaloid nucleus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Hulvershorn, Leslie A.. AU - Mennes, Maarten. AU - Castellanos, F. Xavier. AU - Di Martino, Adriana. AU - Milham, Michael P.. AU - Hummer, Tom A.. AU - Roy, Amy Krain. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Objective A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relation to emotion regulation in ADHD has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of amygdala circuits and emotion regulation deficits in youth with ADHD. Method Bilateral amygdala iFC was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 63 children with ADHD, aged ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet ...
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
BACKGROUND: A vital component of an organisms response to acute stress is a surge in vigilance that serves to optimize the detection and assessment of threats to its homeostasis. The amygdala is thought to regulate this process, but in humans, acute stress and amygdala function have up to now only been studied in isolation. Hence, we developed an integrated design using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the immediate effects of controlled stress induction on amygdala function. METHODS: In 27 healthy female participants, we studied brain responses to emotional facial stimuli, embedded in an either acutely stressful or neutral context by means of adjoining movie clips. RESULTS: A variety of physiological and psychological measures confirmed successful induction of moderate levels of acute stress. More importantly, this context manipulation shifted the amygdala toward higher sensitivity as well as lower specificity, that is, stress induction augmented amygdala responses to ...
The amygdala is critical for fear processing and fear regulation. The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and do...
Role of Oxytocin in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Network During Social Decision-Makings profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amygdala response and functional connectivity during cognitive emotion regulation of aversive image sequences. AU - Sarkheil, Pegah. AU - Klasen, Martin. AU - Schneider, Frank. AU - Goebel, Rainer. AU - Mathiak, Klaus. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Emotion regulation (ER) is crucial in terms of mental health and social functioning. Attention deployment (AD) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) are both efficient cognitive ER strategies, which are based on partially dissociated neural effects. Our understanding of the neural underpinnings of ER is based on laboratory paradigms that study changes of the brain activation related to isolated emotional stimuli. To track the neural response to ER in the changing and dynamic environment of daily life, we extended the common existing paradigms by applying a sequence of emotionally provocative stimuli involving three aversive images. Eighteen participants completed an ER paradigm, in which they had to either shift their attention away from ...
The Amygdala Diaries. by David Kellem. Mediators are challenged to guide clients through a lot of obstacles along the way to settlement. One physically small but stealthy and strong obstacle is the human amygdala. Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation.. The amygdala, it turns out, is the root of some of our less-rational and more problematic behaviors. It has been identified as a primary organ of the paleomamillian mind - the mind of early human beings who spent their days mostly just trying to survive in a hostile world full of beasts of prey and other physical threats. The amygdala is an alarm system and an army all in one. If it senses danger it activates a powerful internal alert. Adrenaline and other hormones surge, muscular systems engage, and the body jumps into self- protective action: stand and fight the danger, or turn fast and flee from it.. Time and evolution eventually relegated the ...
Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Using a mouse model, a pair of UC Riverside researchers demonstrated the formation of fear memory involves the strengthening of neural pathways between two brain areas: the hippocampus, which responds to a particular context and encodes it, and the amygdala, which triggers defensive behavior, including fear responses.
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to ...
Learning to fear and avoid life-threatening stimuli are critical survival skills but are maladaptive when they persist in the absence of a direct threat. Thus, it is important to detect when a situation is safe and to increase behaviors leading to naturally rewarding actions, such as feeding and mat …
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an "H". Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
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We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
Male and female mice respond differently to the same pheromone signals, and the representation of these sensory stimuli by neurons in the medial amygdala correlates precisely with the differences in behavior.
RESULTS: In the medial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central amygdala (CeA), the number of pCREB immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) cells in the clean-bedding exposed group was significantly larger than in the home cage group, while the number of pCREB-ir cells in the OVX+E2-bedding exposed group did not differ from that in the home cage group. The bedding soiled by OVX rats was less effective. No significant difference in the number of pCREB-ir cells was detected in the other regions of the extended amygdala among all groups ...
An almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. (MeSH)
see also amygdalohippocampotomy Amygdalohippocampectomy is a neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. see selective amygdalohippocampectomy. Surgical approaches for medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) that previously have been reported include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy, transsylvian amygdalohippocampectomy, and subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. Each approach has its advantages and potential pitfalls Minimally Invasive Transpalpebral Endoscopic-Assisted Amygdalohippocampectomy 1). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal amygdala lesions alter responsiveness to objects in juvenile macaques. AU - Bliss-Moreau, E.. AU - Toscano, J. E.. AU - Bauman, Melissa D. AU - Mason, W. A.. AU - Amaral, David G. PY - 2011/3/31. Y1 - 2011/3/31. N2 - The amygdala is widely recognized to play a central role in emotional processing. In nonhuman primates, the amygdala appears to be critical for generating appropriate behavioral responses in emotionally salient contexts. One common finding is that macaque monkeys that receive amygdala lesions as adults are behaviorally uninhibited in the presence of potentially dangerous objects. While control animals avoid these objects, amygdala-lesioned animals readily interact with them. Despite a large literature documenting the role of the amygdala in emotional processing in adult rhesus macaques, little research has assessed the role of the amygdala across the macaque neurodevelopmental trajectory. We assessed the behavioral responses of 3-year-old (juvenile) rhesus ...
Read "N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-mediated corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release in cultured rat amygdala neurons 1 1 Abbreviations used: CRF, corticotropin-releasing factor; NMDA, N -methyl- d -aspartate; AP-5, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; LC, locus coeruleus; DIC, days in culture., Peptides" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with neural abnormalities in emotional processing. AIMS: This study explored whether these abnormalities underlie risk for depression. METHOD: We compared the neural responses of volunteers who were at high and low-risk for the development of depression (by virtue of high and low neuroticism scores; high-N group and low-N group respectively) during the presentation of fearful and happy faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RESULTS: The high-N group demonstrated linear increases in response in the right fusiform gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus to expressions of increasing fear, whereas the low-N group demonstrated the opposite effect. The high-N group also displayed greater responses in the right amygdala, cerebellum, left middle frontal and bilateral parietal gyri to medium levels of fearful v. happy expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for depression is associated with enhanced neural responses to fearful facial expressions similar to those
Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the sense of smell - Treviranus having earlier noted that, between species, the size of the parahippocampal gyrus varies with the size of the olfactory nerve.[2] In 1937 Papez theorized that a neural circuit (the Papez circuit) including the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus constitutes the neural substrate of emotional behavior,[3] and Klüver and Bucy reported that, in monkeys, resection involving the hippocampal formation and the amygdaloid complex has a profound effect on emotional responses.[4][5] As a consequence of these publications, the idea that the entire limbic lobe is dedicated to olfaction receded, and a direct connection between emotion and the limbic lobe was established.[6]. ...
Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala - a subcortical center for emotion perception - are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may
Appropriate responses to an imminent threat brace us for adversities. The ability to sense and predict threatening or stressful events is essential for such adaptive behaviour. In the mammalian brain, one putative stress sensor is the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), an area that is readily activated by both physical and psychological stressors. However, the role of the PVT in the establishment of adaptive behavioural responses remains unclear. Here we show in mice that the PVT regulates fear processing in the lateral division of the central amygdala (CeL), a structure that orchestrates fear learning and expression. Selective inactivation of CeL-projecting PVT neurons prevented fear conditioning, an effect that can be accounted for by an impairment in fear-conditioning-induced synaptic potentiation onto somatostatin-expressing (SOM+) CeL neurons, which has previously been shown to store fear memory. Consistently, we found that PVT neurons preferentially innervate SOM+ neurons in ...