The 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric, evolutionary conserved enzyme which has emerged as a critical regulator of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics. AMPK is activated by both chemical (adipokines) and mechanical (stretch, contraction) stimuli leading to metabolic changes within muscle cells that include increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake and glycolysis, as well as the stimulation and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively these acute responses and chronic adaptations act to reduce cellular disturbances, resulting in tighter metabolic control and maintenance of energy homeostasis. This brief review will describe the structure, function and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and how this ubiquitous molecule may be a plausible target for the treatment of several lifestyle-related metabolic disorders.
Journal of Diabetes Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase presents strong structural and functional similarities with the yeast sucrose non-fermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase involved in the derepression of glucose-repressed genes. It is now clearly established that AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver decreases glycolytic/lipogenic gene expression as well as genes involved in hepatic glucose production. This is achieved through a decreased transcriptional efficiency of transcription factors such as sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, carbohydrate-response-element-binding protein, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α or forkhead-related protein. Clearly, the long-term consequences of AMP-activated protein kinase activation have to be taken into account if activators of this enzyme are to be designed as anti-diabetic drugs.. ...
Oncogenic transcription factor Myc deregulates the cell cycle and simultaneously reprograms cellular metabolism to meet the biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs of proliferation. Myc also sensitizes cells to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Although metabolic reprogramming has been circumstantially connected to vulnerability to apoptosis, the connecting molecular pathways have remained poorly defined. Our recent studies revealed that Myc-dependent ATP depletion activates the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which induces stabilizing phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15. AMPK-stabilized tumor suppressor protein p53 then accumulates in the mitochondria and interacts with the protein complex comprised of Bak and Bcl-xL, to sensitize cells to apoptosis. These results reveal an unexpected pro-apoptotic function of AMPK in context of Myc transformed cells.. We have explored possibilities to therapeutically exploit the Myc-AMPK facilitated apoptosis pathway. We show that a BH3-mimetic ...
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions occur sporadically in zygotic and somatic tissues and reach their highest concentration in substantia nigra. Previously, we noted the increase of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) transcript by microarray in multiple cells and tissues bearing deletions. In this work, we demonstrate that the induction of AMPK transcript is dependent on deletions by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and also demonstrate a deficiency in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in the same cells. Consistent with AMPK induction, its known targets SREBF1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1) and ATG12 were inhibited and induced, respectively. AMPK induction is known to decrease secretory processes in some cells, and the secretion of both osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fibronectin (FN) proteins to the extracellular space was significantly deficient. Deletions caused a defect in the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor-like 2 (ARL2) ...
D942 compound: a furancarboxylic acid derivative, which increases glucose uptake in L6 myocytes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation
Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 (PRKAA2) ELISA Kit can measure Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
The exact function(s) of the GBD remains unclear, although there are several experimental findings linking AMPK with glycogen; however, these observations are currently difficult to synthesize into a single, all-encompassing hypothesis. The GBD does cause a partial localization of AMPK to glycogen particles, where one of its known downstream targets - glycogen synthase - resides (Hudson et al., 2003). There is also indirect evidence that glycogen regulates AMPK activity: in both rat (Wojtaszewski et al., 2002) and human (Wojtaszewski et al., 2003) skeletal muscle, a high content of glycogen represses activation of AMPK. This makes physiological sense because if muscle glycogen content is high it tends to be used preferentially as fuel and, although AMPK activation stimulates the usage by muscle of alternative fuels such as blood glucose and fatty acids, it is not required for glycogen breakdown or glycolysis. As yet, repression of AMPK activation by glycogen has not been reproduced in a ...
Exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by an insulin-independent mechanism, but the actual signals to glucose transport in response to muscle contraction have not been identified. The 5´-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a putative mediator of contraction-induced glucose transport, although no conclusive evidence has been provided so far. Recent experiments in AMPK transgenic mice suggest that glucose transport induced by 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR) or hypoxia is mediated by AMPK. In contrast, contraction-induced glucose transport in rodent skeletal muscle induced by electrical stimulation in vitro or in situ is not influenced or is only partially reduced by abolishing both or one of the catalytic AMPK subunits. This is compatible with exercise studies done in humans, where no tight correlation is found between AMPK activity and glucose uptake during exercise. Taken together, these results question an essential role of AMPK in ...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionally conserved protein kinase that serves as an energy guardian to help cells adapt to various metabolic stress including hypoxia. Because the role of AMPK in cancers has not been fully elucidated, in this study we investigated the expression and activation of AMPK in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) cells and tissue ...
Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues are significant contributors to whole-body energy homeostasis. A disturbance in their metabolic function could result in the development of obesity and subsequent metabolic complications. The energy-sensing enzyme of the cell, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been vastly studied in skeletal muscle and liver, but its role in BAT and WAT metabolism is elusive. We generated an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout mouse model for the two AMPK β subunits (iβ1β2AKO) and found that iβ1β2AKO mice were intolerant to cold, and resistant to β3-adrenergic activation of BAT and browning of WAT. These defects in BAT activity were not due to the AMPK-ACC axis, but instead were due to compromised integrity of mitochondria. Mitochondrial morphology, function, and autophagy were all distorted in iβ1β2AKO mice, measured via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respiration, and immunoblotting, respectively. These findings provide strong evidence that ...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme that senses and regulates cellular energy balance thus playing a key role in homeostasis. As such it is a target for treatment of metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric complex composed of an α, β and γ subunit. α contains the catalytic kinase domain, β is a scaffolding subunit that enables complex formation and γ monitors cellular energy via nucleotide binding to its CBS domains. AMPK is primarily activated by phosphorylation at Thr-172 on the activation loop in the kinase domain. It exerts its cellular effects via phosphorylation of a range of downstream targets involved in different aspects of energy production & utilization. The aim of this thesis is to characterize the mechanistic basis of energy regulation of mammalian AMPK via structural and binding measurements. Fluorescence studies have been facilitated by the use of N-methylanthraniloyl (mant) labelled AMP and of β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ...
Integrins are cell surface receptors that physically bridge the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton and responsible for adhesion, migration, and signaling. Integrin function is intimately controlled by their membrane traffic. For example, integrins are dynamically internalized from the cell posterior and recycled to the cell anterior during cell migration. Misregulation of integrins is intimately linked with cancer progression, including metastasis and cell proliferation and survival. We have recently uncovered that integrin membrane traffic is controlled by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy stress sensing kinase within cells at becomes activated upon energy stress such as by an increase in cell AMP:ATP ratio. I confirmed that AMPK activation resulted in a reduction of cell surface β1-integrin. Using assays that selectively measure integrin exocytosis and endocytosis, I found that AMPK activation regulates β1-integrin recycling and possibly endocytosis. I demonstrated that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Insight into AMPK Regulation. T2 - ADP Comes into Play. AU - Jin, Xiangshu. AU - Townley, Robert. AU - Shapiro, Lawrence. PY - 2007/10/16. Y1 - 2007/10/16. N2 - The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes, responds to changes in intracellular adenosine nucleotide levels resulting from metabolic stresses. Here we describe crystal structures of a heterotrimeric regulatory core fragment from Schizosaccharomyces pombe AMPK in complex with ADP, ADP/AMP, ADP/ATP, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranotide (AICAR phosphate, or ZMP), a well-characterized AMPK activator. Prior crystallographic studies had revealed a single site in the γ subunit that binds either ATP or AMP within Bateman domain B. Here we show that ZMP binds at this site, mimicking the binding of AMP. An analogous site in Bateman domain A selectively accommodates ADP, which binds in a distinct manner that also involves direct ligation to ...
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) (By similarity).
In the adult brain, programmed death of neural stem cells is considered to be critical for tissue homeostasis and cognitive function and is dysregulated in neurodegeneration. Previously, we have reported that adult rat hippocampal neural (HCN) stem cells undergo autophagic cell death (ACD) following insulin withdrawal. Because the apoptotic capability of the HCN cells was intact, our findings suggested activation of unique molecular mechanisms linking insulin withdrawal to ACD rather than apoptosis. Here, we report that phosphorylation of autophagy-associated protein p62 by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) drives ACD and mitophagy in HCN cells. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK or genetic ablation of the AMPK alpha 2 subunit by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing suppressed ACD, whereas AMPK activation promoted ACD in insulin-deprived HCN cells. We found that following insulin withdrawal AMPK phosphorylated p62 at a novel site, ...
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, and recent data demonstrate that it also plays a critical role in systemic energy balance. AMPK integrates nutritional and hormonal signals in peripheral tissues and the hypothalamus. It mediates …
Neuronal polarization lies at the heart of neuronal development, synaptic wiring, and interneuronal communication. Although much progress has been made in understanding axon growth and path finding, the mechanisms that regulate axonal neurite selection and polarity initiation remain poorly understood. Rapid axon growth requires a large quantity of building material and efficient intracellular transport. Coordination between axon initiation and cellular energy homeostasis may thus be important during the early stages of neuronal polarization. Using cultured hippocampal neurons and embryonic brain slices, Amato et al. investigated the role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is involved in the sensing and regulation of bioenergy homeostasis, in neuronal polarization. Up-regulation of AMPK activity reduced the proportion of neurons possessing a typical axon. The ability of AMPK to inhibit polarization was restricted to the early stages of polarization; AMPK activation ...
Heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for energy homeostasis of eukaryotic cells and organisms. Here we report on (i) bacterial expression of untagged mammalian AMPK isoform combinations, all containing gamma(1), (ii) an automated four-dimensional purification protocol, and (iii) biophysical characterization of AMPK heterotrimers by small angle x-ray scattering in solution (SAXS), transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM, STEM), and mass spectrometry (MS). AMPK in solution at low concentrations (~1 mg/ml) largely consisted of individual heterotrimers in TEM analysis, revealed a precise 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the three subunits in MS, and behaved as an ideal solution in SAXS. At higher AMPK concentrations, SAXS revealed concentration-dependent, reversible dimerization of AMPK heterotrimers and formation of higher oligomers, also confirmed by STEM mass measurements. Single particle reconstruction and averaging by SAXS and TEM, respectively, revealed similar
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Connexios Life Sciences and Boehringer Ingelheim are collaborating on the development of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulants for the treatment of
5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a metabolic master switch regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P , 0.001), whereas glycerol (44.8 +/- 7.8 vs. 165.7 +/- 22.3 micromol L-1), and free fatty acid (169.3 +/- 9.5 vs. 1161 +/- 144.9 micromol L-1) concentrations were lower during the glucose compared to the placebo trial ...
AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without stimulating already ...
Hypoxic inhibition of K+ channels in type I cells is believed to be of central importance in carotid body chemotransduction. We have recently suggested that hypoxic channel inhibition is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, we have further explored the modulation by AMPK of recombinant K+ channels (expressed in HEK293 cells) whose native counterparts are considered O2-sensitive in the rat carotid body. Inhibition of maxiK channels by AMPK activation with AICAR was found to be independent of [Ca2+]i and occurred regardless of whether the α subunit was co-expressed with an auxiliary β subunit. All effects of AICAR were fully reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. MaxiK channels were also inhibited by the novel AMPK activator A-769662 and by intracellular dialysis with the constitutively active, truncated AMPK mutant, T172D. The molecular identity of the O2-sensitive leak K+ conductance in rat type I cells remains unclear, but shares similarities with TASK-1 and TASK-3. Recombinant
5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ser/thr protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a cellular energy sensor conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The kinase activity of AMPK is activated by the stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK regulates the activities of a number of key metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation. It protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with TSC2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132356 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000050697 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Stapleton D, ...
The protein kinase AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) directly monitors cellular energy stores as reflected by changes in cellular concentrations of AMP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Through phosphorylation of its targets, it helps to control metabolism, polarity, autophagy, and the restraint of cell proliferation. Activation of AMPK is also proposed to be beneficial for the treatment of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Hawley et al. (see the Perspective by Shaw and Cantley) report that AMPK can be activated by high concentrations of salicylate, a compound derived from the very commonly used drug aspirin. In mice, salicylate promoted fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in an AMPK-dependent fashion.. S. A. Hawley, M. D. Fullerton, F. A. Ross, J. D. Schertzer, C. Chevtzoff, K. J. Walker, M. W. Peggie, D. Zibrova, K. A. Green, K. J. Mustard, B. E. Kemp, K. Sakamoto, G. R. Steinberg, D. G. Hardie, The ancient drug salicylate directly ...
Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important modulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, particularly within the ventromedial nucleus, where it regulates energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. A recent paper in Cell Reports has demonstrated that AMPK in the paraventri …
5-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAB2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles. 1q21.1 deletion syndrome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome PRKAB2 has been shown to interact with PRKAG2 and PRKAG1. Research on the genes CHD1L and PRKAB2 within lymphoblast cells lead to the ...
Biochemists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered a genetic sequence that can alter its host genes activity in response to cellular energy levels. The scientists have found this particular energy-sensing switch in bacterial genes, which could make it a target for a powerful new class of antibiotics. If similar energy-sensing switches are also identified for human genes, they may be useful for treating metabolism-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. This discovery adds a new dimension to our understanding of how cells sense and manage their energy levels, which is one of the most important processes in biology, said the studys senior author, Martha J. Fedor, a professor the departments of Chemical Physiology and Molecular Biology and a member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at TSRI.. The findings are described online ahead of print on October 21, 2012, in the journal Nature Chemical Biology.. A Fuel Sensor. This type of gene-switching ...
We read with interest the article by Lai and coworkers1 published in Circulation about the favorable cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inorganic nitrite and metformin in patients with pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Accumulating studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of stimulating the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in renal, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are still being debated.. Patients with metabolic syndrome are generally considered to have a higher risk of developing pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In this study, Lai et al use a novel animal model of combined metabolic syndrome and pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and demonstrate that long-term treatment with inorganic nitrate combined with nitrite for 12 weeks reduces pulmonary pressures and vascular remodeling and improves glycemic control. ...
Hurley, RL, Barre, LK, Wood, SD, Anderson, KA, Kemp, BE, Means, AR and Witters, LA (2006), Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by multi-site phosphorylation in response to agents that elevate cellular cAMP, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36662-36672,. Barre, L, Richardson, C, Hirshman, MF, Brozinick, Fiering, S, Kemp, BE, Goodyear, LJ and Witters, LA (2007) A genetic model for the chronic activation of skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase leads to glycogen accumulation, Am J Physiol Endo Metab, 292, E802-811. Gleason, CE, Lu, D, Witters, LA, Newgard, CB and Birnbaum, MJ, (2007) The role of AMPK and mTOR in nutrient sensing in pancreatic β-cells, J. Biol. Chem., 282, 10341-103451. Roecki, KSC, Hirshman, MF, Brandauer, J, Fujii, N.. Witters, LA and Goodyear, LJ (2007), Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Training AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Mediates Muscle Fiber Type Shift, Diabetes, 56, 2062-2069. Anderson, KA, Riber, T, Lin, F, Noeldner, P, Green, M, Murhlbauer, MJ, Witters LA, Kemp, BE ...
If you have problems with a majority of the weight loss pillars, you might consider increasing the activity of a key cellular switch: AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase). AMPK is… ...
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
AMPK signaling pathway, a fuel sensor and regulator, promotes ATP-producing and inhibits ATP-consuming pathways in various tissues. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of alpha-catalytic and beta and gamma-regulatory subunits. Humans and rodents have two alpha and beta and three gamma isoforms; some genes are subject to alternative splicing increasing the range of possible heterotrimer combinations. Cellular stresses that inhibit ATP production or increase its consumption change the AMP:ATP ratio and activate the pathway. AMPK activation by AMP is not completely understood; the current model states that binding of AMP to the gamma subunit leads to conformational changes that allosterically activate AMPK and render phosphorylated-Thr172 unavailable for inhibitory dephosphorylation. ATP antagonizes the effect of AMP; both AMP and ATP bind in a mutually exclusive manner to the Bateman (CBS) domains of the gamma subunit. The upstream kinase, known as Lkb1, is a complex of one catalytic and two ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
0001 Vynález sa týka zlúčenin, ktoré sú priamymi aktivátormi AMPK (AMPaktivovanej proteínkinázy) a ich použitia pri liečení porúch regulovaných deaktiváciou AMPK. Napríklad zlúčeniny podľa vynálezu sú použiteľné naDoterajší stav techniky a úvod vynálezu0002 AMPK je dobre zavedený ako senzor a regulátor homeostázy bunkovej energie (Hardie D. G. a Hawley S. A., AMP-activated protein kinase the energy charge hypothesis revisited Bioassays, 23, 1112, (2001), Kemp B. E. a kol. AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator, Biochem Soc. Transactions, 31. 162 (2003. Alosterická aktivácia tejto kinázy vdaka zvýšeniu množstva AMP vedie k stavom svyčerpaním bunkovej energie. Výsledná fosforylácia serínu/treoninu cieľových enzýmov vedie kadaptácii bunkového metabolizmu na nízkoenergetický stav. Celkový efekt zmien vyvolaných aktiváciou AMPK je inhibícia procesov spotrebovávajúcich ATP a aktivácia metabolických ciest vytvárajúcich ATP, a ...
Results Compared with the heart failure group, Resveratrol treatment group demonstrated a sharp decrease in mortality (p,0.01) and increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (46.84±6.06 vs 34.44±2.13 %, p,0.01). AMPK expression increased (p,0.05). Compared with wild type, LVPmax, +dP/dTmax, -dP/dTmax were significantly reduced in SIRT1 (+/-) mice (111.04±13.97 vs 141.90±6.63 mm Hg, 2944.33±461.02 vs 7122.73±1083.12 mm Hg/s, 2081.72±323.81 vs 4807.48±789.79 mm Hg/s, p,0.01 respectively), AMPK expression also decreased significantly in SIRT1 (+/-) mice hearts (p,0.01), Life of SIRT1 (+/-) mice is shorter than that of WT mice (p,0.01). Expression of SIRT1 and AMPK was significantly increased in H9c2 cells cultivated with resveratrol (50, 100 uM) as compared with control H9c2 cells (p,0.01), AMPK expression was significantly increased in H9c2 cells by SIRT1 overexpression (p,0.01), but reduced in groups of NAM (20, 40 mM) compared with control (p,0.01, respectively).. ...
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Oct;1830(10):4743-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jun 18. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
The role of the AMPK in the regulation of vascular tone is presently controversial, because although AMPK has been linked to the phosphorylation of eNOS in cultured endothelial cells, no obvious defect in NO-mediated relaxation is evident in arteries from AMPKα1−/− or AMPKα2−/− mice (see above). That the activation of the AMPK in vivo is of benefit to cardiovascular function is assumed on the basis of observations that metformin improves vasodilator function127,128 and can prevent the progression of heart failure.129 However, whether these effects are dependent on eNOS activation or the modulation of other endothelium-dependent vasodilator/vasoconstrictor pathways are affected is presently unknown. The latter is certainly possible because metformin treatment decreases the production of an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoid in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.130. Endothelium-dependent relaxation, however, is not exclusively regulated by NO and on the basis of the available ...
The tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 has been identified as a physiologic activator of the key metabolic regulator 5-AMP-activated protein kinase, establishing a possible molecular link between the...
How cancer cells adapt to metabolically adverse conditions in patients and strive to proliferate is a fundamental question in cancer biology. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase, confers metabolic stress resistance to leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and promotes leukemogenesis. Upon dietary restriction, MLL-AF9-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activated AMPK and maintained leukemogenic potential. AMPK deletion significantly delayed leukemogenesis and depleted LICs by reducing the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), compromising glucose flux, and increasing oxidative stress and DNA damage. LICs were particularly dependent on AMPK to suppress oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow environment. Strikingly, AMPK inhibition synergized with physiological metabolic stress caused by dietary restriction and profoundly suppressed leukemogenesis. Our results indicate that AMPK protects LICs from metabolic stress and that ...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a biologic sensor for cellular energy status, has been shown to act upstream and downstream of known tumor suppressors. However, whether AMPK itself plays a tumor suppressor role in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that the a2 catalytic subunit isoform of AMPK is significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that underexpression of AMPK-a2 was statistically associated with an undifferentiated cellular phenotype and poor patient prognosis. Loss of AMPK-a2 in HCC cells rendered them more tumorigenic than control cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ectopic expression of AMPK enhanced the acetylation and stability of p53 in HCC cells. The p53 deacetylase, SIRT1, was phosphorylated and inactivated by AMPK at Thr344, promoting p53 acetylation and apoptosis of HCC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that underexpression of AMPK is frequently observed in HCC, and that inactivation of ...
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Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Almilaji, Ahmad; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Munoz, Carlos; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Blecua, Maria; Sopjani, Mentor; Lang, Florian ...
AMPK alpha 1 + AMPK alpha 2小鼠单克隆抗体[34.2](ab80039)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 果蝇样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到5个独立的用户反馈。
AMPK is a metabolic "master switch", phosphorylating key target proteins that control flux through metabolic pathways of hepatic ketogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, triglyceride synthesis, adipocyte lipolysis and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation.3 We hypothesised that genetic variation in the AMPK α2 subunit gene PRKAA2 is associated with regulation of the lipid profile, affecting body fat deposition and sensitivity of target organs to insulin, potentially mediated by differential expression or activity of the AMPK α2 subunit. To this end, we have examined association of a set of five tSNPs spanning the AMPK catalytic α2 subunit gene PRKAA2, with a range of phenotypes representing body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipids. Minor associations were observed with ApoB, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and measures of body fat, and none with the insulin-sensitivity parameters. Therefore, in this study sample, common variation in PRKAA2 does not seem to be responsible for changes in ...
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Buy our Recombinant human CDC42 binding protein kinase alpha. Ab59979 is an active protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been…