TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-base blend membranes based on Nafion®/aminated SPEEK for reducing methanol permeability. AU - Tsai, Jie Cheng. AU - Lin, Chien-Kung. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (SPEEKs) were further substituted on the polymer main chain by amino groups to form an acid-basic polymer, and blended with acid polymeric Nafion® to create composite membranes. The acid-base blend membranes containing ionic crosslinking exhibited lower water uptake than recast Nafion®, and the methanol permeability was reduced significantly for various contents of aminated SPEEK, with a maximum proton conductivity of ~0.063Scm-1 at 30°C. The single-cell performance of the blend membranes with various contents of aminated SPEEK showed 20-26mWcm-2 for S45A47 at 80°C. Both the power density and open circuit voltage were higher than those of Nafion® 115 and recast Nafion®. The acid-base blend membranes satisfy the requirements for proton exchange membranes in the ...
Iron-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic C-H Amination Paradine, S. M.; White, M. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 2036-2039. DOI: 10.1021/ja211600g In their recent communication, Christina Whites group at Illinois reports a new allylic C-H amination catalyzed by iron. This builds on previous work from their group in Pd sulfoxide catalyzed allylic amination and iron catalyzed…
A metal- and reagent-free, electrochemical intramolecular oxidative amination reaction of tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes has been developed. The electrosynthetic method proceeds through radical cyclization to form the key C-N bond, allowing a variety of hindered tri- and tetrasubstituted olefins …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism-Guided Engineering of ω-Transaminase to Accelerate Reductive Amination of Ketones. AU - Han, Sang Woo. AU - Park, Eul Soo. AU - Dong, Joo Young. AU - shin, jong shik. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Asymmetric reductive amination of ketones using ω-transaminases (ω-TAs) offers a promising alternative to the chemocatalytic synthesis of chiral amines. One fundamental challenge to the biocatalytic strategy is the very low enzyme activities for most ketones compared with native substrates (i.e., ,1% relative to pyruvate). Here we have demonstrated that a single point mutation in the active site of the (S)-selective ω-TA from Ochrobactrum anthropi could induce a remarkable acceleration of the amination reaction without any loss in stereoselectivity and enzyme stability. Molecular modeling of quinonoid intermediates, alanine scanning mutagenesis and kinetic analysis revealed that the W58 residue acted as a steric barrier to binding and catalytic turnover of ketone ...
Allylic C-H functionalization has been an emerging field over the last decade due to the ability to convert inert C-H bonds into C-N, C-O, and C-C bonds. In the past two years the Blakey group has developed methodology for rhodium (III) catalyzed intermolecular allylic C-H amination and etherification of 1,2-disubstituted olefins. The allylic amination methodology was found to be regioselective however was not enantioselective. Therefore it was proposed that methodology for allylic C-H alkylation of 1,2-disubstiuted olefins could be developed. Optimization for this method was done using diphenylpropene as the substrate and dimethylmalonate as the nucleophile. This methodology was found to tolerate five nucleophiles with moderate to high yields. The nucleophiles that tolerated this system contained one nitro, ketone, ester, or two esters. The regioselectivity of the system was investigated using β-alkyl-styrenederivatives and a variety of the best nucleophiles from the reaction scope with ...
Lamani, M. and Prabhu, K. R. (2012), NIS-Catalyzed Reactions: Amidation of Acetophenones and Oxidative Amination of Propiophenones. Chem. Eur. J., 18: 14638-14642. doi: 10.1002/chem.201202703 ...
Reported herein is a chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular allylic amination reaction, allowing facile access to a range of biologically interesting chiral 2-substituted hydroquinolines in up to 90% yield and with up to 93% ee. Furthermore, a significant effect of an N-protecting group was observ Synthetic methodology in OBC
Abstract. The bicyclic triaminophosphine P(i-BuNCH2CH2)3N serves as an effective ligand for the palladium-catalyzed amination of various aryl bromides and iodides. Other bicyclic or acyclic triaminophosphines, even those of similar basicity and/or bulk, were inferior.. ...
PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ONE OR MORE ALIPHATIC DIAMINES FROM REDUCTIVE AMINATION REACTION SOLVENTS AND IMPURITIES - The instant invention provides a process for separating one or more aliphatic diamines from reductive amination reaction solvents and impurities, and aliphatic diamines obtained via such a process. The process for separating one or more aliphatic diamines from reductive amination reaction solvents and impurities according to the instant invention comprises the steps of: (1) feeding one or more cycloaliphatic cyanoaldehydes, hydrogen, ammonia, and optionally one or more solvents into a continuous reductive amination reactor system; (2) contacting said one or more cycloaliphatic cyanoaldehydes, hydrogen, and ammonia with each other in the presence of one or more heterogeneous metal based catalyst systems at a temperature in the range of from 80° C. to about 160° C. and a pressure in the range of from 700 to 3500 psig; (3) thereby forming a product mixture comprising one or more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enantioselective Hydroamination of Alkenes with Sulfonamides Enabled by Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer. AU - Roos, Casey B.. AU - Demaerel, Joachim. AU - Graff, David E.. AU - Knowles, Robert R.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - An enantioselective, radical-based method for the intramolecular hydroamination of alkenes with sulfonamides is reported. These reactions are proposed to proceed via N-centered radicals formed by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) activation of sulfonamide N-H bonds. Noncovalent interactions between the neutral sulfonamidyl radical and a chiral phosphoric acid generated in the PCET event are hypothesized to serve as the basis for asymmetric induction in a subsequent C-N bond forming step, achieving selectivities of up to 98:2 er. These results offer further support for the ability of noncovalent interactions to enforce stereoselectivity in reactions of transient and highly reactive open-shell intermediates.. AB - An enantioselective, ...
Abstract. The use of aqueous ammonia is essential for a palladium-catalyzed allylic amination for the preparation of primary amines. It is noteworthy that ammonia gas did not react at all. The first catalytic asymmetric synthesis using aqueous ammonia as a nitrogen source has also been demonstrated.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ir(I)-catalyzed intermolecular regio- and enantioselective hydroamination of alkenes with heteroaromatic amines. AU - Pan, Shiguang. AU - Endo, Kohei. AU - Shibata, Takanori. PY - 2012/2/3. Y1 - 2012/2/3. N2 - A cationic Ir(I)-C 3-TUNEPHOS complex catalyzed an intermolecular hydroamination of styrene derivatives with various heteroaromatic amines. The reaction gave Markovnikov products with perfect regioselectivity and good enantioselectivity under solvent-free conditions.. AB - A cationic Ir(I)-C 3-TUNEPHOS complex catalyzed an intermolecular hydroamination of styrene derivatives with various heteroaromatic amines. The reaction gave Markovnikov products with perfect regioselectivity and good enantioselectivity under solvent-free conditions.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856714192&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84856714192&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1021/ol203318z. DO - 10.1021/ol203318z. M3 - Article. C2 - ...
PDF | Amination: Addition of amine (?NH2) group to molecule. Amination Explanation: Amination is process in which amine group ( NH2) is added in with online microbiology lecture notes.
A new procedure has been developed for the direct intermolecular C-H amination of simple hydrocarbons using shelf-stable nonafluorobutanesulfonyl azide in the presence of a dirhodium(ii) tetracarboxylate catalyst under mild reaction conditions. Some mechanistic details are briefly discussed on the basis of control
In recent years great efforts have been taken for the development of highly active catalysts in the field of hydroamination- and cross-coupling-reactions. However, there is still a lack of generally applicable and user-friendly methodologies. In the present work, a sequential protocol for the synthesis of 2-aryl/alkenyl substituted indoles using low priced 2-chloro anilines and alkynes was developed. A Broensted-acid catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination of non-activated alkenes disclosed an atom-economical approach to functionalized pyrrolidine derivatives. Air-stable heteroatom substituted secondary phosphine oxide (HASPO) TADDOLP(O)H-ligand allowed for the use of aryl chlorides in palladium-catalyzed Kumada-Corriu couplings. Easily accessible air-stable HASPO-ligand PinP(O)H enabled palladium-catalyzed Kumada-Corriu cross-couplings of not only electron-rich and electron-poor tosylates but also heterocyclic tosylates. The use of a diaminophosphine chloride as preligand in palladium-catalyzed ...
0049] Possible homogeneous catalysts to be used in the process of the invention are all homogeneous catalysts known to those skilled in the art which are able to activate the CH bond of the carbon atom bearing the OH group to be aminated. Examples of such catalysts encompass alkali metal alkoxides, aluminum alkoxides and lanthanide alkoxides, inorganic compounds of noble metals (e.g. [RuCl3*nH2O], IrCl3), monometallic or multimetallic, mononuclear or multinuclear coordination compounds of one or more noble metals selected from among the elements ruthenium (e.g. [RuCl2(PPh3)3], [RuH2(PPh3)4], the Shvo catalyst ([(η4-C4Ph4CO)Ru(CO)3]2), [Ru(cod)(cot)], [(PPh3)2Ru(CH3CN)3Cl]BPh4, [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2/DPEphos, [Ru(PPh3)3(CO)H2], [Ru3(CO)12], [Ru3(CO)12]/N-phenyl-2-(PCl2)pyrrole, [RuCl2(dmso)4]), rhodium (e.g. the Wilkinson catalyst ([RhCl(PPh3)3]), [RhH(PPh3)3]), iridium (e.g. [IrCl3(dmso)3], [Cp*IrCl2]2, [Ir(cod)Cl]2/(dppp)/Cs2CO3, [IrCl2H(cod)]2, KOH-activated ...
Flow Synthesis of Secondary Amines over M/Al2O3 Catalysts (M = Cu, Ag) by One-Pot Reductive Amination of Aldehydes with Nitroarenes Доклады на конференциях ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Valorization of biomass derived terpene compounds by catalytic amination. AU - Simakova, Irina L.. AU - Simakov, Andrey V.. AU - Murzin, Dmitry. N1 - tk.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - This review fills an apparent gap existing in the literature by providing an overview of the readily available terpenes and existing catalytic protocols for preparation of terpene-derived amines. To address the role of solid catalysts in amination of terpenes the same reactions with homogeneous counterparts are also discussed. Such catalysts can be considered as a benchmark, which solid catalysts should match. Although catalytic systems based on transition metal complexes have been developed for synthesis of amines to a larger extent, there is an apparent need to reduce the production costs. Subsequently, homogenous systems based on cheaper metals operating by nucleophilic substitution (e.g., Ni, Co, Cu, Fe) with a possibility of easy recycling, as well as metal nanoparticles (e.g., Pd, Au) supported ...
A Modified System for the Synthesis of Enantioenriched N-Arylamines through Copper-Catalyzed Hydroamination Despite significant recent progress in copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydroamination chemistry, the synthesis of chiral N-arylamines, which are frequently found in natural products and pharmaceuticals, has not been realized. Initial experiments with N-arylhydroxylamine ester electrophiles were unsuccessful and instead, their reduction, in the presence of copper hydride (CuH) catalysts, was observed. We detail key modifications of our previously reported hydroamination protocols that led to broadly applicable conditions for the enantioselective net addition of secondary anilines across the double bond of styrenes, 1,1 -disubstituted alkenes, and terminal alkenes. NMR studies suggest that suppression of the undesired reduction pathway is the basis for the dramatic improvements in yield under this new protocol. Chapter 2 ...
The geometric isolation of metal species in single-atom catalysis (SACs) not only maximizes the atomic utilization efficiency, but also endows SACs with unique selectivity in various transformations.
N-Alkyl enamines can be transformed into 2,4,5-trisubsituted imidazoles by reacting with (diacetoxyiodo)benzene and TMSN3 under the catalysis of a copper salt such as Cu(OAc)2. Tetrabutyl ammonium iodide was also capable of promoting the reaction. The transformation from N-alkyl enamines into 2,4,5-trisubsituted imidazoles took place in a domino azidation/intramolecular C(sp3)-H amination pattern. The present reaction provides a new efficient method for the preparation of 4-(trifluoromethyl) imi
Sodium triacetoxyborohydride has emerged as one of the reagents used most frequently for carrying out reductive amination of carbonyl compounds, a reaction that is also known as reductive alkylation of amines. A disadvantage of sodium triacetoxyborohydride is its poor solubility, and that product isolation requires an aqueous quench followed by liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography.. Biotage® MP-Triacetoxyborohydride was developed to perform in a manner similar to that of sodium triacetoxyborohydride, while simplifying reagent handling and product purification. Moreover, for many of these reactions, a scavenger resin may be added for one-pot purification of the product.. ...
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The syntheses of azaMan-beta-(1--,6)-C-Glc (4), azaGlc-beta-(1--,6)-C-Glc (5), and azaGal-beta-(1--,6)-C-Glc (6) based upon double reductive amination of acetylenic carbohydrate-derived diketones is described. The required diketones are obtained by addition of the acetylenic sugar anion derived from dibromoolefin 7 to benzyl-protected mannopyranolactone, glucopyranolactone, or galactopyranolactone, followed by reduction of the ketose and oxidation of the resulting diol. Ensuing double reductive amination and hydrogenolysis affords the target compounds in reasonable to good yields. Enzyme inhibition tests show that neither of the three compounds 4, 5, and 6 inhibit beta-glycosidases, while moderate to good inhibitory activities were found on alpha-glycosidases, the most active being 6 (alpha-galactosidase: K-i = 0.092 mu M).. Keywords: carbohydrates ; aza sugars ; double reductive amination ; enzyme ; inhibitors ; glycosidase inhibitors ; Aza-c-disaccharides ; biological evaluation ; reductive ...
Organic compounds that contain nitrogen are very important intermediates in pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Hydroamination is the reaction that can form C-N bond with high atom economy. The research progress in metals catalyzed hydroamination of alkenes and alkynes from the perspective of reaction mechanism is categorized and summarized.
A series of bis(amidate)group 4-bis(amido) complexes have been prepared, characterized and have been shown to be highly tunable precatalysts for both the intra- and intermolecular hydroamination of alkynes.. ...
Tailor-made single-cell biocatalysts co-expressing multiple enzymes enable efficient in vivo reaction cascades [28, 32]. Consequently, the design and application of such microbial cell factories has attracted attention in recent years, aiming for the production of a broad range of valuable chiral compounds. Since synthetic pathways commonly may involve cofactor-dependent redox reactions [51], various studies focused on the incorporation of reaction pathways in a host cell whereby the sequence itself enables a suitable cofactor regeneration resulting in redox self-sufficient single-cell catalysts [42, 52]. Alternatively, recycling of cofactors can be achieved by making use of the hosts inherent metabolic pathways, e.g. the catabolism of carbon sources like glucose [53]. In this study, we established a modular platform to construct E. coli single-cell biocatalysts tailored for the in vivo amination of ketoacids and prochiral ketones, exploiting both cell metabolism as well as additional ...
Eric Jacobsen and co-workers published in JACS on a hydroamination using a thiourea catalyst. Its refreshing to see a hydroamination without a transition metal. JACS paper
Lo Q, Sale D, Braddock D, Davies Ret al., 2019, New insights into the reaction capabilities of ionic organic bases in cu-catalysed amination, European Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol: 2019, Pages: 1944-1951, ISSN: 1099-0690 The application of ionic organic bases in the copper‐catalyzed amination reaction (Ullmann reaction) has been studied at room temperature, with sub‐mol‐% catalyst loadings, and with more challenging amines at elevated temperatures. The cation present in the base has been shown to have little effect on the reaction at standard catalyst and ancillary ligand loadings, whereas the choice of anion is crucial for good reactivity. A substrate scope carried out at room temperature with the best performing bases, TBAM and TBPM, showed both bases to be highly effective under these mild reaction conditions. Moreover, under sub‐mol % catalyst loadings and room temperature conditions, TBPM gave good to excellent yields for a number of different amines and functionalized aryl ...
Uncontrolled distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) within the body can significantly decrease the efficiency of drug therapy and is considered among the main restrictions of NPs application. The aim of this study was to develop a depot combination delivery system (CDS) containing fingolimod loaded poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) NPs dispersed into a matrix of oleic acid-grafted-aminated alginate (OA-g-AAlg) to minimize the nonspecific biodistribution (BD) of PHBV NPs. OA-g-AAlg was synthesized in two step; First, Alg was aminated by using adipic dihydrazide (ADH). The degree of hyrazide group substitution of Alg was determined by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay. Second, OA was attached to AAlg through formation of an amide bond. Chemical structure of OA-g-AAlg was confirmed with FTIR and HNMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, rheological properties of OA-g-AAlg with different grafting ratios were evaluated. In-vitro release studies indicated that 47% of fingolimod was ...
Although the Pd(II)-catalyzed alkene aminopalladation and allylic C-H activation have been much described in literature, the in-depth mechanism of such type of process is far from being a simple matter. This account focuses on the oxidative intramolecular Pd(II)-catalyzed amination of unsaturated N-sulfonyl carbamates and carboxamides, revealing that different mechanistic paths can be operative. In particular, after activation of the unsaturation by Pd(II) catalyst, aminopalladation can take place, affording the corresponding high-energy cyclic (5- or 6-membered) aminopalladated intermediate (AmPI). This latter can evolve along different pathways, such as: distocyclic β-H elimination, oxidation by a strong terminal oxidant, or carbopalladation. Otherwise, the cyclic AmPI can lay dormant, in equilibrium with the initial substrate. In this case, alternative reactivities may take place, such as allylic C-H activation of the olefinic substrate, [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, or ...
The Chichibabin reaction (pronounced (chē)-chē-bā-bēn) is a method for producing 2-aminopyridine derivatives by the reaction of pyridine with sodium amide. It was reported by Aleksei Chichibabin in 1914. The following is the overall form of the general reaction: The direct amination of pyridine with sodium amide takes place in liquid ammonia. Following the addition elimination mechanism first a nucleophilic NH2− is added while a hydride (H−) is leaving. Ciganek describes an example of an intramolecular Chichibabin reaction in which a nitrile group on a fused ring is the source of nitrogen in amination. It is widely accepted that the Chichibabin reaction mechanism is an addition-elimination reaction that proceeds through an σ-adduct (Meisenheimer adduct) intermediate (the third structure). First, the nucleophilic NH2− group adds to the δ+ ring carbon pushing electrons onto the ring nitrogen and forming the anionic σ-adduct, which is stabilized by sodium. Electrons from the ...
Di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate is a reagent used in the preparation of acyl hydrazinedicarboxylates. It is also used in the electrophilic amination of beta-keto esters catalyzed by an axially chiral guanidine. It serves as a precursor in an enantioselective synthesis of 3,6-dihyropyridazines employing organocatalysts such as L-proline or (S)-2-pyrrolidinyl tetrazole. It is also utilized in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts amination through a chiral organocatalyst. Further, it acts as a reactant for preparation of hexapeptide key fragments through stereo selective selenocyclization/oxidative deselenylation reactions. In addition to this, it is employed as a starting material in the synthesis of pyrroloisoquinoline template through stereoselective N-acyliminium-mediated cyclization and enolate amination for preparation of peptidomimetic compounds and Barbier-type propargylation reactions ...
Scientists from RUDN University in collaboration with Russian and foreign colleagues have studied reductive amination reactions. The new reactions and catalytic systems on their basis will find a use in organic synthesis and also will boost the production of medicinal substances and agrochemicals in the future. The study was published in the Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry journal.
ISSN: 0253-2786 CN: 31-1321/06. Address: No.345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, PRC. Postcode: 200032. Tel: 021-54925244 Fax: +086-021-54925285. E-mail: [email protected] © 2019Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry 、Chinese Chemical Society. ...
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on ...
Manipulating selectivity of covalently-bonded hyperbranched anion exchangers toward organic acids. part i: Influence of primary amine substituents in the internal part of the functional layer / A. S. Uzhel, A. V. Gorbovskaya, A. V. Zatirakha et al. // Journal of Chromatography A. - 2019. - Vol. 1589. - P. 65-72. Three covalently-bonded poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)-based (PS-DVB) hyperbranched anion exchangers prepared using primary amines with carboxylic, sulfonic or 2-hydroxyethyl substituents in the internal part of the functional layer were studied and compared for evaluating the effect of amines substituents on the chromatographic performance of the stationary phases. The hyperbranched coating was created on the surface of aminated PS-DVB substrate by repeating the modification cycles including alkylation with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) and amination with primary amine; glycine, taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) or ethanolamine were used in the first cycle, and 4 more ...
Nicholas R. Babij and Prof. John P. Wolfe Desymmetrization of meso-2,5-Diallylpyrrolidinyl Ureas through Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed Carboamination: Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Bicyclic Ureas Angewandte Chemie International Edition 52. Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2013 , DOI: 10.1002/anie.201302720 ...
Transition Metal-Catalyzed Hydroamination and Carboamination Reactions of Anthranyl Allenamides as a Route to 2-Vinyl- and 2-(α-Styryl)-quinazolin-4-one Derivatives ...
phdthesis{4b0cc7a0-c1e0-4225-a218-e36a1b47d5a5, abstract = {The centenarian Trögers base (TB) was envisaged as scaffold for the construction of tubular-shaped cleft molecules due to its the remarkable structural properties. This endeavor started with the synthesis of the three possible diastereomers of a linear symmetrically fused tris-TB analogue, the anti-anti, the syn-syn, and the syn-anti. All three diastereomers showed unprecedented stability to acid isomerization. The desymmetrization protocol presented, established the foundations for the synthesis of higher generations of fused analogues of TB.,br/,,br, Following this, new methodologies for the functionalization of both the aromatic and the methanodiazocine ring of TB were introduced. The development of a palladium-catalyzed amination conditions converted 2,8-dihalo analogues of TB to their corresponding mono- and diamino analogues. Regarding the diazocine ring, the benzylic methylenes of TB were oxidized to give the first example of a ...
Process chemistry is the arm of pharmaceutical chemistry concerned with the development and optimization of a synthetic scheme and pilot plant procedure to manufacture compounds for the drug development phase. Process chemistry is distinguished from medicinal chemistry, which is the arm of pharmaceutical chemistry tasked with designing and synthesizing molecules on small scale in the early drug discovery phase. Medicinal chemists are largely concerned with synthesizing a large number of compounds as quickly as possible from easily tunable chemical building blocks (usually for SAR studies). In general, the repertoire of reactions utilized in discovery chemistry is somewhat narrow (for example, the Buchwald-Hartwig amination, Suzuki coupling and reductive amination are commonplace reactions). In contrast, process chemists are tasked with identifying a chemical process that is safe, cost and labor efficient, green, and reproducible, among other considerations. Oftentimes, in searching for the ...
https://www.khanacademy.org/.../reactions-benzene/v/bromination-of-benzene (VCH, Weinheim, 1997) p. 374. General procedure D (GPD) for the amide coupling of benzazocinone 26: HATU (1.1 equiv) and DIPEA (1.1-2.2 equiv) were added to a stirred solution of benzazocinone 26 (1.0 equiv) and the primary amine (1.5 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (5 L mol−1) and the resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 16 h. Subsequently, the mixture was washed with water (1×10 L mol−1), sat. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019048526516, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019048526516, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The first series of derivatizations of the scaffold was initiated by hydrogenolytic debenzylation of N‐benzyl derivative to provide the NH‐congener, which could be deprotonated with LDA and alkylated at nitrogen to give further examples of this compound class. mode) or Thermo Scientific DFS (EI) spectrometers. 1.5 equiv Boc2O, 1.8 equiv pyridine, 1,4‐dioxane, ...
ACS Amination and Hydrazine located into a single placement Water-preparation, but them are implemented into different cabinets CC1 and CC2, accordingly. Into each of the cabinets placed an individual controller, and the controller of ACS Hydrazine connected to local network through second interface of the controller of ACS Amination, where both of the interfaces connected to a Bridge. Main aim of the ACS Amination and Hydrazine is dosing transfer of ammonia and hydrazine-hydrate to the supply water, which performs by pumps connected through Frequency Converters (FC). Control by the FC performs from the PLC by the link interface RS-485 and the protocol ModBus/RTU.. ACS Phosphating divided to two parts. First part is presented by cabinet CC4 (placement of Central Heat Board) and into it installed PLC, and second part is presented by cabinet CC3 (placement of nonoperative contour of boiler #8) with a tray of Object Adjustment Devices (OAD) and frequency converters of pumps of ...
An efficient synthesis of racemic tert-leucine from trimethylpyruvic acid using a Leuckart type reaction is described. A facile resolution of an intermediate with α-methylbenzylamine allows entry into either (R)-or (S)-tert-leucine.. ...
Herein we describe a platform technology for the synthesis and characterization of partially aminated, 35S-labeled, dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPG35S amine) and fluorescent dPGS indocarbocyanine (ICC) dye conjugates. These polymer conjugates, based on a biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol scaffold, exhibit a high affinity to inflamed tissue in vivo and represent promising candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. By utilizing a one-step sequential copolymerization approach, dendritic polyglycerol (Mn ≈ 4.5 kDa) containing 9.4% N-phthalimide protected amine functionalities was prepared on a large scale. Sulfation and simultaneous radio labeling with 35SO3 pyridine complex, followed by cleavage of the N-phthalimide protecting groups, yielded dPG35S amine as a beta emitting, inflammation specific probe with free amino functionalities for conjugation. Furthermore, efficient labeling procedures with ICC via iminothiolane modification and subsequent Michael addition of the ...
Hoeksema, B. (2013). Fungia dentigera Leuckart, 1841. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=207347 on 2018-01- ...
Targeted molecular imaging with hyaluronic acid (HA) has been highlighted in the diagnosis and treatment of CD44-overexpressing cancer. CD44, a receptor for HA, is closely related to the growth of cancer including proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis. For the efficient detection of CD44, we fabricated a few kinds of HA-modified MnFe2O4 nanocrystals (MNCs) to serve as specific magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents (HA-MRCAs) and compared physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and the CD44 targeting efficiency. Hydrophobic MNCs were efficiently phase-transferred using aminated polysorbate 80 (P80) synthesized by introducing spermine molecules on the hydroxyl groups of P80. Subsequently, a few kinds of HA-MRCAs were fabricated, conjugating different ratios of HA on the equal amount of phase-transferred MNCs. The optimized conjugation ratio of HA against magnetic content was identified to exhibit not only effective CD44 finding ability but also high cell viability through in vitro
30. Dengyou Zhang, Deju Ye, Enguang Feng, Jinfang Wang, Jianmei Shi, Hualiang Jiang, and Hong Liu. Highly alpha-Selective Synthesis of Sialyl Spirohydantoins by Regiospecific Domino Condensation/O®N Acyl Migration/N-Sialylation of Carbodiimides with Peracetylated Sialic Acid. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 3552-3557.. 29. Lei Zhang, Deju Ye, Yu Zhou, Guannan Liu, Enguang Feng, Hualiang Jiang, and Hong Liu. Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Benzazepinones and Unexpected 5-Bromo-3-benzazepinones. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 3671-3677.. 28. Xu Zhang, Yu Zhou, Hengshuai Wang, Diliang Guo, Deju Ye, Yungen Xu, Hualiang, Jiang, and Hong Liu. Silver-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination of alkynes in aqueous media: efficient and regioselective synthesis for fused benzimidazoles. Green Chem. 2011, 13, 397-405.. 27. Deju Ye, Jinfang Wang, Dengyou Deng, Enguang Feng, Hualiang Jiang, and Hong Liu. Advances in O-Sialylation. Progress in Chemistry 2010, 22, 91-100.. 26. Xu Zhang, Yu Zhou, Hengshuai Wang, Diliang Guo, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic Model for Enantioselective Intramolecular Alkene Cyanoamidation via Palladium-Catalyzed C-CN Bond Activation. AU - Frost, Grant B.. AU - Serratore, Nicholas A.. AU - Ogilvie, Jodi M.. AU - Douglas, Christopher J.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank National Institutes of Health for funding this work (R01 GM095559). We thank Prof. Steve Kass (UMN) for constructive feedback.. PY - 2017/4/7. Y1 - 2017/4/7. N2 - We studied key aspects of the mechanism of Pd-catalyzed C-CN bond activation and intramolecular enantioselective alkene cyanoamidation. An Abboud-Abraham-Kamlet-Taft (AAKT) linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model for enantioselectivity was established. We investigated the impact of Lewis acid (BPh3), Lewis base (DMPU), and no additives. BPh3 additive led to diminished enantioselectivity and differing results in 13CN crossover experiments, initial rate kinetics, and natural abundance 12C/13C kinetic isotope effect measurements. We propose two catalytic ...
Nowadays, biodiesel has become more attractive in the quest for a novel fuel source due to its environmental benefits and the biodegradable properties. Transesterification of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seeds oil is one of methodsacci for producing biodiesel fuel. However, during this process, the impurities are frequently found in the synthesized biodiesel which degrades the quality of biodiesel. Therefore, a proper catalyst is required to obtain the high-quality biodiesel. In this study, a series of aminated polyethersulfone (PES- $$\mathrm{NH}_2$$ ) membranes was prepared as solid support for immobilized Mucor miehei lipase. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linker agent in immobilization process to investigate the effect of spacer toward biodiesel production. Based on elemental analysis, lipase was successfully attached onto PES-
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concerning the mechanism of the FeCl3-catalyzed α-oxyamination of aldehydes. T2 - Evidence for a non-SOMO activation pathway. AU - Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F.. AU - Simonovich, Scott P.. AU - Knowles, Robert R.. AU - MacMillan, David W.C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/7/28. Y1 - 2010/7/28. N2 - The mechanism of a recently reported aldehyde α-oxyamination reaction has been studied using a combination of kinetic, spectrometric, and spectrophotometric techniques. Most crucially, the use of a validated cyclopropane-based radical-clock substrate has demonstrated that carbon-oxygen bond formation occurs predominantly through an enamine activation manifold. The mechanistic details reported herein indicate that, as has been proposed for previously studied alcohol oxidations, complexation between TEMPO and a simple metal salt leads to electrophilic ionic reactivity.. AB - The mechanism of a recently reported aldehyde α-oxyamination reaction ...
A supported catalyst used for synthesizing a polyether amine, and a manufacturing method of the catalyst. The catalyst comprises: a porous oxide as a support; Ni, Cu, Pd, and Rh as active components; and one or more of any of Zr, Cr, Mo, Fe, Zn, Sn, Bi, Ce, La, Hf, Sr, Sb, Mg, Be, Re, Ta, Ti, Sc, Ge and related metals as an auxiliary agent. The catalyst can be used in an amination reaction for a large molecular weight polyether polyol, and is particularly active and selective for an amination reaction of a low molecular weight polyether polyol. The catalyst has a simple and economic manufacturing technique and good potential for future applications.
Functionalized nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles are an abundant class of compounds found throughout nature and the chemical industry. Their frequent use in biologically active molecules and as ligands for the metals involved in asymmetric catalysis has made these compounds attractive synthetic targets. The research that follows describes my contributions to alkene and allene difunctionalization catalyzed by copper(II) in the preparation of functionalized pyrrolidines and tetrahydrofurans. In chapter 1 a brief review of the current carboaminaiton literature is given before a new copper(II)-catalyzed carboamination reaction that gives 6-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes is discussed. These bridged bicyclic products are formed in a single step from N-sulfonyl-2-aryl-4-pentenamines. Over a range of sulfonyl protecting groups and aryl substituents, the resulting heterocycles were generally formed in good yields with good to excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). Both substrate desymmeterization and reaction ...
Catalytic Hydroamination of Alkynes and Alkenes. Zhi-Yong,Han 14.Nov.,2009. Introduction Mechanistic Aspects Selected Reactions Involving Hydroamination. 1. Introduction. Problems:. slightly exothermic. but. a high reaction barrier. entropically negative. Amines: nucleophilic Slideshow 4750702 by idania
My commentary on this hydrogenation? That yield is awfully low. Using phenylacetone as a guide, one should be expecting a yield around 300 grams of ephedrine. Whats up? Check out the amount of methylamine used. There are about two moles of the phenylacetone derivative, but they dont even use one mole of methylamine. It should be the other way around, an excess of methylamine. Perhaps this is how they only get l-ephedrine from the phenylacetone derivative. In any case, Id much rather have 300 grams of racephedrine than 110 grams of 1-ephedrine. My thoughts are that one would be better served just going to Chapter Eleven, and just plug in this phenylacetone derivative for the regular phenylacetone. That means two or three moles of methylamine for each mole of phenylacetone, alcohol as solvent, and a bit more platinum catalyst in the mixture ...
Rosa Llusar Barelles nace en Almenara (Castellón). En 1983 se licencia en Químicas por la Universidad de Valencia obteniendo el premio extraordinario de licenciatura. Su investigación doctoral se centra en la química de sulfuros de molibdeno y wolframio y se doctora por la Universidad de Valencia en 1987 y por la Universidad de Texas A&M (EE. UU) en 1988 bajo la dirección del profesor F. Albert Cotton. Después de trabajar durante tres años como técnico superior en la sección de investigación y desarrollo de una planta de producción de caprolactama en Castellón, realiza una estancia posdoctoral de un año (1992) con el profesor John D. Corbett en el Ames Laboratory (Iowa State University, EE. UU) investigando nuevas fases sólidas de haluros reducidos de tierras raras. En 1993 accede a una plaza de profesora interina en el Departamento de Ciencias Experimentales de la Universidad Jaume I de Castellón, en 1995 pasa a ser profesora Titular de Química Física y en 2009 Catedrática de ...
Qilei Zhu, David E. Graff, Robert R. Knowles:. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b11144. ABSTRACT: Here we report a catalytic method for the intermolecular anti-Markovnikov hydroamination of unactivated alkenes using primary and secondary sulfonamides. These reactions occur at room temperature under visible light irradiation and are jointly catalyzed by an iridium(III) photocatalyst, a dialkyl phosphate base, and a thiol hydrogen atom donor. Reaction outcomes are consistent with the intermediacy of an N-centered sulfonamidyl radical generated via proton-coupled electron transfer activation of the sulfonamide N-H bond. Studies outlining the synthetic scope (,60 examples) and mechanistic features of the reaction are presented.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate-functionalized collagen matrices. T2 - design and characterization of a novel neoglycosylated biomaterial. AU - Russo, Laura. AU - Gautieri, Alfonso. AU - Raspanti, Mario. AU - Taraballi, Francesca. AU - Nicotra, Francesco. AU - Vesentini, Simone. AU - Cipolla, Laura. N1 - Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/5/7. Y1 - 2014/5/7. N2 - Collagen matrices have been neoglycosylated with lactose by reductive amination at lysine side chains. AFM analysis highlights that the chemical does not affect molecular assembly into fibrils. Moreover, ELLA biochemical assays show that the glycan moiety is efficiently exposed on the matrix surface for receptor recognition.. AB - Collagen matrices have been neoglycosylated with lactose by reductive amination at lysine side chains. AFM analysis highlights that the chemical does not affect molecular assembly into fibrils. Moreover, ELLA biochemical assays show that the glycan moiety is efficiently exposed on the ...
Functionalization of MCM-41 via the reaction of its surface silanols with proper agents yielded aminated and phosphinated materials, which were characterized and used to immobilize rhodium complex. These rhodium complex materials exhibited excellent performance in the hydrogenation of arenes under mild reaction conditions of 45°C and 1 atm. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V ...
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Research in the Widenhoefer group is directed toward the development and mechanistic analysis of new organotransition metal-catalyzed transformations for application in the synthesis of functionalized organic molecules. In particular, our group has a long-standing interest in the functionalization of C-C multiple bonds with carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles catalyzed by electrophilic late transition metal complexes, with a recent focus on the synthetic and mechanistic aspect of gold(I) pi-activation catalysis. Current areas of inquiry include the following: 1) Gold(I) and Pt(II)-catalyzed hydroamination of alkenes an allenes. 2) Gold(I)-catalyzed dehydrative amination of underivatized allylic alcohols. 3) Synthesis and study of cationic, two-coordinate gold pi-complexes. 4) Evaluating the role of bis(gold) complexes in gold pi-activation catalysis. More detailed descriptions of these research projects can be found at our group web page.. ...
Research in the Widenhoefer group is directed toward the development and mechanistic analysis of new organotransition metal-catalyzed transformations for application in the synthesis of functionalized organic molecules. In particular, our group has a long-standing interest in the functionalization of C-C multiple bonds with carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles catalyzed by electrophilic late transition metal complexes, with a recent focus on the synthetic and mechanistic aspect of gold(I) pi-activation catalysis. Current areas of inquiry include the following: 1) Gold(I) and Pt(II)-catalyzed hydroamination of alkenes an allenes. 2) Gold(I)-catalyzed dehydrative amination of underivatized allylic alcohols. 3) Synthesis and study of cationic, two-coordinate gold pi-complexes. 4) Evaluating the role of bis(gold) complexes in gold pi-activation catalysis. More detailed descriptions of these research projects can be found at our group web page.. ...
Abstract Phenylacetoacetonitrile APAAN is one of the most important preprecursors for amphetamine production in recent years. This assumption is based on seizure data but there is little analytical data available showing how much amphetamine really originated from APAAN. In this study, several syntheses of amphetamine following the Leuckart route...
alpha-Galactosidase from tomato has been immobilized on Sepabead EC-EA and Sepabead EC-HA, which were activated with ethylendiamino and hexamethylenediamino groups, respectively. Two strategy was used for the covalent immobilization of alpha-galactosidase on the aminated Sepabeads: covalent immobilization of enzyme on glutaraldehyde activated support and cross-linking of the adsorbed enzymes on to the support with glutaraldehyde. By using these two methods, all the immobilized enzymes retained very high activity and the stability of the enzyme was also improved. The obtained results showed that, the most stable immobilized alpha-galactosidase was obtained with the second strategy. The immobilized enzymes were characterized with respect to free counterpart. Some parameters effecting to the enzyme activity and stability were also analyzed. The optimum temperature and pH were found as 60 degrees C and pH 5.5 for all immobilized enzymes, respectively. All the immobilized alpha-galactosidases were ...
Another strained ring system that we were interested in functionalizing was [1.1.0]Bicyclobutane for the synthesis of cyclobutylated amines. After attempts to functionalize bicyclobutane failed, we realized that we would need an anchoring group that was attached directly to bicyclobutane to make this reaction feasible. A reaxys search revealed that substituted phenylsulfonylbicyclobutanes could be aminated under high temperature in a neat mixture. Since we believed that a method to directly append cyclobutanes onto amines would be of value, we sought out to explore ways to make this reaction broadly applicable. We started by reasoning that placement of EWGs on the phenyl ring would increase the reactivity of the central bond which could allow for milder conditions which would hopefully lead to a broad substrate scope. After synthesizing a range of substituted phenylsulfonylbicyclobutanes, we chose to move forward with the 3,5-difluoro derivative because it offered a nice balance between ...
Another strained ring system that we were interested in functionalizing was [1.1.0]Bicyclobutane for the synthesis of cyclobutylated amines. After attempts to functionalize bicyclobutane failed, we realized that we would need an anchoring group that was attached directly to bicyclobutane to make this reaction feasible. A reaxys search revealed that substituted phenylsulfonylbicyclobutanes could be aminated under high temperature in a neat mixture. Since we believed that a method to directly append cyclobutanes onto amines would be of value, we sought out to explore ways to make this reaction broadly applicable. We started by reasoning that placement of EWGs on the phenyl ring would increase the reactivity of the central bond which could allow for milder conditions which would hopefully lead to a broad substrate scope. After synthesizing a range of substituted phenylsulfonylbicyclobutanes, we chose to move forward with the 3,5-difluoro derivative because it offered a nice balance between ...
This work concerns a new technique to post-modify the catalytic material intended for use in H2O2 direct synthesis. The catalyst chosen was a commercially available 1 wt.% Pd/C. The catalyst was modified with the so-called Catalyst Wet Pretreatment Method (CWPM) that is used to post-modify prepared catalysts with aqueous solutions of NaBr, in different concentrations. The performance of pristine and the pretreated materials were then compared in the H2O2 direct synthesis and characterized before and after the catalytic tests in order to understand the role of the different concentrations of bromide in the CWPM procedure. The surface features of the different catalysts were analyzed with CO chemisorption (metal dispersion and mean particle size), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, for Pd morphology and Pd particle size distributions), Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP, for Pd content) and Ion Chromatography (IC, for bromide content). Various features of the materials prepared with the CWPM were ...
In this study, immobilized COX-2 was successfully constructed through glutaraldehyde-mediated covalent coupling on functional silica gel microspheres. The optimum conditions, properties, and morphological characteristics of the immobilized COX-2 were investigated. The optimal immobilization process was as follows: about 0.02 g of aminated silica gel microspheres was activated by 0.25% GA solution for 6 h and mixed with 5 U of free recombinant COX-2 solution. Then, the mixture was shaken for 8 h at 20 °C. Results showed that the immobilized COX-2 produced by this method exhibited excellent biocatalytic activity, equivalent to that of free COX-2 under the test conditions employed. The best biocatalytic activity of immobilized COX-2 appeared at pH 8.0 and still maintained at about 84% (RSD < 7.39%, n = 3) at pH 10.0. For temperature tolerance, immobilized COX-2 exhibited its maximum biocatalytic activity at 40 °C and about 68% (RSD < 6.99%, n = 3) of the activity was maintained at 60 °C. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Versatile protein-a coated photoelectric immunosensors with a purple-membrane monolayer transducer fabricated by affinity-immobilization on a graphene-oxide complexed linker and by shear flow. AU - Wu, Hsueh Hsia. AU - Liao, Xin Quan. AU - Wu, Xin Ying. AU - Lin, Cheng De. AU - Jheng, Kai Ru. AU - Chen, Hong Ren. AU - Wang, Yong Yi. AU - Chen, Hsiu Mei. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membranes (PM) have been demonstrated to be a sensitive photoelectric transducer for microbial detection. To efficiently prepare versatile BR-based immunosensors with protein A as antibody captures, a large, high-coverage, and uniformly oriented PM monolayer was fabricated on an electrode as an effective foundation for protein A conjugation through bis-NHS esters, by first affinity-coating biotinylated PM on an aminated surface using a complex of oxidized avidin and graphene oxide as the planar linker and then washing the coating with a shear flow. Three ...
Solid-phase carrier for aminated oligonucleotide | Carrier for undifferentiated cell culture and subculture method thereof | Lubricant coating for laser printer wiper blades | Fast curing adhesive useful for bonding to glass | Hot melt ink |
A method for synthesizing condensed quinolines by using NaH catalyzed A mixture of substituted methyl quinolines and Various aromatic aldehydes in the..
Novel 3-O-1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glueofuranose] and 3-O-D-glucose] derivatives with an iminodiacetate (N,O,O), a histidinate, and an N-(acetetyl)picolylamine (N,N,O) chelating system for tridentate coordination of the organometallic M(CO)(3)-fragment (M = Tc, Re) have been prepared. The chelates were introduced and assembled through reductive amination starting from 3-O-1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose]-acetaldehyde. After deprotection, the pyranose derivatives were reacted with the precursor NEt4](2)ReBr3(CO)(3)] to afford the corresponding organometallic complexes in yields between 54% and 94%. The NMR, MS, and IR analyses corroborated the tridentate coordination of the organometallic metal center exclusively via the synthetic chelates. In the case of the N-(acetyl)picolylamine derivative, the coordinative properties were further confirmed by X-ray structure analysis of the first Re(CO)(3)-D-glucofuranose complex. All glucose complexes unveiled good stability and ...
The syntheses of two chromophore-appended dipicolylamine-derived ligands and their reactivity with pentacarbonylchlororhenium have been studied. The resultant complexes each possess the fac-Re(CO)3 core. The ligands L1 1-[bis(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)amino]methylpyrene and L2 2-[bis(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)amino]methylquinoxaline were isolated via a one-pot reductive amination in moderate yield. The corresponding rhenium complexes were isolated in good yields and characterised by 1H NMR, MS, IR and UV-Vis studies. X-Ray crystallographic data were obtained for fac-{Re(CO)3( L1)}(BF4), C34H26BF4N4O3Re: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 18.327(2) , = 90.00°, b = 14.1537(14) , = 96.263(6)°, c = 23.511(3) , = 90.00°, 6062.4(11) 3, Z = 8. The luminescence properties of the ligands and complexes were also investigated, with the emission attributed to the appended chromophore in each case. Isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that fac-{Re(CO)3( L1)}(BF4) self-aggregates cooperatively in aqueous solution, probably ...
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a polyamine useful as a diamine component of a polymer and a method for efficiently and inexpensively obtaining the polyamine. SOLUTION: The alicyclic polyamines are represented by the following formula (1): (Wherein, Y 1 represents a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon group, and R 1 to R 4 is the same or different and represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, a cycloalkyl group, an aryl group, or an aralkyl group). Alicyclic polyamines can be obtained by reductive amination of 3-formylcycloalkanones or 3-formylcycloalkenones.
2-Oxocarboxylic acids, also called 2-oxo acids and alpha-keto acids, are the most elementary set of metabolites that includes pyruvate (2-oxopropanoate), 2-oxobutanoate, oxaloacetate (2-oxosuccinate) and 2-oxoglutarate. This diagram illustrates the architecture of chain extension and modification reaction modules for 2-oxocarboxylic acids. The chain extension module RM001 is a tricarboxylic pathway where acetyl-CoA derived carbon is used to extend the chain length by one. The chain modification modules RM002 (including RM032) and RM033, together with a reductive amination step (RC00006 or RC00036), generate basic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. The modification module RM030 is used in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a class of plant secondary metabolites, for conversion to oxime followed by addition of thio-glucose moiety. Furthermore, the chain extension from 2-oxoadipate to 2-oxosuberate is followed by coenzyme B biosynthesis in methonogenic archaea ...
2-Oxocarboxylic acids, also called 2-oxo acids and alpha-keto acids, are the most elementary set of metabolites that includes pyruvate (2-oxopropanoate), 2-oxobutanoate, oxaloacetate (2-oxosuccinate) and 2-oxoglutarate. This diagram illustrates the architecture of chain extension and modification reaction modules for 2-oxocarboxylic acids. The chain extension module RM001 is a tricarboxylic pathway where acetyl-CoA derived carbon is used to extend the chain length by one. The chain modification modules RM002 (including RM032) and RM033, together with a reductive amination step (RC00006 or RC00036), generate basic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. The modification module RM030 is used in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a class of plant secondary metabolites, for conversion to oxime followed by addition of thio-glucose moiety. Furthermore, the chain extension from 2-oxoadipate to 2-oxosuberate is followed by coenzyme B biosynthesis in methonogenic archaea ...