Results obtained by direct measurements of the forces acting between polar mica surfaces interacting across solutions of triolein containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), and a PE/PGPR mixture are presented. It was shown that PE adsorbed on mica from anhydrous triolein and thus rendered the surface nonpolar. The change in ordering of the liquid triolein molecules induced by bringing two such surfaces together gives rise to a structural force with two force barriers. In contrast, the adsorption of PGPR from anhydrous triolein resulted in a steric force barrier with a range of 120 Angstrom. It was also found that from the mixture of PE and PGPR in triolein both additives adsorbed as a complex on mica surfaces. The presence of these aggregates on the surfaces gave rise to a very long-range strong repulsive force. We discuss the implication of the measured forces to colloidal stability of particle dispersion in nonpolar media and compare the efficiency of ...
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The main result of our simulation is that the restructuring of a monolayer consisting of C18 surfactant molecules was observed, but any restructuring of a monolayer consisting of C24 surfactants never underwent such a restructuring. The C24 surfactants maintained the monolayer structure in both P1 and P2 simulations, as depicted in Fig. 2. By contrast, cylindrical micelles formed during the P1 simulation for C18 molecules, and in the meantime water molecules from the top of the monolayer proceeded toward the mica surface and replaced the surfactants. During the P2 simulation, these cylindrical micelles were further transformed into spherical ones. The processes for C18 surfactants are illustrated in Fig. 3. For a better understanding of the dynamics of the spatial rearrangement of the systems, the number densities of certain components were calculated as a function of the position along the normal axis with respect to mica sheets at different moments in time. The five components that were ...
Study of the transformation of smectite to illite, chlorite or vermiculite via interstratified clay minerals needs precise qualitative and quantitative determinations of the different layers in the mixed-layer clays and is generally based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns after specific treatments of the clay samples. Saturation with K or Mg followed by ethylene glycol (EG) solvation are classical methods used to identify high-charge smectite and vermiculite. These procedures have been applied to two experimental clays, one composed of smectite layers and the second, a mixture of vermiculite and smectite layers. Different methods of glycolation (EG vapor or liquid EG) produce significant differences in the XRD patterns. Comparison with literature data indicates that K-saturated, high-charge smectite (~0.8 , total charge ,1/unit-cell) and Mg-vermiculite (whatever its charge) do not expand in ethylene glycol vapor (d values ~14-15 Å). Expansion to 17 Å in liquid ethylene glycol occurs for ...
The clay minerals have iron associated with them in several ways: 1. (1) as an essential constituent 2. (2) as a minor constituent within the crystal lattice where it is in isomorphous substitution and 3. (3) as iron oxide on the surface of the mineral platelets. Nontronite, hydromica, some chlorites, vermiculite, glauconite and chamosite contain iron as an essential constituent. Kaolinite and halloysite have no site within the lattice for iron, but in certain environments iron oxide (goethite or hematite) is intimately associated as a coating on the micelles. Analyses of clay minerals show that the content of Fe2O3 varies: 29 per cent (nontronite), 7??3 per cent (griffithite), 4.5 per cent (hydromica), 5.5 per cent (chlorite), 4 per cent (vermiculite) and 18 per cent (glauconite). The FeO content is: 40 per cent (chamosite), 7.8 per cent (griffithite), 1-2 per cent (hydromica), 3 per cent (glauconite) and 2 per cent (chlorite)....
Abstract: In a natural clay, the occurrence of a high sensitivity, i.e. a high quotient between the shear strength of the undisturbed and remolded softs respectively, under undrained conditions, is connected to thixotropic effects and to "quickness".. The general composition of the soils in which quick clay occurs is described, and mention is made of the occurrence of non-argillaceous rock fragments in a matrix of clay particles. Illite is the main clay mineral. Quickness occurs both in salt-leached, marine deposited clays and in clays deposited in fresh water. The pore water of these clays is low in electrolytes and undecomposed organic material. It is found that quick clays often occur near peat and similar humic deposits. Also briefly discussed is the internal stress distribution in natural clays under various consolidation conditions, the structure of quick clays and their conditions of formation. The consistency of clays is considered, as is the stability and coagulation conditions of ...
It has been shown that expression of ligands for NKG2D is associated with malignant transformation (15), and MICA expression was described for many epithelial tumors. This has led to the implication that the NKG2D/NKG2DL system may play an important role in immune surveillance of tumors (17). In fact, two recent reports described that tumor cells highly expressing NKG2DL were rejected by NK cells and CD8 αβ T cells and stimulated tumor immunity against the parental cell lines in a mouse model (16, 22). It was shown that the immune response observed in these studies was critically dependent on the expression levels of NKG2DL on the tumor cells. Therefore, reduction of MICA expression by release from the cell surface would potentially reduce immunogenicity of tumor cells. To investigate whether the effect of sheddases on MICA surface expression mirrored the changes in the levels of sMICA in the culture supernatants, C1R-MICA*04 cells, HCT116 cells, and HeLa cells were cultured in fresh culture ...
The interaction between lipid bilayers in water has been intensively studied over the last decades. Osmotic stress was applied to evaluate the forces between two approaching lipid bilayers in aqueous solution. The force-distance relation between lipid mono- or bilayers deposited on mica sheets using a surface force apparatus (SFA) was also measured. Lipid stabilised foam films offer another possibility to study the interactions between lipid monolayers. These films can be prepared comparatively easy with very good reproducibility. Foam films consist usually of two adsorbed surfactant monolayers separated by a layer of the aqueous solution from which the film is created. Their thickness can be conveniently measured using microinterferometric techniques. Studies with foam films deliver valuable information on the interactions between lipid membranes and especially their stability and permeability. Presenting inverse black lipid membrane (BLM) foam films supply information about the properties of ...
The interaction between lipid bilayers in water has been intensively studied over the last decades. Osmotic stress was applied to evaluate the forces between two approaching lipid bilayers in aqueous solution. The force-distance relation between lipid mono- or bilayers deposited on mica sheets using a surface force apparatus (SFA) was also measured. Lipid stabilised foam films offer another possibility to study the interactions between lipid monolayers. These films can be prepared comparatively easy with very good reproducibility. Foam films consist usually of two adsorbed surfactant monolayers separated by a layer of the aqueous solution from which the film is created. Their thickness can be conveniently measured using microinterferometric techniques. Studies with foam films deliver valuable information on the interactions between lipid membranes and especially their stability and permeability. Presenting inverse black lipid membrane (BLM) foam films supply information about the properties of ...
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One-pulse magic angle spinning (MAS) 29Si and 1H-29Si cross-polarization (CP) MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on minerals with OH groups and on hydrous aluminosilicate glass samples. The silanol-group samples used were krauskopfite, rosenhahnite, thaumasite, ussingite, and KHSi2O5 with known Si to H distances and ellenbergerite, the proton positions of which are not as well defined. The Si-H distances from the minerals can be compared with the cross-polarization time constants (τSiH) and the proton spin-relaxation times in the rotating frame [τ1ρ(H)], and a rough correspondence exists between a minerals shortest Si-H distance and its τSiH value. Also, fast [τ1ρ(H)] values correspond to large bulk H densities. The CP spectra of the hydrous aluminosilicate glass samples were fitted with two peaks, representing two different Si environments within the glass structure. The contact-time curves of the higher frequency peak imply τSiH similar to the mineral ...
Descrição: We establish and quantify correlations among the molecular structures, interaction forces, and physical processes associated with light-responsive self-assembled surfactant monolayers or bilayers at interfaces. Using the surface forces apparatus (SFA), the interaction forces between adsorbed monolayers and bilayers of an azobenzene-functionalized surfactant can be drastically and controllably altered by light-induced conversion of trans and cis molecular conformations. These reversible conformation changes affect significantly the shape of the molecules, especially in the hydrophobic region, which induces dramatic transformations of molecular packing in self-assembled structures, causing corresponding modulation of electrostatic double layer, steric hydration, and hydrophobic interactions. For bilayers, the isomerization from trans to cis exposes more hydrophobic groups, making the cis bilayers more hydrophobic, which lowers the activation energy barrier for (hemi)fusion. A ...
Market Overview: The Middle East Potassium Feldspars is expected to witness steady CAGR of 3.9% between 2016 and 2022. Potassium feldspars are aluminum silicates abundant minerals group which contains potassium minerals with the linear formula KAlSi3O3. Potassium feldspars are a group of polymorphs, polymorphs being minerals that have the same chemical composition but slightly different…
To date, the fundamental details of the molecular structural changes and associated mechanisms, which take place during the formation of aluminosilicate geopolymer gels, have remained largely elusive. Here, density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo modeling, a multiscale simulation technique, is used to simulate the geopolymerization reaction and to determine the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Silica supplied by the alkaline solution plays a significant role in enhancing the dissolution of the solid aluminosilicate precursor (metakaolin, in this case) and the polymerization of the gel. In the reaction between NaOH and metakaolin, in the absence of initially dissolved silica, the solid precursor completely dissolves and the aluminosilicate gel forms via the percolation of small aluminosilicate clusters. On the other hand, in the presence of dissolved silicate, the metakaolin only partially dissolves, as the aluminosilicate gel precipitates on the surfaces of the ...
The aim of this thesis work is to study the physico-chemical properties of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, based brush polymers both in solution and at solid/aqueous interfaces. The importance of studying the surface properties of brush polymers can be related to a broad spectrum of interfacial-related applications such as colloidal stability, lubrication, detergency, protein repellency to name a few. In many applications it is desirable to form brush-like structures through simple physisorption. In this context the surface properties of PEO based brush polymers differing in molecular architecture were studied, using ellipsometry and surface force apparatus (SFA), to gain some understanding regarding the effect of molecular architecture on the formation of brush structures. The molecular architecture was varied by varying the charge/PEO ratio along the backbone. This study demonstrates that the formation of a brush structure at solid/aqueous interface is due to interplay between the attraction of the ...
An abrasive composite is presented having a controlled rate of erosion, the composite comprising abrasive particles dispersed in the binder, wherein the binder comprises an addition polymerized resin having clay particles dispersed therein. The abrasive composite may be adhered to various substrates, including paper, cloth, polymeric films, and nonwovens. The clay particles allow the binder, and thus the composite, to controllably erode upon abrasion of a workpiece, thus exposing fresh abrasive particles to the workpiece. Coatable compositions comprising clay particles dispersed in a binder precursor composition, and optionally containing abrasive particles, are also described, as well as methods of making and using the composites and articles.
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SEM investigation indicates a complex mineral assemblage is present. Subhedral kaolinite and illite commonly coat grains and occur as cement. Fe oxides are present as well. Back-scatter imaging indicates that an unidentified subhedral to anhedral aluminosilicate occurs as does an unusual Ag-bearing aluminum phosphate. Chlorine is also detected in particles near the Ag-bearing aluminum phosphate and this is consistent with low temperature hydrothermal mobilization and deposition of Ag. Some aluminosilicate grains may be detrital however some appear to post date kaolinite and illite mineralization. The Ag-bearing phosphate has textures consistent with late phase mineralization and does post date other textures. Fe-oxides appear to occur as multiple generations. The aluminosilicate may be impact related and if enough sample material can be extracted definitive X-ray investigation will enable phase identification, potentially placing more constraints on impact conditions. Further studies of high ...
Hydrocarbon conversion processes are disclosed which are catalyzed by novel pillared clay compositions. The clay contains pillars which are at least partially fluorided. These pillars are metal fluoro hydroxy cations where the metal can be Al, Zr, Si/Al, Ti or Cr. The clays which can be pillared with these pillars are the smectite clays which include hectorite and beidellite along with synthetically prepared smectite clays. These clays are prepared by pillaring the clay, followed by calcination and then treatment with a fluoride salt such as ammonium bifluoride.
What are the benefits of using it in our fish tanks and ponds? The first main benefit of this clay is in its high mineral content that provides well over 50 macro, micro and trace elements "remineralizing" the aquatic system. All living organisms, including goldfish, require a constant supply of these elements for various biological processes to function normally. It also improves fish digestion. Second, is its detoxifying effect. The clays particles are so small that the action of water molecules is enough to keep them in suspension or colloidal state. The surface area of particles in one gram of clay can reach almost 10,764 sq.ft (1000 sq.m). Negatively charged clay particles have the ability to "trap" or flocculate heavy metals, pesticides, free radicals and even virus cells, etc., making them easily removable with mechanical filters and water changes. Third, it accelerates bio filter work by positively affecting nitrifying bacteria, at the same time, based on the article mentioned above, it ...
Taconite Digging into MN Minerals Minnesota DNR MN, The crushers keep crushing the rock until it is the size of a marble The rock is mixed with water and ground in rotating mills until it is as fine as powder, (the wet taconite powder) is rolled with clay inside large rotating cylinders, Indiana, Cleveland, Ohio and other steel-making towns The taconite pellets are brought to the ...
In order to characterize the petrological and chemical effects of illuviation, we collected 17 samples of saprock adjacent to, and 14 samples of corestone from, an ~6.7 m high tonalitic corestone (tor). Based on thin section observations, all saprock samples are characterized by a network of transgranular and intergranular cracks filled or lined with illuviated clay. In contrast, the silicate framework has been weakly to mildly weathered, and as result, biotite has been partially transformed into mixed-layer biotite/vermiculite, plagioclase has been weakly weathered to a dusting of smectite, and hornblende has been weakly weathered to Fe- and/or Mn-oxyhydroxide. The weathering of biotite translates into an ~5-6% loss of K mass while the weathering of plagioclase resulted in no statistically significant loss of Ca or Na mass.. The above effects of eluviation contrast markedly with the statistically significant additions of Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Cr, Cu, Rb, Y, and Yb mass produced by ...
EFEK BO PADA AGREGASI TANAH …. Diunduh dari sumber: 26/10/2012 Bacterial cells with a coat of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) are enveloped by clay particles. The pore space where clays and bacteria interact, bounded by silt- and sand- size particles, is relatively enriched in organic matter including EPS residues. Fungal hyphae are attached to the outside surface of an aggregate. At normal soil pH conditions, the cell has a net negative surface charge. Most clay particles adhere to the cell surface by bridging through polyvalent cations, represented by M n+ (a) although some may be attached directly by electrostatic interactions, either in face-to-face (b), or edge-to- face (c) association. (Sumber: Theng and Orchard (1995).
Therefore, studies are now examining the effect of bacterial spores and the required organic biomineral precursor compound immobilized in porous expanded clay particles. This has been shown to heal cracks with a width of 0.15mm. Unfortunately incorporating the clay particles also leads to a 50% reduction in 28 day strength.. ...
The work reported in this thesis builds on research into electrical degradation of mica. The present work is concerned with the study of the deleterious mechanism of partial discharge (PD) induced surface and bulk disruption on mica. Many high voltage (HV) insulation systems incorporate composite materials containing mica as a matrix material. Mica, a naturally occurring mineral possesses attractive thermal, electrical, chemical and physical prope11ies, all highly desirable attributes for successful HV insulation. Investigation of electrical breakdown phenomena in dielectric media is unde11aken before proceeding to the mica - PD study which constitutes the major part of the work High grade Muscovite mica was selected for the experimental work; samples were exposed to four HV electrical stress regimes: AC point-plane, AC m1ificial voids, AC m1ificial vented voids and DC impulse with thermally stressed samples in an ambient air atmosphere. In addition the effect of electrode material and void ...
left-handed. Box 6-1 DNA Has 10.5 Base Pairs per Turn of the Helix in Solution: The Mica Experiment. This value of 10 base pairs per turn vanes somewhat under different conditions. A classic experiment that was earned out in the 1970s demonstrated that DNA absorbed on a surface has somewhat greater than 10 base pairs per turn. Short segments of DNA were allowed to btnd to a mica surface. The presence of 5-terminal phosphates on the DNAs field them in a fixed orientation on the mica. The mica-bound DNAs were then exposed to DNAse I, an enzyme (a rieoxyrifconude-ase) that deaves the phosphodiester bonds in the DNA backbone. Because the enzyme is bulky, it t5 onfy able to deave phosphodiester bonds on the DNA surface furthest from the mica (think of the DNA as a cylinder lying down on a flat surface) due to the stenc difficulty of reaching the sides or bottom, surface of the DNA. As a result, the length of the resulting fragments should reflect the periodicity of the DNA, the number Of base pairs ...
To soften polymer clay, hold it in your hands so your body heat can warm it up. If the clay is especially hard, lay a hot water bottle over the clay for about 20 minutes, or microwave it for 10 seconds at a time until it is warm. Once the clay has warmed, knead it with your hands for about a minute, then roll out the clay into a snake shape. The friction from rolling out the clay will help make it soft and pliable. If its too hard to roll out with your hands, try smoothing it out with a rolling pin.
Sub-zeptoliter thermal decomposition of Insulin Fibers. (a) shows a 1x2µm AC (tapping) mode image of insulin fibers deposited on a mica surface. After imaging, a series of thermal-bending compensated, low-temperature thermal cycles were performed in a 12x6 array of points. A small selection of those locations are indicated by the colored markers in both (a) and (b). (b) shows an AC image of the same region after the thermal cycling was complete, showing numerous gaps in the fibers where thermomechanical decomposition has occurred. (c) shows the local thermal expansion (top deflection plots) and resonant frequency shifts (bottom plots) associated with the thermal cycles, color coded by location. Note the clear signal associated with thermal decomposition of the fibers visible in the resonant frequency shift curves. The deflection curves show no significant response at the same temperature. Note that some tip broadening has occurred during the thermal cycling that reduces the resolution between ...
The variation and anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity and the coefficient of consolidation was investigated for two Swedish sulphide clays. A series of constant rate of strain oedometer tests was performed on samples trimmed in the vertical and horizontal direction. A methodology to evaluate the horizontal coefficients of consolidation c h via the horizontal hydraulic conductivity k h and the vertical compression modulus M v is proposed. Laboratory evaluations of c h are also compared with determinations of c h from in situ piezometer measurements in vertically drained sulphide clay. Furthermore, the validity of the empirical correlation between hydraulic conductivity change index C k and initial void ratio e 0, C k = 0.5e 0 (Tavenas et al. in Can Geotech J 20(4):645-660, 1983b), was investigated for the sulphide clays. The results from the investigation show large ranges in measured hydraulic conductivities and coefficients of consolidation. However, the results indicate that the correlation C ...
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Early Oligocene partial melting via biotite dehydration melting and prolonged low-pressure-low-temperature metamorphism of the upper High Himalaya Crystalline Sequence in the far east of Nepal
Cordierite Ceramics have excellent thermal shock properties. Our Cordierite products are low cost materials having good mechanical strength, good electrical insulation properties, good wear resistance and can function at safe operating temperatures up to 1000 C. Typical applications include, but are not limited to, electric heating elements, igniters, resistors, stand offs, band heaters, thermocouple cores, load banks, ovens, furnaces, connectors, spacers, fuses, gas grill radiants, sensors, stiffening rods, welding backers, welding ferrules.. Mechanical, Electrical, Thermal and Physical Properties. ...
Push moulds and texture tools from Makins, Fimo etc for use with polymer clay and other clay types including air-dry and ceramic clays, metal clays, sugarpaste and more.
As many potters I know, I also base my ceramic work on local materials. Getting to know the nature around you is very important as well as quite interesting part of potters live. But when Peter Stanik, owner of small tea/yixing business, offered me chunk of Zi Ni clay to try I couldn´t refused. The clay was send by YiXing potter Lui Ming Zhu. He added short note and the information that they fire it in between 1050- 1150°C was the most important one. Well, temperature in our kiln varies from 1220 to 1380°C. It means that we can make clear clay glaze from that Zi Ni! But many low-fire clays can survive in coldest parts of our kiln, near chimney, so lets try it anyway ...
Catalytic behavior of micro/mesoporous ZSM-5/MCM-41 composites were investigated in the transformation of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB), meta-xylene transformation and in the cracking of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB). The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM, nitrogen sorption and FTIR of pyridine a
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|img src=q.gif>|br>This clay is compounded to be a stoneware clay with specks that bleed through the glaze, giving the appearance of iron burning through, typical of reduction glazes and clays. A very popular throwing clay for production potters.
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This butterfly bush (more pix here) is a group project from the polymer clay students at the Ohio Reformatory for Women for the Into the Forest exhibit.. The clay came from generous artists who were destashing. (The ORW students are happy to condition old polymer. Let me know if youre cleaning out and have extra clay.). They created 27′ of big hole beads that were slipped onto brass rods and inserted into a wooden base made by my husband. The brass rods couldnt be taken into the facility so we had to visualize the piece and assemble it at home. Ill take the whole shebang apart to ship it off to Pittsburgh.. Will you be part of this international exhibit? The deadline has been extended to May 1.. You have plenty of time to make your mark on the fanciful forest that Laura Tabakman, Julie Eakes, Emily Squires Levine, Libby Mills and Nancy Travers concoct from your submissions.. The event opens in Pittsburgh in November with a teaser preview on view at Synergy4 in August. Are you tempted to ...
This butterfly bush (more pix here) is a group project from the polymer clay students at the Ohio Reformatory for Women for the Into the Forest exhibit.. The clay came from generous artists who were destashing. (The ORW students are happy to condition old polymer. Let me know if youre cleaning out and have extra clay.). They created 27′ of big hole beads that were slipped onto brass rods and inserted into a wooden base made by my husband. The brass rods couldnt be taken into the facility so we had to visualize the piece and assemble it at home. Ill take the whole shebang apart to ship it off to Pittsburgh.. Will you be part of this international exhibit? The deadline has been extended to May 1.. You have plenty of time to make your mark on the fanciful forest that Laura Tabakman, Julie Eakes, Emily Squires Levine, Libby Mills and Nancy Travers concoct from your submissions.. The event opens in Pittsburgh in November with a teaser preview on view at Synergy4 in August. Are you tempted to ...
This is one in our family of True colors. The True micas are all bright, low-sheen micas which have be made so by the blending of FD&C dyes with a mica substrate.The colors have been specially manufactured to be hydrophobic, which means...
Ball Clay, OM4: Priced per pound. Quantity discounts are available.. . Ball Clay is a variety of Kaolinite, like china-clay, but has a higher plastici
Highwater Clays blends porcelain, stoneware and earthenware clays including Helios, Phoenix, Loafers Glory and White Earthenware. Highwater Clays is a distributor of pottery supplies and pottery equipment from Skutt, North Star, Spectrum, Sherrill Mud To
Highwater Clays blends porcelain, stoneware and earthenware clays including Helios, Phoenix, Loafers Glory and White Earthenware. Highwater Clays is a distributor of pottery supplies and pottery equipment from Skutt, North Star, Spectrum, Sherrill Mud To
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Cattano on clay colored stools: I would think they are grey, although, there are different kind of clay such as white, blue, and black to name a few, but classic one would be grey.
Usage: These cutters are ideal for use with Cookies, Sugar paste, Gum paste, Fondant Cakes, craft clays (polymer clay, air dry clay .... To use (Instruction): 1. Roll and ma
|img src=q.gif>|br>If your pottery experience goes back to the 1960s and 70s you will probably like this clay. Its reddish color is reminiscent of clay bodies that were used in that era, but whose sources of ingredients have since run out.
There is nothing that could make Jax--a hothead, with amazing motivation, and even approval from his mom and wife!--not kill Clay. This is not buyable. This is not swallowable. The contrived, out-of-left-field reasons not to kill Clay couldve been fine as part of the story: they wouldve laid the groundwork for a shitstorm next season after Jax wasted Clay. But they dont come close to making narrative sense. Sorry. Clay had to go. If you werent going to kill Clay, dont make the whole season feel like a rip-off without Clays death! Dont let Jax (and Opie) find out about all of Clays sins. Maybe dial down Clays mustache-twirling. Save that shit for season seven ...
A method for preparing and using compositions including a smectite clay and a base or base precursor which reacts with SOx in a hot flue gas is described. The base or base precursor is preferably the dispersed phase in the bulk phase of the clay. The compositions are heated to form the base which reacts with SOx in the flue gas.