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Kaj se zgodi pri darovanju krvne plazme? Pri darovanju krvne plazme, potuje kri preko igle v sterilnem, zaprtem, enocevnem sistemu na aparat za odvzem krvne plazme, kjer se kri filtrira in centrifugira, s tem procesom dosežemo, da se glavni sestavni deli krvi ločijo od plazme. Plazma teče v vrečo za plazmo, nakar se izmenično kri vrne nazaj po sistemu preko igle v žilo. Darovana količina plazme je odvisna od teže darovalca. Darovanje traja približno 45 minut. Kdo vse lahko daruje krvno plazmo?. Vsak človek, ki je dopolnil 18 let in ni starejši od 60 let ter ima vsaj 50kg in ne več kot 150kg ter je telesno in psihično sposoben za darovanje. O sposobnosti za darovanje presodi zdravnik. Kako pogosto se lahko daruje krvna plazma?. Darovanje krvne plazme bistveno ne vpliva na telo, zato lahko v enem letu darujemo 50 krat. Vendar je potrebno upoštevati predpise o darovanju. Med dvemi darovanji mora preteči 72ur, v enem tednu lahko darujete do 2 krat, v dveh tednih 3 krat in v enem ...
Kisik in žveplo sta nekovini, selen, telur in polonij pa so polprevodne polkovine. To pomeni, da so njihove električne lastnosti nekje med lastnostmi kovin in izolatorjev. Telur, pa tudi selen, se kljub temu pogosto razvrščata med kovine. Kovinski halkogenidi se v naravi pojavljajo kot minerali. Nekateri so zelo pogosti, na primer pirit (FeS), ki je železova ruda, nekateri pa so zelo redki, na primer zlatov ditelurid kalaverit (AuTe2). Najboolj pogosto formalno oksidacijsko stanje halkogenih spojin je 2-. Pogosta so tudi druga oksidacijska stanja, na primer 1- v piritu. Najvišje formalno oksidacijsko stanje je 6+ v sulfatih (žveplova kislina H2SO4), selenatih (natrijev selenat Na2SeO4) in teluratih. ...
Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control issued a risk assessment on the ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in Italy. Two r...
Ross River Virus has been in the news lately because of recent outbreaks in Australia where it is endemic. Travelers to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and multiple other Pacific islands may be at risk but most clinicians in the US have never seen a case and dont know much about Ross River Virus Disease. So…
In 2005-6, more than 1.5 million people in the Indian Ocean area were infected with Chikungunya fever. In Reunion Island, 38.3% of the population, approximately 300 000 people, were infected.1 Only 6% of the cases were asymptomatic. Chikungunya fever is a viral infection transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes.2,3 Chikungunya infection usually causes a syndrome characterised by fever, headaches, chills, conjunctivitis, rash, myalgia and severe joint pain with or without swelling. Joint symptoms vary from polyarthralgia to symmetrical polyarthritis. The outcome is usually benign, but persistent joint pain and stiffness may occur.3,4,5,6,7,8. We report 21 cases … ...
Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-α4 and ISG56). TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems
Another name for Chikungunya Disease is Chikungunya Disease. What is Chikungunya disease? A person with Chikungunya disease has an infection caused by ...
Abstract Five species of mosquito were studied to compare their susceptibility to infection, ability to sustain infection, and vector efficiency over a 4- to 5-week period after being infected with an African strain of chikungunya virus. Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus were readily infected with the virus and maintained the highest infection and transmission rates of the mosquitoes tested during the test period. Aedes togoi also maintained a very high infection rate, but was a poor transmitter. Eretmapodites chrysogaster exhibited fairly high infection rates throughout the test and relatively high transmission rates in the latter half of the 35-day test period. Surprisingly low infection and transmission rates were found for Aedes aegypti.
Author Summary Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by mosquito bites and causes a febrile disease that is often characterized by persistent joint pain. Until recently, CHIKV outbreaks were limited to tropical areas of Africa and Asia. However, since 2007, following a large CHIKV epidemic in the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia, CHIKV has also been reported in temperate European regions. As mosquito habitats expand, virus dissemination may become more prevalent, but there are currently no vaccines or CHIKV-specific treatments available. We previously described two human antibodies that potently block cellular CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape neutralization to identify sub-domains of the virus envelope which are involved in CHIKV interaction with these antibodies, thereby opening the door for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. For the first time, we have also demonstrated that CHIKV can be directly transmitted
... is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
... is a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain, muscle aches and fatigue, and the person infected can also develop a rash, making it necessary to always wear loose-fitting, long clothes and use effective insect repellents in areas prone to mosquitos in order to reduce the chance of being bitten by mosquitoes. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by
Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity. Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by
Honduras was a false alarm, so these seem to be the first confirmed chikungunya cases in Central America. Via Prensa Latina: Panamá detecta dos casos de chikungunya y declara alerta preventiva.[Panama detects two chikungunya cases and declares a preventive alert]...
...Recent breakthroughs in Chikungunya research spearheaded by scientists...Chikungunya fever caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosq...CHIKV infection is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever frequentl...To devise strategies to stop CHIKV transmission Dr Ngs team collabor...,Breakthroughs,in,Chikungunya,research,from,A*STAR,spell,new,hope,for,better,treatment,and,protection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted by primarily Aedes aegytpi and Aedes albopictus mosquitos [1]. Once of little importance in the Am ...
Ross River virus (RRV) is Australias most important arbovirus given its annual burden of disease and the relatively large number of Australians at risk for infection. This mosquito-borne arbovirus is also a zoonosis, making its epidemiology and infection ecology complex and cryptic. Our grasp of enzootic, epizootic, and zoonotic RRV transmission dynamics is imprecise largely due to a poor understanding of the role of wild mammalian hosts in the RRV system. The current study applied a piecewise structural equation model (PSEM) toward an interspecific comparison of sylvatic Australian mammals to characterize the ecological and life history profile of species with a history of RRV infection relative to those species with no such history among all wild mammalian species surveyed for RRV infection. The effects of species traits were assessed through multiple causal pathways within the PSEM framework. Sylvatic mammalian species with a history of RRV infection tended to express dietary specialization and
On September 14, 2015, Pathogens and Global Health journal published online, in an open-access article, details of the first-draft genome sequence of Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the tiger mosquito and responsible for transmitting several deadly diseases to humans, such as dengue fever and chikungunya fever, both carried by viruses, potentially offering hope to millions around the world. "This sequencing…offers great hope to our understanding of the mosquito and our ability to control it, potentially saving millions of lives in many areas of the world," said Professor Andrea Crisanti, Editor-in-Chief of Pathogens and Global Health. The Pathogens and Global Health article provides a first look into the genetics of a most dangerous and invasive insect and the possibility of developing ways to prevent the spread of the dengue and chikungunya fevers that infect millions of people annually. The advance is all the more urgent now, given increasingly high levels of mosquito migration and the ...
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Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.
Ross River virus (RRV) is a group A arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes a disease manifested by polyarthritis and rash. The illness was first described in northern Australia in 1928 and subsequently has been observed widely through Austra
Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share the same |i|Aedes|/i| mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections.
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) has been suffering from its first known Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic since February 2005. To achieve a better understanding of the disease, a questionnaire was drawn up for hospital staff members and their household. CHIKV infected about one-third of the studied population, the proportion increasing with age and being higher in women. Presence of a garden was associated with CHIKV infection. The geographical distribution of cases was concordant with insect vector Aedes albopictus distribution. The main clinical signs were arthralgia and fever. The disease evolved towards full recovery in 34·4% of cases, a relapse in 55·6%, or a chronic form in 10%. Paracetamol was used as a painkiller in 95% of cases, sometimes associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticoids, or traditional herbal medicine. The survey provided valuable information on the factors that favour transmission, the clinical signs, the importance of relapses and the therapies used.
Their newest investigation analyzed recent events in chikungunya virus evolution that will aid in predicting future trends in transmission and circulation that determine epidemic potential. Weaver and his team found that the initial adaption provided the framework for a second wave of adaptations that can enable rapid diversification of viral strains and even more efficient transmission to people. In addition, analysis of the chikungunya virus strain expressing a combination of the second-wave adaptive mutations revealed a similar pattern of changes and heightened adaptive qualities suggesting the future emergence of even higher transmission efficiency. ...
BioCollections Worldwide said today that it is now offering a laboratory-developed test for the detection of Chikungunya virus. The assay follows the US Centers for Disease Control and Preventions real-time RT-PCR protocol for detection of Chikungunya virus, and detects cases in the acute stage of infection in about five hours, BCW said. The Miami-based company is providing the test through its CLIA-certified testing laboratory.
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
The Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are aggressive daytime biters with peak activity at dusk and dawn. "Once we are aware of a human case, we will ramp up source reduction and public awareness in that area," Thompson said.. DCHHS Medical Director/Health Authority Dr. Christopher Perkins said residents should understand the severity of CHIKV and do what they can to avoid it. "In some cases, Chikungunya virus can be debilitating," Dr. Perkins said.. "This disease can affect a persons long term health and livelihood." Chikungunya is a Makonde term, which means to "that which bends." People with CHIKV have been known to curl up or bend in their joint areas due to severe swelling and pain. The virus can also cause high fever, headache, muscle pain, back pain, and rash. CHIKV does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be disabling. There is no specific medication available to treat CHIKV and there is not a vaccine. Avoiding mosquito bites is the best way to avoid CHIKV.. Unlike West Nile ...
The genus Alphavirus is one of two within the family Togaviridae and comprises approximately 30 species, including several pathogens of humans and other animals that are of medical, veterinary and economic importance. Most alphaviruses are maintained in nature by a biological transmission cycle between susceptible vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes. In common with many Old World alphavirus pathogens Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of a syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and acute or chronic poly-arthralgia or arthritis. Whereas previously CHIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, in 2004 it re-emerged in coastal Kenya and there followed a series of outbreaks that have continued until the present day, resulting in many millions of cases. Inroads into understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV disease were until recently hampered through the lack of a convenient small animal model capable of exhibiting symptoms similar to those observed ...
A promising prophylactic vaccine candidate against chikungunya fever will be tested from August on in a phase II clinical study in Puerto Rico, a chikungunya fever endemic area. Developed by the Austrian biotech company Themis Bioscience GmbH the live attenuated vaccine is considered as one of the most advanced candidates globally. It is based on a standard measles vaccination vector that offers an excellent immunogenicity and safety profile. The vaccine candidate already showed high seroconversion rates in the preceding phase I clinical trial: Up to 100 percent of all vaccinated subjects produced neutralizing antibodies against the chikungunya virus. Currently the vaccine candidate is tested in two parallel phase II studies in both, the USA and Austria/Germany. The additional trial in Puerto Rico is intended to evaluate the influence of previous chikungunya infections on the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate ...
Read more about Sixty chikungunya cases in Delhi on Business Standard. At least 60 cases of chikungunya have been reported in the national capital this year with nearly half of them registered this month, even as the season of the vector-borne diseases ended in December. 16 cases of dengue have also been reported in
The history of Chikungunya outbreak in India dates back to 1824 whereas the virus was first isolated in 1963 from Kolkata. 4 The viral activity in humans have been observed till 1971......The present outbreak in India started during December 2005 where the country has so far experienced more than 11,00,000 (11 lakh) of Chikungunya infected cases which still continues. 6 The cases were first reported from Andhra Pradesh, one of the worst affected states. Subsequently reports were poured in from several districts of Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra , Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Even Andaman experienced the first Chikungunya epidemic during June 2006. Presently the outbreak is underway in western parts of India specially Gujarat and Rajasthan ...
The reemergence of Chikungunya virus exemplifies the need to develop new vaccines to target other emerging viral pathogens. Chikungunya is estimated to be responsible for several million human infections in the last decade. In addition, one of its vectors, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is moving into new regions, meaning the infection rate is expected to…
chikungunya fever: Viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes that is characterized by fever, headache, rash, and severe joint and muscle pain. The name chikungunya, which means
Doctors help you with trusted information about Fever in Chikungunya: Dr. Isaacs on how to cure chikungunya fever: Fever is usually a symptom of infection. If you think you just have a mild illness like the common cold or a simple viral cough then it is probably safe treat the symptoms and see how you go. Medicines like paracetamol and ibuprofen can be effective at lowering your temperature which may make you feel better but wont make you get better faster. Remember to drink plenty of water and rest!
The Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), which functions under the Department of Biotechnology, has entered into a non-exclusive license for product commercialisation after having successfully developed antibodies against the Chikungunya viral (CHIKV).
Florida case is unusual. Hirschwerk said he and his colleagues diagnosed chikungunya fever virus within the past six weeks. The Long Island patients were unrelated, he said.. "One of those cases has been confirmed by the CDC," Hirschwerk said, "and testing is still pending on the others.. "The likelihood of having more cases in individuals who have not traveled is very low," Hirschwerk said. "The Florida case is unusual and I dont expect to see high numbers [of infections] but we have to keep an eye on the situation.". For some experts, the emergence of chikungunya in Florida sounds an alarm because the virus is carried by mosquito species -- Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti-- that are well established in this country.. "The two species of Aedes mosquitoes that spread chikungunya are found in the southern and eastern United States," said Dr. Erin Staples, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC.. "It is difficult to predict how the disease will spread in the mainland U.S.," Staples said, "but we ...
Autochthonous Chikungunya Fever in Traveler Returning to Japan from Cuba To the Editor: Chikungunya fever is a febrile illness caused by mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus CHIKV: (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae). Clinical signs and symptoms typically begin with high-grade fever after an incubation period of 2-4 days (1). Other common symptoms include polyarthralgia, which is usually symmetric […] Continue reading → ...
Serious international concern continues to exist around the Zika epidemic. The concern has arisen from two possible complications of Zika infection. Permanent fetal brain injury which results in severe microcephaly in some babies and a number of adults developing the neurological disease - Guillain-Barre syndrome, which causes paralysis. There is increasing evidence to indicate that Zika virus can be passed on by transfusion. Blood Services internationally have therefore taken steps to prevent this occurring.. Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes that have acquired the virus from another person who is infected with the virus. Zika virus is spreading in countries where dengue, chikungunya and other mosquito-borne infections are known to occur. Zika infection has many features similar to dengue and chikungunya infections. New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) introduced measures in November 2014 to protect the blood supply from the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya infections. The measures ...
Q: I heard there was a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language, named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain animals) that
Q: I heard there is a new viral disease from Africa that has just come to the Americas. What is this?A: It sounds like you are referring to the chikungunya virus.Chikungunya (which means stooped walk in a Tanzanian language; named because the joint pain from it makes people walk in a bent-over fashion) is a viral illness transmitted by infected mosquitoes (only certain types of mosquitoes can carry this virus). The cycle of infection is: a mosquito bites a person (or certain
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a
The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014-February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9%; differences between rural (mean 44.9%) and urban (mean 78.4%) areas were pronounced. Logistic modeling identified the urban environment as a strong predictor of CHIKV exposure (adjusted odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 2.38-4.69), and geographic elevation provided a strong negative correlation. We observed no correlation between age and antibody positivity or titer. Our findings demonstrated through serologic testing the recent and rapid dissemination of the arbovirus throughout the country. These results show the utility of serologic data to conduct epidemiologic studies of quickly spreading mosquitoborne
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted, single-stranded RNA alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes explosive epidemics of a severe febril...
Chikungunya causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment in Hindi. चिकनगुनिया का कारण, लक्षण, फैलाव और चिकित्सा की जानकारी. Chikungunya ke dard ka upchar, Chikungunya kaise hota hai. Chikungunya ka gharelu upchar. Chikungunya treatment in Hindi.
Compared with concentrations in samples from healthy controls, concentrations in samples from patients in the acute phase of RRV infection showed noticeably elevated concentrations of serum interleukin (IL) 4 and 7; granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES); interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10); and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We also saw a notable decrease in eotaxin levels in acute-phase samples. In samples from patients in the arthralgic convalescent phase, we noted increases in IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, GM-CSF, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), RANTES, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), and VEGF in comparison to healthy controls. Substantial elevations in the convalescent phase when compared with the acute phase were recorded for levels of bFGF and MIP1α, and a marked decrease was seen in IP-10 ...
On 3 August 2015, Spain notified a case of chikungunya virus infection in a resident of the city of Gandía in the autonomous community of Valencia. On 11 September 2015, authorities in Spain acknowledged that the case was a false positive. This rapid risk assessment reviews the later discarded chikungunya case reported from Spain without travel history to endemic areas and the risk of possible onwards transmission. ...
The nsP2 protease of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the essential components of viral replication and it plays a crucial role in the cleavage of polyprotein precursors for the viral replication process. Therefore, it is gaining attention as a potential drug design target against CHIKV. Based on the recently determined crystal structure of the nsP2 protease of CHIKV, this study identified potential inhibitors of the virus using structure-based approaches with a combination of molecular docking, virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The top hit compounds from database searching, using the NCI Diversity Set II, with targeting at five potential binding sites of the nsP2 protease, were identified by blind dockings and focused dockings. These complexes were then subjected to MD simulations to investigate the stability and flexibility of the complexes and to gain a more detailed insight into the interactions between the compounds and the enzyme. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic