Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 32 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: Alphaviruses: arthritis, encephalitis; Rubiviruses: rubella. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Trocara virus Una virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Whataroa virus Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore ...
Mayaro virus disease is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. It is only known to circulate in tropical South America. Mayaro Virus has a structure similar to other Alphavirus. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5 cap nucleotide and 3 poly(A) tail. The MAYV RNA genome contains the 5 untranslated region (UTR), 3 non-coding region (NCR) and two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5 proximal and 3 proximal ORFs are separated by a short non-coding sequence and represent ...
During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more ...
FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes et al. Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 1989, vol.84, n.3, pp.303-307. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003.. Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC) e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA), no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI). MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG ...
2013-10-22 Demonstration of a high level of cross reactivity between different strains of salmonid alphavirus: results from experimental and field studies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. I. Clinical and virological findings. AU - Pinheiro, F. P.. AU - Freitas, R. B.. AU - Travassos Da Rosa, J. F.. AU - Gabbay, Y. B.. AU - Mello, W. A.. AU - LeDuc, James. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - An outbreak of human illness caused by Mayaro (MAY) virus occurred in Belterra, Para, Brazil in the first half of 1978. A total of 55 cases were confirmed, 43 by virus isolation and serology, and 12 by serology alone. The disease in Belterra presented as a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by fever, arthralgia and exanthema. No fatalities could be attributed to MAY virus infection. Arthralgia, accompanied by joint edema in 20% of cases, was a very prominent sign which caused temporary incapacity in many patients. Arthralgia was present in virtually all confirmed cases and persisted in some for at least 2 months, although with decreasing severity. Rash was present in two-thirds of the cases, and was either maculopapular or ...
Looking for pancreas disease? Find out information about pancreas disease. glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. long and 1.5 in. wide. Explanation of pancreas disease
Background Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data - particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a case study, here we compare information theory-based multimodel inference (MMI) with conventional analyses for arboviral infection risk factor assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of anti-MAYV antibodies revealed 44% prevalence (n = 270 subjects) in a central Amazon rural settlement. NHT suggested that residents of village-like household clusters and those using closed toilet/latrines were at higher risk, while living in non-village-like areas, using bednets, and owning fowl, pigs or dogs were protective. The
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The present invention relates to a genic expression adenoviral hybrid vector characterized in that it contains at least the following elements, oriented in the direction 5 to 3: i. a first chain of adenoviral origin comprising a first inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence and a signal sequence for packaging of the adenovirus; ii. a first non-encoding stuffer sequence; iii. a sequence corresponding to a tissue specific promoter; iv. a chain of cDNA derived from an alphavirus, the sequence of which is partly complementary to an alphaviral RNA sequence, comprising at least a sequence encoding for at least one exogenous gene of interest; v. a polyadenylation sequence; and vi. a second adenoviral inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence, it preferably relates to an adenoviral hybrid vector comprising as exogenous gene of interest the therapeutic gene of mammalian interleukin IL-12 and even more preferably human interleukin hIL-12; and to the use of the
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, "Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus-based measles virus DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. AU - Pan, Chien Hsiung. AU - Nair, Nitya. AU - Adams, Robert J.. AU - Zink, M. Christine. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Singh, Manmohan. AU - OHagan, Derek T.. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA ...
After defining the best conditions for cell culture harvesting using the highest virus titer, Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cells were infected with a Brazilian MAYV isolate at a MOI of 1 in order to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of MAYV-infected Aag-2 cells by using a label-free semi-quantitative bottom-up proteomic analysis. Time-course analyses were performed at 12 and 48 h post-infection (hpi). After spectrum alignment between the triplicates of each time point and changes of the relative abundance level calculation, the identified proteins were annotated and using Gene Ontology database and protein pathways were annotated using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.. ...
University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Known as
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus ...
Methods for using alphavirus transducing systems to express fluorescent reporters in vitro and in adult mosquitoes are described. This ...
The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. This page contains the laboratory case definition for alphavirus and flavivirus infections.
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals Slideshow...
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading.
Buy Barmah Squashy Crackle Kangaroo Hat at Paddy Pallin. Made from premium quality Kangaroo Dri-Hide® fullgrain leather. Shop at Paddy Pallin today!
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
Title: Role of conserved cysteines in the alphavirus E3 protein  Author: Parrott, Megan M.; Sitarski, Sarah A.; Arnold, Randy J.; Picton, Lora K.; Hill, R. Blake; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana Date: 2009 ...
In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5 cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1 ...
Interleukin, T Cells, Il-4, Regulation, Transcription Factor, Chemokines, Mouse, Calcium, Cell, Chemoattractants, Arthritides, Arthritis, Disease, Virus, and Alphavirus
Diunduh dari: KESUBURAN TANAH Kesuburan Tanah adalah kemampuan suatu tanah untuk menghasilkan produk tanaman yang diinginkan, pada lingkungan tempat tanah itu berada. Produk tanaman berupa: buah, biji, daun, bunga, umbi, getah, eksudat, akar, trubus, batang, biomassa, naungan, penampilan dsb. Tanah memiliki kesuburan yang berbeda-beda tergantung sejumlah faktor pembentuk tanah yang merajai di lokasi tersebut, yaitu: Bahan induk, Iklim, Relief, Organisme, atau Waktu. Tanah merupakan fokus utama dalam pembahasan ilmu kesuburan tanah, sedangkan kinerja tanaman merupakan indikator utama mutu kesuburan tanah. Diunduh dari:
Pernah lihat padi? Pernah kumpul biji getah? Atau pernah lihat kerbau berkubang di bendang? Hanya geleng dan perkataan tidak yang diterima apabila
REFERENCES. Abad-Franch F, Grimmer GH, Paula VS, Figueiredo LTM, Braga WSM, Luz SLB 2012. Mayaro virus infection in Amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1846. [ Links ] Aitken TG, Downs WG, Anderson CG, Spence L, Casals J 1960. Mayaro virus isolated from a Trinidadian mosquito, Mansonia vene-zuelensis. Science 131: 986. [ Links ] Anderson CR, Downs WG, Wattley GH, Ahin NW, Reese EAA 1957. Mayaro virus: a new human disease agent. II. Isolation from blood of patients in Trinidad, B.W.I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1012-1016. [ Links ] Azevedo RSS, Silva EVP, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Nunes-Neto JP, Monteiro H, Peixoto VS, Chiang JO, Nunes MRT, Vasconcelos PFC 2009. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1830-1832. [ Links ] Bronzoni RVM, Baleotti FG, Nogueira RMR, Nunes M, Figueiredo LTM 2005. Duplex reverse transcription-PCR followed by nested PCR assays for detection and identification of Brazilian alphaviruses and ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
gB, but not gD or gH/gL, binds to liposomes.Our laboratory previously showed that HSV virions bind to liposomes when incubated in the presence of a soluble form of the gD receptor, HVEM, at pH 5.0 (55). Second, gB730t, but not soluble forms of gD or gC, can bind to cholesterol-rich lipid rafts (10). Together, these data suggest that HSV may interact with lipids through gB. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the fusion loops of two class II fusion proteins from flavivirus (2) and Semliki Forest virus (35) impair the ability of these proteins to associate with liposomes. Therefore, we theorized that if gB inserts into target membranes via the putative fusion loops, gB730t should associate and float with liposomes, while the soluble forms of the fusion loop mutants should be impaired in this association.. To test this hypothesis, purified soluble gB, gD, and gH/gL were each incubated with two different compositions of liposomes, i.e., PC only or PC/C, at 37°C for 1 h. We then added KCl to ...
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
Understanding the dynamics of pathogen transfer in aquaculture systems is essential to manage and mitigate disease outbreaks. The goal of this study was to understand recent transmission dynamics of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) in Norway. SAV causes significant economic impacts on farmed salmonids in European aquaculture. SAV is classified into six subtypes, with Norway having ongoing …. Genome Sequencing of SAV3 Reveals Repeated Seeding Events of Viral Strains in Norwegian Aquaculture. Read More ». ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Due to space, on-line registration is now closed however walk-ins are welcome.. Join the National Pancreas Foundation Louisiana Chapter on Sunday, June 9, 2019 at the historic Rockn Bowl for an afternoon of bowling and family fun! ...
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
The Strep-tag® purification system is based on the highly selective binding of engineered streptavidin, called Strep-Tactin, to Strep-tag II fusion proteins. This technology allows one-step purification of almost any recombinant protein under physiological conditions, thus preserving its bioactivity.
Bank BCA KCU Tasikmalaya. No. Rekening : 054.063.9132. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank Mandiri KCP Tasikmalaya Mustofa. No. Rekening : 131-00-1034177-6. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank BRI 4371 Unit Singaparna Timur. No.Rekening : 4371-01-000197-50-9. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. ======================================= ...
Drug Uses Lopid (also known as a fibrate medication) is used along with a proper diet to help lower fats (triglycerides) and cholesterol in the blood. This drug is usually prescribed after non-drug treatment options have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol (e.g., diet change, increase in exercise, weight loss if overweight). This drug is thought to work by decreasing the amount of fat produced by the liver. Reducing cholesterol and triglycerides lowers the risk of heart disease and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. This drug also helps to prevent pancreas disease (pancreatitis) in patients with very high blood levels of triglycerides. How to use Take this medication by mouth usually twice a day, 30 minutes before your morning and evening meals, or as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. It may take ...
Learn about some of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated by the Pediatric Liver Center at Johns Hopkins
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and its Associated Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Juliyanti Fu, C Rinaldi A Lesmana, Imam Subekti, Irsa
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs [1]. If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. [2]). [1] Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004. [2] https://www.dettol.com.ng/products-old/see-all-products/. ...
Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/32J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/32J virus expressing B2 (TE/32J/B2) compared to TE/32J and TE/32J virus expressing GFP. TE/32J/B2 exhibited increased