The amino acid sequence of human alpha-fetoprotein, a 67-kDa protein present in mammalian embryonic serum, was verified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric (FAB/MS) analyses of three different enzymatic digests of the protein. Human alpha-fetoprotein obtained from a large-scale cell culture was digested with trypsin and V-8 protease either separately on two different samples or combined on the same one. The V-8 protease digest of the protein was partially fractionated by HPLC; the other samples were directly analyzed by FAB/MS without previous purification steps. About 90% of the alpha-fetoprotein amino acid sequence was verified by mass spectrometric analysis; this also confirmed that the cell-derived protein is identical with the hepatoma-derived protein. FAB analysis revealed that the N terminus of the mature protein is arginine rather than threonine, with the threonine occupying the second position. Therefore, the processing site of the alpha-fetoprotein signal peptide during maturation of
The fucosylated fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) is a specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, conventional AFP-L3% (c-AFP-L3%) has not always been reliable in cases with low serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of a newly developed assay, highly sensitive AFP-L3% (hs-AFP-L3%). Subjects included 74 patients with benign liver disease (BLD), including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, and 94 with HCC. Serum hs-AFP-L3% was significantly higher than c-AFP-L3% in patients with early-stage HCC (solitary or ...
Alpha fetoprotein normal range - When did alpha fetoprotein testing start? 1980s. The Alpha fetoprotein test was around when I was a resident physician. The test has progressed through the y ears such that there are four levels measured in the pregnant womans blood looking for the risk of downs syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18 & neural tube defects like spina bifida. This is called the quadruple screen best measured between 16 & weeks of pregnancy.
To the Editor:. Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver1 that is routinely used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in subjects with chronic liver diseases.2,3 Elevations of AFP levels may be often observed in acute and chronic viral hepatitis also4,5 and are usually associated with hepatic cirrhosis.5,6 These elevations have been correlated to hepatic damage per se with selective transcriptional activation of the AFP gene.7 Recently, it has been demonstrated that elevated AFP levels correlate with a low probability of sustained virologic response (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C treatment, at least in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4.8 To date, no study has evaluated the association between serum AFP levels and early virologic response (EVR) to anti-HCV treatment in the HIV-positive population.. In this study we evaluated 33 consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects followed up at our clinic who initiated an anti-HCV treatment, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid mediates down-regulation of the α-fetoprotein gene through decreased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factors. AU - Magee, Thomas R.. AU - Cai, Yan. AU - El-Houseini, Motawa E.. AU - Locker, Joseph. AU - Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne. PY - 1998/11/6. Y1 - 1998/11/6. N2 - α-Fetoprotein (AFP), a protein highly induced during fetal liver development, is down-regulated by retinoids in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B, in contrast to up-regulation observed in other cell types. Previously, we have documented that such up-regulation involves direct effects through cis-retinoid X receptor-binding sites in the AFP enhancer. In this report, we show a distinctive effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) in Hep3B cells. RA caused a marked decrease in AFP transcripts. Deletion analysis of the upstream regulatory region of the AFP gene revealed that cis-acting sites required for down-regulation resided near the promoter. Gel mobility shift assays for factors binding to key elements in the ...
alpha-Fetoprotein has been prepared from human fetal tissue by procedures utilizing DEAE-Sephadex, concanavalin A-Sepharose, and isoelectric focusing. A major and a minor component with isoelectric points of 4.7 and 5.3, respectively, have been isola
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
Also Known as Alpha-Fetoprotein Test (AFP) MSAFP is often part of the triple screen test that assesses whether further diagnostic testing may be needed.
I have a long history of ovarian cysts that usually go away,but also a family history of cancer. They came across a larger than usual one on my left side and started to watch it, as of now it has conti...
Background: The utility of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is controversial. We aimed to identify factors associated with elevated AFP and define the patients for whom AFP is effective for surveillance. Methods: Data from the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network Phase 2 HCC biomarker study (233 early stage HCC and 412 cirrhotic patients) were analyzed. We analyzed 110 early stage HCC and 362 cirrhotic HCV patients for external validation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for HCC were calculated. Results: HCV etiology, Non-White race, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) predicted elevated AFP in cirrhotics. Non-White race and ALT predicted elevated AFP in HCC patients. Higher AUC of AFP for HCC was noted in patients with HBV (0.85) and alcohol (0.84) while it was lower in patients with HCV (0.80) and Non-viral/Alcohol etiology (0.76). The AUC was higher in HCV patients with serum ALT≤40 U/L than patients ...
Synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP. 1 synonym for fetoprotein: foetoprotein. What are synonyms for alpha alpha-fetoprotein AFP?
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone AFP-Y2Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody
Buy AFP purified protein, ALPHA FETOPROTEIN Purified Protein-NP_001125.1 (MBS230298) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Purified Proteins. Application: Immunoassay (IY)
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein found in human blood. Its level is elevated in a pregnant womans blood when there are problems with her unborn chi...
α-Fetoprotein (AFP) measurements have clinical implications in fetal medicine and, in infants and older children, in detection, differential diagnosis and monitoring of malignant disease. Maternal serum AFP levels constitute part of a multiple-marker test used in early second-trimester screening to predict risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Those individuals with increased risk are offered further definitive diagnostic investigation. Second-trimester screening is now increasingly being superseded by first-trimester screening with other serum markers and ultrasound. As AFP is only produced physiologically during fetal development, elevated serum levels after the first two post-natal years usually indicate the presence of a malignant disease process. Before this time, levels may be purely physiological and therefore serial values should be plotted on a logarithmic chart to ensure that they are falling appropriately, with a typical half-life of ∼5-6 days. If not, further investigation ...
Parity in women is associated with reduced lifetime risk of breast cancer, and hormones of pregnancy (estrogen E, progesterone P, human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG) are implicated. Parity also reduces mammary cancer risk in carcinogen-exposed rats, and administering pregnancy hormones to these animals is similarly effective. Because pregnancy hormones are also able to stimulate cancer growth, we proposed to resolve this dichotomy by determining whether administered pregnancy hormones elicit the cancer-inhibiting agent α-fetoprotein (AFP) from the liver, which would implicate AFP as a proximal effector of hormonal anticancer activity. Accordingly, we treated groups of nitrosomethylurea-exposed rats with saline, E3, E2 + P, E3 + P, hCG, or allowed them to experience pregnancy, then monitored mammary cancer incidence and serum levels of AFP over time. Each hormone treatment reduced mammary cancer incidence and elevated serum AFP levels. To challenge human tissues, human HepG2 liver cells in ...
A 64-year-old male from Bangladesh, identified to have elevated levels of serum AFP in 2010 by electrochemiluminescense immunoassay (ECLIA), presented with consistently elevated AFP levels (,1,100 ng/mL), with the most recent evaluation showing 1,830 ng/mL. Physical examination revealed no abnormality or swelling anywhere in the body. There was no loss of appetite, sudden weight loss, history suggestive of liver disease, or family history of malignancy. He underwent cholecystectomy in 2003 for gallstone disease and complained of asthma and sinusitis. He had also recently been diagnosed for type 2 diabetes mellitus. His liver function tests were normal except for a slight elevation of alanine aminotransferase (41 IU/L), and he tested negative for all other viral infections suggestive of hepatitis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and examination of the upper gastrointestinal series and colon were all normal. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with a grade III fatty liver.. Given ...
AlphaLISA no-wash immunoassay kit for detection and quantitation of human alpha-fetoprotein in serum, culture media, or buffered solution.
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287 ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4 (4q25). AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin. AFP binds to copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin and is found in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms. AFP is a glycoprotein of 591 amino acids and a carbohydrate moiety. AFP is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus. Plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth but begin decreasing prenatally starting at the end of the first trimester. Normal adult levels are usually achieved by the age of 8 to 12 months. The function of AFP in adult humans is unknown; however, in rodents it binds estradiol to prevent the transport of this hormone across the placenta to the fetus. The main function of ...
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis (HCV-C). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been proposed as a biomarker of HCC risk. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a food supplement that has an excellent safety profile. The use of SAMe as a chemopreventive is based on abnormalities in methionine cycle (with decreased SAMe levels) in patients with cirrhosis, increased risk of HCC in experimental animals deprived of SAMe, and the prevention of liver cancer by SAMe administration in animal models of chemically-induced HCC.. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIb trial to determine if SAMe (up to 2.4 grams/day) for 24 weeks reduced serum AFP levels in patients with HCV-C. Inclusion criteria: lab evidence of HCV-C (platelet count ,150,000/mm3), AFP 15-100 ng/mL (normal less than 9 ng/mL). Exclusion criteria: non-HCV liver diseases, decompensated HCV-C (MELD,15), or history of, or mass suspicious for ...
A 35-year-old Chinese man presented with dull pain in the right hypochondrial region for the previous 2 months. Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe. At laparotomy, a dark ...
Information about the open-access article Hepatocellular carcinoma: microstructure and expression features of hepatocyte marker, alphafetoprotein, cytokeratins 7 and 20 in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
Well-diagnosed consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enrolled through a designed questionnaire to obtain basic information about gender, age, etiology of cirrhosis, conventional liver function tests, serum AFP level, education level, substance use including smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing, history of familial HCC, etc. Then the patients was followed by periodic abdominal sonography examination and determination of AFP and liver function. If AFP elevated or liver nodule appears, effort to diagnose HCC will be performed.If HCC was performed, the survival will be followed-up. As anti-viral therapy was found to decrease risk for HCC, patients with those therapy will be excluded ...
Uotila, M; Engvall, E; and Ruoslahti, E, "Monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay of alphafetoprotein. Abstr." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2317 ...
The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light
Objective: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development which could lead to weak reproducible antitumor immunity, and may act as a target for cancer therapy. Therefore, it is imperative to enhance its immunogenicity and develop therapeutic vaccines to eliminate AFP-expressing tumors. The study is...
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tends to remit during pregnancy, with more patients achieving remission in the third trimester, coinciding with an increase in levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP). In vitro and animal studies have shown that AFP has immunomodulatory properties. MM-093 is a non-glycosylated, recombinant version of human AFP.. Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability and clinical effects of MM-093 during a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.. Methods: 12 patients with RA, who had active disease and were on stable doses of methotrexate, received weekly subcutaneous injections of placebo or 21 mg of MM-093. Assessments were carried out at baseline and weekly thereafter.. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. There was one dropout in the placebo group, due to flare of disease. Treatment with MM-093 was well tolerated. No serious adverse event was observed. By day 85, MM-093 produced a significant mean improvement from baseline in ...
fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography. In evaluating such tests, it is important to note that the performance characteristics of a test that is used for diagnosis may differ when used for screening/surveillance. Thus, reports of the performance characteristics of AFP and ultrasonography, when applied to screening/surveillance, must be interpreted cautiously.. AFP. This was the marker used in the first reported surveillance studies of HCC. 29,44,45 The sensitivity of AFP for detecting HCC varies widely in both HBV-positive and predominantly HBV-negative populations, 22,25,27,28,44,46,47 possibly because of the confusion between diagnosis and screening. If the level of AFP triggering investigation for HCC is increased, e.g., from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L,25 the sensitivity of the AFP test falls from 39% to 13%, while the specificity increases. AFP, however, is not specific for HCC. Titers also rise with flares of active hepatitis.46 Of 44 HBV carriers with elevated AFP levels detected during ...
The ultrasound technician squeezed a blob of warm gel on my belly, and then rotated the paddle in the sticky goo. Within seconds, an image appeared on the screen in front of her. I tilted my head to catch a glimpse of the life growing inside me. She took careful measurements of the babys head, legs and arms. (Shorter limbs may be an indicator of Down syndrome.) Unlike a regular ultrasound with its gray and white images, this one featured color -- bands of blue and red exploding on the screen as she pointed out the umbilical cord, spine and heart chambers. My husband, a wildlife biologist with expertise in GPS and digital mapping, admired the acuteness of the enhanced ultrasound. Minutes before, we sat in a dim room exploring our options with a genetics counselor. While we didnt have a history of birth defects in our families, my maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test came back with abnormal levels, and my age (mid-30s) also put the pregnancy into a higher risk category for ...
We firstly and specifically investigated the diagnostic value of autoantibodies in α-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively evaluated the prevalence and diagnostic value of autoantibodies to nucleophosmin (NPM)1, 14-3-3zeta and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) proteins and their different combinations in 56 AFP-negative HCC patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in AFP-negative HCC. Our study demonstrated that autoantibodies to NPM1, 14-3-3zeta and MDM2 may be useful biomarkers for immunodiagnosis of AFP-negative HCC ...
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Synonyms for AFP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for AFP. 2 synonyms for AFP: alpha fetoprotein, alpha foetoprotein. What are synonyms for AFP?
The authors of the study conclude that "A pooled analysis of two phase 3 trials assessing ramucirumab as second-line treatment in patients with HCC following first-line sorafenib (REACH-2 and REACH) demonstrates a significant and clinically meaningful benefit with a favorable safety profile in HCC patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL.". See the webcast from this presentation. ...
Second-trimester prediction of severe placental complications in women with combined elevations in alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin
Learn about the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, a widely used biochemical blood test used to screen for liver, testicular, and ovarian cancer.
What is an AFP Blood test? AFP blood test, otherwise, also known as Alpha Fetoprotein Test is a type of blood test that measures the level of AFP present in the blood. This test is basically a part of Triple Screening or Quad screening test that is performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. The…
Mouse monoclonal alpha 1 Fetoprotein antibody [6E6] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
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In men, nonpregnant women, and children, AFP in the blood may mean certain types of cancer, especially cancer of the testicles, stomach, ovaries, pancreas, or liver are present. High levels of AFP may also be found in Hodgkins disease, brain tumo
The more research I do and am able to put the pieces together, the more I realize that my obgyn really really screwed up big time-he completely neglected my care. I was showing elevated AFP and slightly low amniotc fluid much earlier when he would have had the chance to at least make some kind of recommendations to at least try to help my Mia. I wish someone would have at least said the word "preeclampsia" to me instead of letting me think that everything as ok. They did absolutely nothing (the Dr and even the MFM dept. for the exception of an ultrasound every 2 weeks). If caught early, a lot of women are put in a dark room without any stimuli and ae closely monitored and it seems to help. Even baby asprin or other meds tends to help eventhough its not proven. But anything that wouldve been tried wouldve been better than the outcome that I have to live with everyday for the rest of my life....these Drs had a chance but they treated me and my baby like some number and even drs who treat patients ...
The more research I do and am able to put the pieces together, the more I realize that my obgyn really really screwed up big time-he completely neglected my care. I was showing elevated AFP and slightly low amniotc fluid much earlier when he would have had the chance to at least make some kind of recommendations to at least try to help my Mia. I wish someone would have at least said the word "preeclampsia" to me instead of letting me think that everything as ok. They did absolutely nothing (the Dr and even the MFM dept. for the exception of an ultrasound every 2 weeks). If caught early, a lot of women are put in a dark room without any stimuli and ae closely monitored and it seems to help. Even baby asprin or other meds tends to help eventhough its not proven. But anything that wouldve been tried wouldve been better than the outcome that I have to live with everyday for the rest of my life....these Drs had a chance but they treated me and my baby like some number and even drs who treat patients ...
I just wondered if any of you had any insight on my case. My AFP has never reached the magic 25 number (thank God), but before chemo I believe my AFP value was like 5 or less (it was normal). After the first round or two of chemo it went up to 12 and a couple weeks after it was up to 19. I was freaking out,
WASHINGTON, DC - December 9, 2014 - More than half of corporate treasurers and CFOs believe business conditions will improve in 2015, the largest percentage predicting improvement since 2005, according to a survey of 856 executives released today by the Association for Financial Professionals (AFP), a global professional society.. The AFP Business Outlook Survey, which has tracked business predictions of CFOs, corporate treasurers and other financial executives for the last 11 years, found that 44 percent of finance executives expect the U.S. economy to grow between 2.0 and 2.9 percent, while 31 percent are even more optimistic and expect it to grow between 3.0 and 3.9 percent.. Finance executives expect growth to occur in the second half of 2015, creating another 1.9 million nonfarm jobs. Among those surveyed, 49 percent say their companies anticipate hiring workers in 2015.. EXPECTATIONS FOR 2015:. ...
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Hi Im new to this site and am not sure exactly how it works. I have a few questions that I have been wanting to ask and I am hoping to find someone with a similar situation to what we are going through. My son was diagnosed with a non-semonoma germ cell tumor at 9 months old. After a l/o we found out it was
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. An AFP test may be ordered, along with imaging studies, to try to detect liver cancer when it is in its earliest and most treatable stages.
J:30022 Trojan J, Naval X, Johnson T, Lafarge-Frayssinet C, Hajeri-Germond M, Farges O, Pan Y, Uriel J, Abramasky O, Ilan J, Expression of serum albumin and of alphafetoprotein in murine normal and neoplastic primitive embryonic structures. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995 Dec;42(4):369-78 ...
A star pathologist hired by Oscar Pistorius told AFP on Thursday he will not testify at the athlete s murder trial, another blow for his defence after a week of savage cross-examination