Adult male American alligators measure 3.4 to 4.6 m (11.2 to 15.1 ft) in length, and can weigh up to 453 kg (999 lb). Females are smaller, measuring 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft) in length. The American alligator inhabits freshwater wetlands, such as marshes and cypress swamps from Texas to southeastern and coastal North Carolina. It is distinguished from the sympatric American crocodile by its broader snout, with overlapping jaws and darker coloration, and is less tolerant of saltwater but more tolerant of cooler climates than the American crocodile, which is found only in tropical climates. American alligators are apex predators and consume fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Hatchlings feed mostly on invertebrates. They play an important role as ecosystem engineers in wetland ecosystems through the creation of alligator holes, which provide both wet and dry habitats for other organisms. Throughout the year, in particular during the breeding season, American alligators bellow to ...
We examined indices of salt gland function both in vivo and in vitro and the ultrastructual morphology of the salt secreting tissue of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus to determine its long-term adaptive capacity and phenotypic plasticity following chronic exposure to hypo- and hyperosmotic environmental conditions. As previously established, salt glands play a pivotal role in the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis in C. porosus living in hyperosmotic conditions. However, little was known about long-term effects of prolonged exposure to hyperosmotic environments on the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis. All haematological values measured in this study for SW-acclimated animals were within the ranges reported for wild-caught C. porosus living in water bodies of varying salinities (Grigg, 1981; Wells et al., 1991), suggesting that SW-acclimated crocodiles were able to successfully maintain osmotic homeostasis despite extended exposure to hyperosmotic conditions. Moreover, extended ...
Floridas fearsome lord of the swamps, the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite.The strongest bite belongs to the saltwater crocodile, a Pacific ocean species
The saltwater crocodile is most commonly found on the coasts of northern Australia, and the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia. It ranges west as far as the shores of Sri Lanka and eastern India, all
The (maximal) bite force of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is estimated around 22,000 Newton (refer to YouTube interview with Ofer Kobi, a crocodile conservation ranger and croc farm owner, time 7:50-8:00, Hebrew , where he estimates the bite force as above 2 metric tons). However, I didnt find a proper reference for this. Dr. Gregory Erickson measured the bite forces of a 5.2 meters long Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and obtained a value of about 16,000+ Newton and estimated a 6.7 meters long Saltwater Crocodile can exert a bite twice as strong (about 34,000 Newton). See Paper by Gregory Erickson et al. Interesting to note that Erickson measured small Nile Crocodile (total body length , 3 meters) so it does not represent the bite force of a full adult big crocodile.. Remarks on units of force:. 1 Newton = 1 kg * 1 meter / sec^2. $1 \ \mathrm{Newton} = \frac{\mathrm{kg} \times \mathrm{meter}}{\mathrm{second}^2}$. 1 Newton = 0.224808943 lbf = 0.225 lbf (pound-force). 10,000 ...
Alligators experience large but variable increases in LES pressure during bouts of ventilation compared with apnea. The increase in pressure generally ranged from 200% to 3000%. However, on rare occasions, no pressure increase was seen coincident with ventilation. Fluctuations in LES pressure during apnea and ventilation have also been observed in anesthetized piglets (Kiatchoosakun et al., 2002). Kiatchoosakun et al. (2002) used hypoxia to stimulate respiratory rate and found a peak increase in LES pressure of 49% (from a baseline of 0.65±0.09kPa to 1.0±0.12kPa). This increase in LES pressure was blocked by atropine, indicating cholinergic control of LES tone. A decline in LES pressure accompanied the development of apnea during a subsequent hyperoxic exposure. These authors suggest that a loss of respiratory neural output might contribute to the loss of LES tone. A cholinergic-dependent neuromuscular control of the LES is also observed in humans. Thus, the changes in pressure observed within ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
To explore CR1 distribution in C. porosus, macroarrays were screened with CR1b-derived overgos or a combination of CR1a and CR1b overgos. Comparison of the CR1b- and CR1a/b-probed macroarrays revealed that the CR1a and CR1b subfamilies are not distinguishable in our assay, i.e., virtually no differences in hybridization pattern and intensity were observed when comparing the CR1b and CR1a/CR1b filters (data not shown). It was clear, however, that elements similar to CR1a and b are fairly abundant in C. porosus. Examination of one-quarter of the CR1a/b-probed macroarray (Figure 3A) indicates that 8.9% of clones show hybridization to the CR1a/b overgos while CR1b overgo hybridization to a filter stamped with the contents of a single 384-well plate from the BAC library suggests that 12.8% of clones (49 of 384) are positive for the CR1b overgo (Figure 4). Densitometric analysis of the macroarray reveals that there is a six-fold variation in positive clone hybridization intensity. If the lightest, but ...
Define Archosauria. Archosauria synonyms, Archosauria pronunciation, Archosauria translation, English dictionary definition of Archosauria. Noun 1. Archosauria - a large subclass of diapsid reptiles including: crocodiles; alligators; dinosaurs; pterosaurs; plesiosaurs; ichthyosaurs; thecodonts...
American Alligator - Beware of this fast swimmer and powerful biter in the Southeast rivers and fresh waters. It can grow to be 14 ft or perhaps more!
Seems like nothing is more fascinating to a second grader than crocodiles and other semi-monsters. Usually, kids wonder about the difference between alligators and crocodiles. This book, part of the Which Animal is Which? series, gives definitive answers for that difference in a way that second graders can understand.. Alligators live in fresh water. Crocodiles can live in salt water. The reptiles snouts are shaped differently. Alligators have a wider jaw and are a darker color. Only a few of an alligators top teeth show when its mouth is closed. Crocodiles show most of their teeth with their mouths closed. Alligator mothers make mounds for their eggs. Crocodile mothers dig holes. Alligator mothers stay with the babies for up to a year. Crocodiles leave the young once they reach the water. All these ideas are easily accessible and memorable for kids.. The photographs included provide wonderful illustrations of the concepts discussed. Who can resist the smile of a crocodile? And its amazing ...
A crocodile farm or alligator farm is an establishment for breeding and raising of crocodilians in order to produce crocodile and alligator meat, leather, and other goods. Many species of both alligators and crocodiles are farmed internationally. In Louisiana alone, alligator farming is a $60 to $70 million industry. Though not truly domesticated, alligators and crocodiles have been bred in farms since at least the early 20th century. Most of these early businesses, such as St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, established in 1893, were farms in name only, primarily keeping alligators and crocodiles as a tourist attraction. Only in the 1960s did commercial operations that either harvested eggs from the wild or bred alligators on-site begin to appear. This was largely driven by diminishing stocks of wild alligators, which had been hunted nearly to extinction by that time. As the American alligator was placed under official protection in 1967 (under a law preceding the 1973 Endangered ...
An accurate count of annual crocodile attacks on humans is difficult to obtain. Many of the areas in which humans and large crocodiles come into contact are remote, impoverished, or in areas of political unrest. Crocodile attacks are not always reported to local authorities, and some reports are difficult to verify. Nevertheless, some information does exist: for example, it was reported by CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe that in the first ten months of the year in 2005 crocodiles were the number one cause of death in humans where wildlife was involved - with the number of deaths cited as 13. Unlike other man-eating crocodiles, such as the saltwater crocodile, the Nile crocodile lives in proximity to human populations, so contact is more frequent. Although most attacks are not reported, the Nile crocodile is estimated to kill hundreds (possibly thousands) of people each year, which is more than all other crocodilian species combined.[2][3] One study posited the number of attacks by Nile crocodiles per ...
Over their monthlong expedition, photographer Trevor Frost and filmmaker Melissa Lesh set out to capture photos and videos of saltwater crocodiles that no one has seen before- the dinners-eye view. They had nine successful deployments, which captured what is likely the first videos ever of a saltwater crocodile attack from the inside of its mouth.When Frost first went to Australia a few years ago, he was shocked to find out that there are still crocodile hunters. He became fascinated with the subculture surrounding saltwater crocodiles, the largest living reptile. Saltwater crocodiles grow to about 20 feet in length and can weigh over 2,200 pounds. And if that doesnt seem like danger enough for a hunter, saltwater crocs have the strongest recorded bite force of any animal on the planet-anywhere between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch. That kind of force can easily crush a human skull. There were only an estimated 3,000 saltwater crocs left in Australia by 1970, but now some scientists say there
Over their monthlong expedition, photographer Trevor Frost and filmmaker Melissa Lesh set out to capture photos and videos of saltwater crocodiles that no one has seen before- the dinners-eye view. They had nine successful deployments, which captured what is likely the first videos ever of a saltwater crocodile attack from the inside of its mouth.When Frost first went to Australia a few years ago, he was shocked to find out that there are still crocodile hunters. He became fascinated with the subculture surrounding saltwater crocodiles, the largest living reptile. Saltwater crocodiles grow to about 20 feet in length and can weigh over 2,200 pounds. And if that doesnt seem like danger enough for a hunter, saltwater crocs have the strongest recorded bite force of any animal on the planet-anywhere between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch. That kind of force can easily crush a human skull. There were only an estimated 3,000 saltwater crocs left in Australia by 1970, but now some scientists say there
Using our CAMP discovery process and only 100 μl of alligator plasma, we have previously identified five novel antimicrobial peptides from A. mississippiensis that exhibit antibacterial activity [8]. Our bioprospecting-based process provides a unique access to the antimicrobial peptidome, and is a significant advance in the effort to identify novel antimicrobial peptides in nature. In this study, we present detailed characterization of the structure and function of three alligator plasma-derived peptides: Apo5, Apo6, and A1P. We demonstrated that Apo5, Apo6, and A1P are potent antimicrobial peptides that extend their efficacy against multi-drug resistant and clinically relevant pathogens, such as A. baumannii. The two peptides Apo5 and Apo6 are both derived from a predicted apolipoprotein C-1 in A. mississippiensis. Apolipoproteins bind lipids; apolipoprotein C-1 in particular is known to bind phospholipids and is a marker of apoptosis [11, 12, 43, 44]. Apo6 is a smaller derivative of Apo5; ...
The name alligator comes from the Portuguese word lagarto (lat. Lacerta, t. E. A lizard) and commonly used in South America from the British and Dutch colonists, as well as in North America; The name of this animal caiman give negros Guiana and French colonists. True alligators come from Australia. They are named in honor of the Alligator River. Chinese and American alligators belong to the family of crocodiles and bear the name of a completely undeserved. Crocodiles are in the language of the salt gland. If they swallow too much salt water, excess salts are recovered through them into the environment ...
Background Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. Results The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. Not I digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7×) coverage of
Ecology. Habitat. Fresh Water swamps and waterways only.. Distribution. Diet. Carnivorous, Fish, snakes, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals.. Ecological Web. Activity and Behavior. Activity Pattern. Alligators are active durring the day and at night, this is considered cathemeral. Durring the day alligators thermoregulate and bask in the sun. Alligators hunt and feed primarily at night.. Behavior. Social Behavior. Young alligators stay near their hatchling site and form a tight social group. This behavior aids in survival and protection from predators. As adults, alligators do have loose social contact. Reproductive Behavior. Offspring. Between 30-50 eggs are laid in a ground litter nest for their incubation period. The eggs are then covered so that the temperature can rise. Warmer temperatures produce males, cooler temperatures produce females.. Conservation. Status. Historical. Current Threats. Our Role. ...
Posted on 05/18/2013 2:08:28 PM PDT by LibWhacker. An international team of scientists led by Prof Cheng-Ming Chuong from the University of Southern California has discovered unique cellular and molecular mechanisms behind tooth renewal in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).. Their findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pave the way for tooth regeneration in people. Humans naturally only have two sets of teeth baby teeth and adult teeth. Ultimately, we want to identify stem cells that can be used as a resource to stimulate tooth renewal in adult humans who have lost teeth. But, to do that, we must first understand how they renew in other animals and why they stop in people, Prof Chuong said. Whereas most vertebrates can replace teeth throughout their lives, human teeth are naturally replaced only once, despite the lingering presence of a band of epithelial tissue called the dental lamina, which is crucial to tooth development. Because alligators ...
ID A0A151MF56_ALLMI Unreviewed; 2363 AA. AC A0A151MF56; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0005596 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA Burgess S.C., Cooksey A.M., Castoe T.A., Crawford N.G., ...
ID A0A151M8E8_ALLMI Unreviewed; 1151 AA. AC A0A151M8E8; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 5. DE SubName: Full=Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 isoform B {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN Name=TRPM6 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0012636 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO20775.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA ...
Yesterday a new study was released in the journal of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. Researchers from the University of Utah, studied the effects of the well documented right-to-left shunt in crocodylians.Okay, lets get the exposition out of the way first.. Mammals and birds are both characterized by a 4 chambered heart. This heart allows the complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams. Less publicized, but equally as important, this separation also allows for a pressure differential to exist between the two ventricular chambers. That way the right - pulmonary side - of the heart can pump deoxygenated blood at low pressure to the delicate walls of the alveoli in the lungs, while the left - systemic side - of the heart, can pump oxygenated blood at much higher pressure (~7 times higher) to the entire body.. Reptiles and amphibians differ from mammals and birds, in that they have a heart divided into 3 chambers (two atria, one ventricle). This allows for mixing of ...
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China Crocodile Clip Clamps Mini Alligator 10/25/30AMP 35/50mm Alligator Clip, Find details about China Alligator Clip, Clamps from Crocodile Clip Clamps Mini Alligator 10/25/30AMP 35/50mm Alligator Clip - DELSON(Ningbo) Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd.
General Information: Alligators do not truely hibernate, but they do undergo periods of dormancy in cold weather. They are known to search out caves in the banks of waterways and use them as dens. Females usually have a small range, while males occupy areas of greater than two miles. Both sexes become more active and extend their territory during the breeding months of April and May.. Special Anatomical, Physiological, or Behavioral Adaptations: Modern Alligators have many adaptations that make them well suited to their wetland envirnment. Their eyes, ears, and nose are positioned to peek out just above the waterline so they can locate prey without being easily identified. Their eyes and nostrils close by reflex when the animal goes underwater, and they have a transparent third eyelid, or nictitating membrane, that covers the eye as the animal moves through the water.. Reproduction: Sexual maturity is based upon the size of the Alligator. Both sexes are usually considered mature when they reach ...
Mycoplasma alligatoris is a species of bacteria in the Mycoplasma genus. It is classified in the Bacteria domain, Firmicutes phylum, Mollicutes class, Mycoplasma order, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Many organisms of the Mycoplasma genus are known pathogens in humans and animal species. Mycoplasma alligatoris is known to elicit a fatal disease with inflammatory characteristics that can cause rapid death of alligators and caimans. Mycoplasma alligatoris was first isolated in a study led by D. R. Brown of six captive alligators showing signs of pneumonia, polyserositis (inflammation of serous membranes), and multifocal arthritis. The isolates were obtained from various organs, blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid and subject to various experimental tests for identification purposes. Primary isolates were cultured in ATCC medium 98 agar containing 105 U penicillin G 1−1, 10 5 U polymyin B 1 −1, 65 mg cefoperazone 1 −1 and 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum in 5% CO2 atmosphere or in ...
Average weight: between 600 and 2,000 pounds., Nile crocs are characterized by their lizard-shaped bodies and scaly hides., Coloring: ranges from drab green or brownish to a blackish tone on the dorsa
Snap!: A Book about Alligators and Crocodiles. Melvin Berger. Publisher: ScholasticFormat: Paperback. What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? How are they born? Find out the answers to these questions and many more in this Level 3 Hello Reader Science bookDid you know that a crocodile is usually longer, weighs more, and can outswim alligators? Children will learn all about these aquatic creatures-everything from where they live, what they eat, and how they survive-in this non-fiction easy reader.Renowned authors Melvin and Gilda Berger have created yet another fascinating science book. With simple, accessible text and brilliant photographs, SNAP A BOOK ABOUT ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES is sure to be a big hit with parents and teachers alike. GST Note: GST is included in the price of this item. GST is included in the freight.. ...
Quietly sneak upon this Crocodile. I was about 30 yards away and ending up closer to just about 15 feet. I had to walk behind trees of course and when as i got closer it notice me and open its jaws. So what you think? gaping or lunch. After all, one jump and it swam away. …
In the wild, most nutria probably live less than 3 years; captive animals, however, may live 15 to 20 years. Predation, disease and parasitism, water level fluctuations, habitat quality, highway traffic, and weather extremes affect mortality. Annual mortality of nutria is between 60% and 80%. Predators of nutria include humans (through regulated harvest), alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), garfish (Lepisosteus spp.), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and other birds of prey, turtles, snakes such as the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), and several carnivorous mammals. Nutria densities vary greatly. In Louisiana, autumn densities of about 18 animals per acre (44/ha) have been found in floating freshwater marshes. In Oregon, summer densities in freshwater marshes may be 56 animals per acre (138/ha). Sex ratios range from 0.6 to 1.6 males per female. In summer, nutria live on the ground in dense vegetation, but at other times of the year they use burrows. Burrows may be those ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical Localization of Laminin and Cytokeratin in Embryonic Alligator Gonads. AU - Smith, Craig A.. AU - Joss, Jean M.P.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Gonadal sex differentiation is temperature‐dependent in Alligator mississippiensis; testis differentiation occurs in embryos incubated at 33°C and ovary differentiation occurs in embryos incubated at 30°C. Laminin and cytokeratin were examined immunohistochemically in the gonads of alligator embryos incubated at these temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine whether these structural proteins show the same sex‐specific expression patterns reported for mammalian embryos, and to assess their usefulness as early markers of gonadal differentiation in species with temperature‐dependent sex determination. Laminin delineated enlarged seminiferous cords in differentiating testes from developmental stage 23 to hatching. Laminin distribution was more diffuse and revealed smaller cords of cells in ...
Come see alligators on display with your kids at the Key West Aquarium. Year after year the Aquarium is rated as one of the top Key West Florida Attractions.
A resemblance between a long-lost African crocodile and modern American crocs goes beyond the shared bump on their snouts. New analyses of a roughly 7-million-year old skull from the extinct Crocodylus checchiai suggest that crocodiles journeyed from Africa to the Americas millions of years ago, researchers report July 23 in Scientific Reports. Unearthed in the 1930s, the fossil came from whats now Libya and sat for decades in a museum. With CT scanning, scientists have now mapped the skulls structure, revealing hidden anatomical features that tie the animal closely to the four species of American crocodiles alive today.. It really looks like an American true crocodile, but it comes from Africa, says Massimo Delfino, a paleoherpetologist at the University of Turin in Italy.. Genetic analyses had already linked the Nile crocodile with its American kin. Though scientists suspected that crocs long ago colonized one of the locales before journeying to the other, the fossil record hadnt painted ...
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant DEB#1545288, 10/1/2015-9/30/19 and DEB#1929393, 09/01/2019-08/31/2024. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. ...
In the spirit of Halloween, find out which scary animals are most likely to give us the heebie-jeebies and what you should do if you encounter your worst animal nightmare.
This new knowledge could assist in the conservation and breeding strategy of Australian freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. Dr Jaime Gongora, research project leader from the University of Sydneys Faculty of Veterinary Science said Alligators and crocodiles occupy an evolutionary mid-point between mammals and birds so they provide a unique link. Our research helps address fundamental questions about how evolution drives and maintains genetic diversity of the immune genes.. The study looked at the diversity and evolutionary mechanisms of two primary gene classes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), key components of the immune system. The study investigated 20 species of crocodilians including the two Australian crocodile species; freshwater and saltwater crocodiles.. This research helps to close a gap in our knowledge of immune gene evolution particularly since the crocodilian families (crocodiles and alligators) diverged from a common ancestor 90 million years ago.. The MHC is ...
Found Hermes Kelly 28 Black Porosus Crocodile on MALLERIES - Vintage Hermes Kelly 35 Black Crocodile Leather Gold Hardware Sta, Chanel Vintage Crocodile Shoulder Bag, Chanel Vintage Crocodile Shoulder Tote and more.
Alligator Coloring Sheet - Crocodile Coloring Pages. elephant coloring pages. crocodile colour in pictures. panda coloring pages. pictures of crocodiles to colour in. coloring pages of animals.
In November, two American alligators were flown from the Poconos to Wisconsin to undergo surgery. The story took a sad turn Tuesday morning when one of the alligators died unexpectedly. The alligators had been recovering in their own personalized enclosures built in the basement of the veterinary hospital.
On Friday, October 25, I completed the aerial challenge course at the Alligator Farm in St Augustine, Florida! It took me about an hour and half as I walked across swinging elements and bridges. There were several ziplines, also. Underneath me were a lot of alligators...I must say that was very interesting. I also saw lemurs and several species of birds. There were many different species of alligators and crocodiles. I met Scott Brown the manager of the course. I got a workout, but it was an enjoyable workout! - at Alligator Farm. ...
Where Pv is the new percentage value, Iv is the initial value on the specific day and D0 represents the value on Day 0. Data were log transformed (log10[x+1]) and analysis of variance (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) was used to compare results from the different groups. Non-parametric, bivariate correlation (Spearmans rho) analyses (IBM SPSS Statistics 19) were conducted in order to determine relationships between biochemical parameters and infection dose.. Results. Blood glucose. The mean concentration of blood glucose for the three experimental groups is shown in Table 2. In the high-infection and medium-infection groups, initial peaks in blood glucose values were observed on Day 14 PI and Day 7 PI, respectively. This was followed by a slight decrease the following week. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in blood glucose concentrations on Day 28 PI between the high-infection and low-infection groups and between the medium-infection and low-infection groups (p , 0.05). No ...
Discussion. Crocodilians differ from other egg laying archosaurs (dinosaurs and birds) in that they lack medullary bone in the endosteal cavities of the long bones (Schweitzer et al. 2007). The epiphyses of the long bones in crocodiles therefore often appear eroded as more of the remodelling seems to take place on the outside of the bone, as seen in the cases described. Therefore, a certain degree of erosion may have to be considered normal.. In early stages of osteoarthropathy, the periosteal surface of the epiphyses alone appears to be affected and shows deep longitudinal furrows up to and undermining the articular surfaces. In advanced stages, there is collapse of the articular surface, which, in turn, can stimulate an inflammatory reaction in the form of osteoarthritis.. The cases described here originated from routine post-mortem examinations and are therefore random findings without any particular geographical or epidemiological pattern. The wild specimens came from the Limpopo province ...
Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the ...
The Cayman branch, which has no local staff or customers, is operated from Mexico by HSBC subsidiary HBMX. Its services are not related to HSBC Premier, the retail arm of HSBC in the Cayman Islands. HSBC had acquired the Cayman branch through its purchase of Mexican bank Bital in November 2002, which in turn had received authorisation from Cayman banking regulators in 1980 to offer Cayman US dollar accounts to its customers. At its peak in 2008, HBMX maintained over 60,000 accounts with assets of $2.1 billion in its Cayman branch. Any HMBX branch across Mexico had the authority to open a Cayman account for clients. HBMX offered US dollar services through its correspondent account with HSBC in the US. The report said it had no evidence that HSBC US was ever informed of the use of the correspondent account in this way. The accounts allowed HSBC in Mexico to circumvent local regulations which prohibit Mexican residents from maintaining US dollar accounts in Mexico. The Subcommittee report, which ...
American alligators are found in the southeastern United States from Virginia along the Atlantic coast to Florida and into the Gulf of Mexico in Texas. This large freshwater alligator generally resides in swamps, rivers and lakes but can tolerate some salinity and brackish environments. This species can burrow and hibe
Of course Im just having a bit of fun. None of those possibilities are true, youll be pleased to hear. Actually, its been known for a long time that crocodilians (or crocodylians if you want to be pedantic) can climb out of the water onto floating logs and low branches. We didnt publish a paper to point this out, but rather we wanted to explore how widespread this was, and look into the reasons why crocodiles might do this, and even allow us to speculate on how extinct crocodyliforms may have behaved. After all, if you look at a modern crocodile and think theres no way it could climb a tree, youre not going to assume a fossil crocodyliform with a similar morphology is going to be able to do it either. Well, heres a cool thing, some modern species can climb trees, and they can do so remarkably well, often getting several metres off the ground up relatively steep trunks and branches. The modern crocodilian limb is more adaptable than you might have thought ...
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Chromosome locations Select an organism by typing or scrolling Adelie penguin African clawed frog African savanna elephant Ailuropoda melanoleuca Alligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis alpaca American alligator American beaver American crow American pika Anas platyrhynchos Aotus nancymaae Aptenodytes forsteri Arabian camel Australian saltwater crocodile Bactrian camel black flying fox black snub-nosed monkey Bolivian squirrel monkey Bos taurus bottlenose cfh symbol Brandts bat budgerigar Callithrix jacchus Callorhinchus milii Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus ferus Canis lupus familiaris Capra hircus Castor canadensis cattle Cavia porcellus Cercocebus atys Chaetura pelagica chicken chimney swift chimpanzee Chinchilla lanigera Chinese alligator Chinese hamster Chlorocebus sabaeus Chrysemys picta collared flycatcher Columba livia common starling Condylura cristata Corvus brachyrhynchos Coturnix japonica crab-eating macaque crested ibis Cricetulus griseus Crocodylus porosus ...
Should Belize save the Belize Crocodile? We have both the alligator and the crocodile in Belize? It seems, that crocodiles, despite having a brain the size of an avocado seed and being a highly instinctive feeding machine, has something else going for it. A crocodile is territorial and has a homesite. If you take it away from the homesite, it will come back. It has a homing instinct, superior to many other species. Recently, in south Florida, a Crocodile, dubbed Snaggletooth some months back, that lived in the ponds of a golf course, about 75 miles north of here. Was trapped as it was scaring golfers. This fella is 150 pounds and quite easily could tear off your leg. Crocodiles take a bite and then spin their bodies like a corkscrew, to disorientate the victim and pull them under to drown. They can also climb over fences, porches, walls and run at 30 mph. for short distances. Now Snaggletooth is an eight footer and quite easily could do mayhem to some careless golfer trying to get his golf ...
Looking for online definition of crocodile shagreen in the Medical Dictionary? crocodile shagreen explanation free. What is crocodile shagreen? Meaning of crocodile shagreen medical term. What does crocodile shagreen mean?
Back at the house Daniel welcomed me with a present: A Southern Alligator Lizard, GERRHONOTUS MULTICARINATUS. Id been looking for one of these because its a bit unusual, despite the fact that its abundant and frequently seen here, and it looks a lot like the normal fence lizard, which we also have. In fact, at first I had a hard time distinguishing alligator lizards from fence lizards. It must be a case of convergent evolution because the two species are very unrelated, being in entirely different families and even suborders. You can see the taxonomic relationships among different kinds of lizards on my Lizard Classification Page at www.backyardnature.net/lizclass.htm.There youll observe that alligator lizards are about as unrelated to average lizards (iguanid lizards) such as fence lizards and anoles, as are Gila Monsters. One difference between alligator lizards and regular lizards is that their have bony scales (osteoderms) encasing them so effectively that their bodies are fairly ...
How to Draw a Cartoon Alligator Head. Want to brag about your drawing of an alligator to your friends? Well, stick with this article to find out how to draw a quick, simple, cartoon drawing of an alligator! Start off your alligator with...
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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus distributed widely in tropical regions of the world that causes a febrile and often painful disease in adults and children. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection in the Caribbean have raised concerns about establishment of this virus in North America. A significant question about the transmission cycle of CHIKV is whether non-human reservoir hosts are important in maintenance or transmission of the virus. We conducted experimental infections with CHIKV and discovered that several reptiles and amphibians developed viremia of sufficient magnitude to possibly serve as reservoir hosts. One or two strains of CHIKV were inoculated into a variety of ball pythons, Burmese pythons, Northern garter snakes, American alligators, green iguanas, painted turtles, leopard frogs, Bufo species toads and cane toads. Viremia was not detected in alligators or cane toads but all other species developed viremia at variable magnitude. Peak viremia in the other species varied from 2.8
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Louisianas abundant fresh, brackish and marine water resources, heavy soils, flat lands, temperate water and semi-tropical climate ensured that the state would be a leader in aquaculture. During the 20th century commercial aquaculture industries developed in Louisiana for finfishes including channel catfish, baitfish, tilapia and recreational sport fishes; crustaceans including freshwater crawfish and soft-shell blue crabs; and reptiles including the American alligator and red-eared turtles. The states enormous estuarine-based oyster industry dates from the 19th century and entered the 21st century as the dominant source of cultured oysters in the United States. Research was done in the area of saltwater shrimp culture in the 1960s and 1970s. Aquaculture is one of Louisianas major animal industries. The Louisiana aquaculture industry includes more than 2,000 diverse operations throughout the state, and a potpourri of aquatic animals show promise for developing more significant private ...
ost living crocs, he said. Two living crocodiles -- the Cuban and Siamese crocodiles -- also have horns, but those of the Olduvai crocodile were more prominent. Of course, horns probably would have given the crocodile a devilish appearance, as if that were needed on a man-eating crocodile. Brochu and his colleagues based their conclusions on fossils collected over many decades. Some were collected in 2007 by a team led by Robert Blumenschine of Rutgers University and Jackson Njau, then of the National Natural History Museum of Tanzania. But others were collected as long ago as the 1930s and kept in museums in Kenya and the United Kingdom. Most of these fossils, by themselves, are fragmentary and not very impressive, but together, they reveal a crocodile different from any of its living relatives. It would have looked more or less like a Nile crocodile except for a deeper snout and, of course, the horns, Brochu said. Apart from the very scary image projected by the beast, Brochu said that ...
Hibernation in an appropriate environment not only is important for the survival of hibernators in winter, but also is crucial for breeding in the following season for many hibernating species. However, the genetic and epigenetic mechanism underlying this process remain unclear. In the current study, we performed an integrative multi-omics analysis of gonads collected from Chinese alligators that overwintered in wild cave and artificial warmroom to explore transcriptomic and epigenomic alternations in these organs. The data revealed that in the breeding season, female alligators were more strongly affected in terms of gene expression than males by non-hibernation because of overwintering in a warm room, especially for genes related to oocyte maturation, and this effect commenced in winter with the downregulation of STAR, which is the rate limiting factor of steroid biosynthesis. Further, miRNAs were found to play essential roles in this negative effect of overwintering in the warm room on hibernation.
Background Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine), through to short snouted (brevirostrine) morphologies. The proportional length of the mandibular symphysis correlates consistently with rostral shape, forming as much as 50% of the mandibles length in longirostrine forms, but 10% in brevirostrine crocodilians. Here we analyse the structural consequences of an elongate mandibular symphysis in relation to feeding behaviours. Methods/Principal Findings Simple beam and high resolution Finite Element (FE) models of seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads simulating biting, shaking and twisting. Using beam theory, we statistically compared multiple hypotheses of which morphological variables should control the biomechanical response. Brevi- and mesorostrine morphologies were found to consistently outperform longirostrine types when subject to equivalent biting, shaking and twisting loads. The best predictors of performance for biting and twisting
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Minnesota Zoo Located in Apple Valley, Minnesota African Fruit Bat The African Fruit Bat is originated from Africa. They eat fruit plants and spread the seeds all over the ground to help then reproduce. These bats are adaptable to any place as long as they have food and shelter. The African Fruit Bat eats figs, mangoes, dates, and any other fruit. Atlantic Reef Fish The Atlantic Reef Fish contain many fish from the Atlantic Coast. This Exhibit is very fascinating to children especially because they like to look at the sharks. Did you know that the wingspan of a southern stingray can reach up to 5 feet. West African Dwarf Crocodile The West African Dwarf Crocodile lives in and around slow-moving streams and is a thick, dark scales covering all over the Crocodile. They have yellow bellies and the young are about 11 inches long at hatching. These crocodiles eat fish, invertebrates, and other water creatures. Some people hunt and eat crocodiles. The Dhole is a primitive canine species with a compact ...
BATON ROUGE, LA-In a breakthrough study that contradicts decades of understanding about the nature of alligator-drunkard relations, Louisiana State University researchers have concluded that peoples drunkenness does not impair the ancient reptiles ability to inflict enormous physical harm.. Our data strongly indicates that human intoxication does not transform an alligator into a docile creature that enjoys wrestling, said professor Ryder McCrory, chair of the Wildlife Taunting Department of LSUs prestigious Center For Bullying And Hazing Studies. Despite its slow-witted demeanor and tendency to bask motionlessly in the hot sun, its a mistake to believe that an alligator will passively tolerate a half nelson, no matter how much Southern Comfort is fueling it. ...
Pterosaurs and dinosaurs are closely related, meaning they share a number of features, but are still distinct groups, or clades as we call them in biology. They both belong to a group called the Archosauria, which includes crocodilians, dinosaurs (including birds, as they evolved from dinosaurs and therefore are dinosaurs by definition), and pterosaurs. Archosaurs share a number of characteristics including an antorbital fenestra (a hole in the skull in front of the eye) and teeth set in sockets. However, early in archosaurian evolution there was a split between crocodilians and their close relatives (the crurotarsans or pseudosuchians) and birds and their closest relatives, including dinosaurs and pterosaurs (known as the avemetatarsalians). Avemetatarsalia is a mouthful, but its pretty easy to break down. Basically this group is united by a bird-like ankle, among other features. Within this group is another group called the Ornithodira, which means bird-neck, again uniting the group with ...
Tephrosia cenerea (exists in at least 3 marsh locations on Cayman Brac). Botanists have catalogued most of the wild plants in this country. The definitive works are Dr. George Proctors Flora of the Cayman Islands, second edition, and F.J. Burtons Threatened Plants of the Cayman Islands: The Red List. For the complete citation of both books you may check the field guides section of this present nature blog, www.naturenotes19n79w.ky. But a book is no sooner published than it is out of date. Its not a complaint, its a thank you because the books make it easier for amateur and professional plant sleuths to develop their knowledge. In the process they may find gaps or errors.. One such gap is the listings for Cayman Brac. Many plants that live here in the wild are credited in the references for Grand Cayman, Little Cayman or both but not for Cayman Brac. These plants have been here all along but have been missed. And no wonder - this island has few resident scientists, is difficult for ...
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|p|Incredible fossils of an ancient crocodile cousin and a dinosaur with shark-like teeth have been found in Brazil, scientists say.|/p|
WIMAUMA, Fla. - A man riding a motorcycle hit an alligator that was crossing a rural Florida road, throwing him from his bike.. The Florida Highway Patrol said in a news release that 27-year-old Calun Nelson was riding his motorcycle south of Tampa early Friday when he saw the more than 10-foot (3.05-meter) alligator crossing the road in front of him. He tried to avoid the gator, but couldnt.. Troopers say Nelson was taken to a Tampa hospital with serious injuries.. Television station WFLA reports an alligator trapper was called to retrieve the gators body.. Its the second accident this week in Florida involving an alligator. On Tuesday a driver on Interstate 75 escaped serious injury when she hit an alligator near Sarasota.. ...
Last week, 73 crocodile hatchlings were rescued by a team of specialists at Florida Power & Lights nuclear plant and dozens more are expected to emerge soon.
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In what looked like a scene from a primetime TV medical drama, a team at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine has successfully removed a shoe from the stomach of a giant crocodile.
While Republicans cry crocodile tears over Benghazi, it s too bad they didnt have as much concern for the soldiers fighting in Afghanistan, which makes their outrage a little misleading.The US troops fighting this war on terror are being sent into ambushes, and then left on their own to die after being surrounded by the enemy.In 2002, soldiers were sent to the top of Takur Gar mountain in Afghanistan. They were told their was no resistance yet when they attempted to gain this vantage point the mountain top was controlled by the enemy. A horrendous fight ensued with many American soldiers dying in this ambush.Congressional Medal of Honor winner Dakota Meyer in his book, tells of his own personal harrowing battle in Afghanistan. The troops were sent into an ambush in one of the fiercest battles in Afghanistan, and U.S.troops quickly became surrounded and trapped. Meanwhile, the ones giving the orders are the officers safely ensconced in the rear, in their air conditioned offices, theyre not even on
Once upon a time, in a kingdom far away, there were two twin princes. The older twin excelled at everything, and the younger one failed at just as much. The two were so different that it was a wonder that the same blood flowed through their veins. It was like pairing up a giant and a dwarf. The younger brother grew up with a severe inferiority complex and developed an extremely dark personality. He started to enjoy collecting ferocious animals, one in particular being a crocodile from another kingdom. He put the crocodile in a cage, where he tormented it. It was the only time he could ever feel strong. Years went by, and it was finally time for the heir to take the throne. Of course, the chosen heir was none other than the eldest of the twin brothers. Jealous, the younger prince stormed off to his room. He sat there, staring at his crocodile. If only I could get the crocodile to kill my brother… he thought. Just then a strange voice resonated in the room and the prince could feel his body ...
Its hard to make friends when youre always stinging or biting someone.... Down by the great big, brilliant blue river, a not-so-bright crocodile and an equally pea-brained scorpion lived peacefully by themselves. One day, the scorpion realized he needed help getting across the river. Could they control their natural instincts long enough to make it across together?. Rebecca and Ed Emberley offer a sprightly new twist on another classic tale with colorful artwork so bold and bright it snaps off the page. ...
A cheeky crocodile met its match when it tried to use some hippopotamuses as stepping stones in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
This Costa Rican fisherman has a very sweet friend to count upon: a four-and-a-half metre long crocodile. Read on to know the history behind their everlasting friendship.
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A new study, published today in Nature Ecology and Evolution, reveals that birds skulls evolved differently to their relatives and ancestors, and develop more like those of young dinosaurs and crocodiles.. Birds are the only surviving members of a group of feathered dinosaurs, and are close cousins to modern crocodilians (alligators, crocodiles and gavials). However, birds have unique skeletons, particularly their beaked skulls, which have wider dome-shaped cranial bones to accommodate proportionally larger brains and eyes.. Previously, Dr Arkhat Abzhanov, from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial, and colleagues determined that the shape of the birds skulls most resemble those of young non-avian (non-birdlike) dinosaurs.. This evolutionary phenomenon is known as paedomorphism - where an adult retains features that are usually only seen at the young stages (embryo or baby) in its ancestors. Paedomorphism is caused by a change in timing of developmental events of an organism - for ...
Caiman lizard: Caiman lizard,, any member of a genus (Dracaena) of lizards in the family Teiidae. These lizards (D. guianensis and D. paraguayensis) are found streamside in forested areas
The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370 (Tetrahydrocannabinols), the company will manufacture a synthetic THC. No other activity for this drug code is authorized for this registration.. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Cayman Chemical Company to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the public interest at this time. DEA has investigated Cayman Chemical Company to ensure that the companys registration is consistent with the public interest. The investigation has included inspection and testing of the companys physical security systems, verification of the companys compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the companys background and history. Therefore, ...
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The blood bank has set an ambitious goal of 500 new donors by the end of 2017, and it needs the public to help make it happen.. The blood bank told Cayman 27 its noticed an uptick in the need for blood over the last two years. It said incidents of gun violence help exacerbate the need for donor blood, as shooting victims often require several units, which can quickly deplete the blood stock.. [Blood donors] are there for a purpose, and that blood is there to help save lives, said Medical Technologist Greg Honeyghan. Thats the purpose of any blood bank; your blood will go as far as saving somebodys life - even improving it.. The blood bank says volunteers from Rotaract and Rotary Central helped them sign up thirty potential new donors at this years Taste of Cayman.. ...
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My research focuses mainly on the evolution of Crocodylomorpha, specifically the 200 million year old crocodylomorph group of Neosuchia which contains all modern species of crocodile, alligator and the gharial. I am working on reconstructing their ancestral relationships, the timing of when the different families arose and how they achieved their biogeographical distribution. In addition, I also work on the methodology of phylogenetic reconstruction, looking at how we can improve the accuracy of reconstruction by using continuous characters and different methods of character weighting. In particular, I focus on how the problematic effects of homoplasy and convergent evolution can be mitigated by using these new methods.. ...
Back in 2007 Raul Martin illustrated Effigia for National Geographic. Martins interpretation of Effigia looks nothing like any kind of crocodylian animal that we know, fossil or extant. The reason for that is that Effigia was not very similar to its soon-to-be descendants. During the Triassic era reptiles were beginning to truly take command of the land and even the skies. The most successful forms of reptiles at the time were those walking on two legs at least facultatively; that does not mean that there were no successful quadrupedal reptiles at this time. Therefore, many of the reptiles that would become known as the ancestors of lepidosaurs, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and even crocodylians were similarly built animals with powerful hindlegs, long balancing tails, and mouths filled with little reptilian teeth. As an early member of the then developing suchian line, Effigia espoused these typical reptilian traits, but was also in the process of incorporating the precursors of crocodilian traits ...
Tyrannoneustes lythrodectikos is one of numerous metriorhynchid crocodylomorph species known from the Oxford Clay Formation of England (Callovian-Oxfordian; Middle-Late Jurassic). This taxon is of evolutionary importance, as it is the oldest and most basal known macrophagous metriorhynchid. It has a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived feeding related characteristics, including: teeth with microscopic, poorly formed and non-contiguous denticles; increased tooth apicobasal length; ventrally displaced dentary tooth row (increased gape); reduced dentary tooth count; and a proportionally long mandibular symphysis. However the type specimen, and current referred specimens, all lack a preserved cranium. As such, the craniofacial morphology of this taxon, and its potential feeding ecology, remains poorly understood. Here we describe two skulls and two lower jaws which we refer to T. lythrodectikos. Previously these specimens were referred to Metriorhynchus brachyrhynchus. They share with the T. lythrodectikos
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Mcbride, W H.; Woodruff, M F.; Forbes, G M.; and Moore, K, Effect of c. Parvum on the number and activity of macrophages in primary and transplanted murine fibrosarcomas. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1492 ...
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