Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages ...
Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28‐d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land‐application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected
Article Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water purification plants (WPPs) with advanced treatment processes. A series of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) surveys were conducted in two water purification plants (WPPs) having ozonation and granular ac...
The European Commission this year will consider a proposal to restrict the manufacture or sale of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), its salts, or substances that degrade into PFHxS. These chemicals are used as water and stain repellents in textile treatment, according to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). They are part of a group known as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that are highly persistent in the environment. PFHxS is highly bioaccumulative and has been detected in human blood and in wildlife in the Arctic and other remote places. Use of PFHxS and its related compounds has declined in recent years, ECHA says, adding that current annual emissions of these substances in the EU are estimated at about 0.42 metric tons. Norway initiated the proposal to restrict PFHxS and its related compounds, with the goal to prevent their use in place of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, which is already banned in the European Union, or perfluorooctanoic acid, which will be prohibited there as ...
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are man-made chemicals. Their unique properties make them beneficial for a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, such as constituents in fire fighting foams, hydraulic oils and food packaging materials.PFAAs have shown to be highly persistent in the environment, and the toxicological potential of long chain PFAA homologues is of a concern. International regulation and voluntary actions by the industry have been implemented and led to reduced primary emissions of PFAAs to the environment. However, the concentrations of some PFAAs in e.g. birds from the Baltic Sea are still very high and of ecotoxicological concern. Measures to reduce the PFAA contamination require an understanding of the sources and how the PFAAs are being transported in the environment.In this licentiate thesis a mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the ...
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) has been serving as an active source to cater intelligent research report to enlighten both readers and investors. This research study titled "Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Market". Request a Free Sample Report @ https://www.mrrse.com/sample/984. Increasing demand for sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laureth ether sulfate (SLES) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) from detergents & cleaners and personal care industries is expected to drive the global SLS, SLES & LAS market in the next five years. However, the adverse effect of SLS and SLES on human skin coupled with fluctuation in prices of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate is anticipated to hamper market growth. Emerging applications such as paints & coatings and oilfield chemicals are estimated to offer immense opportunities for players in the market. SLS, SLES and LAS are the major forms of anionic surfactants. However, LAS accounts for nearly 40% of the global anionic surfactants market.. The report ...
Get Information of Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Dealers, Exporters, Traders, Producers, Wholesalers, Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Companies in Aurangabad, India
We utilized milk samples obtained from a survey of 219 primiparous mothers in 2009 to test for the presence of new persistent organic pollutants: hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), chlordecone, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOS-F), and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). 158 samples were pooled according to the mothers age, length of stay in Hong Kong, and their dietary habits (frequencies of intake of fish and other seafood, and milk and dairy products) and tested for chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs. All were present in our samples. Their mean and median concentrations are very high compared to findings in other countries. HCH and PeCB were tested in 73 individual samples and their mean levels were of the same order of magnitude as those reported in our previous study. The levels of PBDEs were positively associated ...
Paola Irato, Sara Trabucco and Laura Tallandini-Emerging Contaminants Such as Perfluorinated Compounds: Toxicity andOxidative Stress
A survey on seasonal concentration changes of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was performed for surface water in Lake Biwa (14 sites) from February to November in 20
Link: Shabalina Irina G, Kalinovich AV, Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2015) Event: MiP2015 The environmental pollutants perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are degradation products of polyfluorinated surfactants and polymers that due to their unique surface-active properties, the stability of their C-F bonds and their thermal resistivity, are utilized in a wide variety of products, including fire-fighting foams, lubricants, paints, cosmetics and ski-wax. PFOS/PFOA cause a dramatic reduction in the size of the major adipose tissue depots when they are added to the food of mice. A large part of the effect of PFOA/PFOS on food intake was dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the brown adipose tissue [1]. We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wildtype brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen ...
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online. Researchers at NISTs Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML) and four partner organizations have measured for the first time concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in five endangered species of sea turtles. While PFC toxicology studies have not yet been conducted on turtles, the levels of the compounds seen in all five species approach the amounts known to cause unfavorable health effects in other animals.. PFCs are man-made compounds that have many uses including stain-resistant coatings, fire-fighting foams and emulsifiers in plastics manufacturing. They are detectable in human and wildlife samples worldwide, infiltrate food chains, and have been shown in laboratory animals - rats, mice and fish - to be toxic to the liver, the thyroid, neurobehavioral function and the immune system. The PFCs most frequently found in the environment are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).. Located in Charleston, S.C., ...
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of synthetic compounds found in a variety of household and industrial products. The two most studied compounds in this family, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been associated with a range of health concerns. The following webinar recording describes two pilot projects designed to measure human PFAS exposures undertaken by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the New York State Department of Health. It focuses on the states use of the PFAS Exposure Assessment Technical Tools (PEATT)-a guidance document developed by CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to measure human PFAS exposures through drinking water sources. Results from PEATT allow health officials to estimate levels of exposure for an entire affected community, not just those individuals tested. The PEATT also provides guidance on how to share results with affected communities.Read More ». ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. alkylbenzene sulfonate ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Article Adsorption of four perfluorinated acids on non ion exchange polymer sorbents. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have attracted global concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and properties of persistence, bio accumulation and toxicity. The...
Several environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, bisphenol A and phthalates, have been linked to diabetes. We therefore investigated whether other kinds of contaminants, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), also called perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are also associated with diabetes. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study investigated 1,016 men and women aged 70 years. Seven PFAS were detected in almost all participant sera by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetes was defined as use of hypoglycaemic agents or fasting glucose , 7.0 mmol/l. 114 people had diabetes. In the linear analysis, no significant relationships were seen between the seven PFAS and prevalent diabetes. However, inclusion of the quadratic terms of the PFAS revealed a significant non-linear relationship between perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and diabetes, even after adjusting for multiple confounders (OR 1.96, 95% CI ...
MELVILLE, NY--(Marketwired - October 11, 2017) - Napoli Shkolnik PLLC has filed a class action lawsuit against five manufacturers of aqueous firefighting foams (AFFF) containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for the contamination of the groundwater relied upon by the residents of Yaphank, New York. The class action...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Wen, Li Li. AU - Chang, Chih Cheng. AU - Lin, Chien Yu. AU - Jin, Lu. AU - Juan, Shu Hui. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through ...
Chen, M-H, E-H Ha, T-W Wen, Y-N Su, G-W Lien, C-Y Chen, P-C Chen and W-S Hsieh. 2012. Perfluorinated compounds in umbilical cord blood and adverse birth outcomes.. Synopsis:. Babies exposed to higher levels of the chemical PFOS in the womb were born sooner and smaller than babies with lower exposures, suggests a new study of 429 babies from Taiwan. They also had smaller head circumferences.. PFOS levels in the babies umbilical cord blood were similar to those collected from U.S. and Canadian babies in 2004 - 2005. Birth outcomes were unaffected by the other studied chemicals - PFOA, PFNA and PFUA.. This is the first time that PFOS has been related to shorter pregnancies. Effects on birth weight and head circumference support the findings from previous studies.. The results are important because nearly everyone carries PFOS in their blood. Even subtle effects at an individual level can have important public health consequences at the population scale if everyone is exposed.. PFOS is a stain, ...
PFCs are synthetic organic compounds, based on fluorine. Used in stain, heat and water-resistant products (eg Teflon). Toxic to lab animals. Bioaccumulative
Aceptado junio 2009. ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), anthracene and a LAS anthracene mixture on the growth of a microbial consortium isolated from polluted sediment. The microbial consortium was grown in a sterile glass bottle with mineral medium containing 1 g/L of glucose. Microbial growth inhibition produced by LAS, anthracene and combinations of LAS and anthracene was determined by viable count in nutritive agar; inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was calculated. The concentrations evaluated were 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, 16 and 160 mg/L of LAS or anthracene. The LAS anthracene mixtures were prepared by fixing either LAS or anthracene at 0.16 mg/L while increasing the other compound at the above concentrations. Microbial growth was sensitive to LAS at an IC50 of 8.22 and to anthracene at an IC50 of 5.2 mg/L. In the LAS anthracene combination, if LAS concentration was fixed and anthracene concentration varied, IC50 (5.92 mg/L) was ...
Alkanes C10-C13, chloro (short-chain chlorinated paraffins) (SCCPs): 10 000 mg/kg;. Aldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordecone: 5 000 mg/kg;. DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane): 5 000 mg/kg;. Dieldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endosulfan: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Heptachlor: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexabromobiphenyl: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobutadiene: 1 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorocyclohexanes, including lindane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Mirex: 5 000 mg/kg;. Pentachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS). (C8F17SO2X). (X = OH, Metal salt (O-M+), halide, amide, and other derivatives including polymers): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) (3): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) (4): 5 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated naphthalenes*: 1 000 mg/kg;. Sum of the concentrations of tetrabromodiphenyl ether C12H6Br4O), pentabromodiphenyl ether (C12H5Br5O), hexabromodiphenyl ether ...
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1. Shall not be manufactured, or placed on the market as substances on their own from 4 July 2020.. 2. Shall not, from 4 July 2020, be used in the production of, or placed on the market in: (a) another substance, as a constituent; (b) a mixture; (c) an article, in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts or 1 000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances.. 3. Points 1 and 2 shall apply from:. (a) 4 July 2022 to: (i)equipment used to manufacture semi-conductors; (ii) latex printing inks. (b) 4 July 2023 to: (i) textiles for the protection of workers from risks to their health and safety; (ii) membranes intended for use in medical textiles, filtration in water treatment, production processes and effluent treatment; (iii) plasma nano-coatings. (c)4 July 2032 to medical devices other than implantable medical devices within the scope of Directive 93/42/EEC.. 4. Points 1 and 2 shall not apply to any of the following:. (a) perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its ...
(2009) Benskin et al. Environmental Science and Technology. The exposure sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife are not well characterized. Human biomonitoring data show that PFOS profiles may consist of up to approximately 50% b...
Porous microspheres have fixed on the exterior surface thereof a coating of at least one of a perfluorinated oil, a fluorinated silicone oil or a silicone gum. The pores of the microspheres can be charged with a hydrophilic, lipophilic or perfluorinated phase. The microspheres are employed in cosmetic compositions.
Time to pregnancy for women with highest blood levels of two chemicals was 134% and 154% longer, vs. those with the lowest levels
Hepatotoxic perfluorinated chemicals Perfluorinated compounds are a group of manmade chemicals that were used for decades before their environmental significance was realised. Once they enter the environment they are incredibly stable and, along with several other groups of chemicals, have been labelled emerging contaminants. According to the US...
southern coastal Maine.. PFOS Concentrations in Osprey Eggs in Casco Bay [See graph]. • PCBs, PBDEs, PFCs and OCs were found in all of the osprey eggs sampled in 2007 and 2009.. • Deca-PBDE was detected in 10 of 12 osprey eggs collected in Casco Bay.. • PFOS in an egg from Flag Island were the highest ever seen in Maine wildlife, and among the highest ever observed in a bird egg.. • Fully 75 percent of osprey eggs had PFOS concentrations exceeding the threshold for negative health effects established for chickens (100 ng/g, wet weight).. • No spatial trend was detectable among the samples, suggesting that point sources, watershed characteristics and food web dynamics may all play a role in exposure to contaminants (Goodale 2010).. With support from CBEP and other partners, in 2007 BioDiversity Research Institute (BRI) began the first study to measure PBDEs, PFCs, PCBs, OCs and mercury in eggs from 23 species of birds in Maine from ocean, estuary, river, lake and terrestrial habitats. ...
Our study found that increased exposure to PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS was associated with higher odds of irregular and long menstrual cycle and lower risks of menorrhagia in women who plan to be pregnant. In contrast, women with higher levels of PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS were more likely to have hypomenorrhea.. Two previous studies have evaluated the association between PFOA and PFOS and menstrual irregularity and length. Our results are consistent with those reported in a subset of 1,240 pregnant women randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort (Fei et al. 2009). They found that the risk of irregular menstrual cycle was higher in women exposed to PFOA (15.0% in the upper three quartiles vs. 9.0% in the lowest quartile) and PFOS (14.2% in the upper three quartiles vs. 11.6% in the lowest quartile) (Fei et al. 2009). The INUENDO cohort enrolled 1,623 pregnant women in three countries (Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine) (Lyngsø et al. 2014) and found that PFOA exposure levels were ...
The widespread occurrence and environmental persistence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received worldwide attention recently. Exhaustive analysis of all fluorinated compounds in an environmental sample can be daunting because of the constraints in the availability of analytical standards and extraction methods. Combustion ion chromatographic technique for trace fluorine analysis was used to assess the concentrations of known PFCs (e.g., PFOS, PFOA) and total fluorine (TF) in the blood of wild rats collected from Japan. The technique was further validated using tissues from PFOA-exposed rats. Six PFCs (PFOS, PFOSA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA) were detected in all of the wild rat blood samples. Concentrations of extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in fraction 1 (Fr1; MTBE extraction) of wild rats ranged 60.9-134 ng F mL-1, while those in fraction 2 (Fr2; hexane) were below LOQ (32 ng F mL-1); TF concentrations in the blood of wild rats ranged from 59.9-192 ng F mL-1. The contribution of known ...
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
A polycatenar mesogen consisting of a stiff, four ring aromatic core with three long alkoxy chains and a bulky, perfluorinated substituent has been synthesized and the phase behavior investigated. Due to strong incompatibility among the constitutional moieties, the material can be expected to self-organize i
The federal Environmental Protection Agency today released a health advisory for two perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) called PFOS and PFOA that are not regulated by the federal government. The newly announced health advisory level for these two combined chemicals is 70 parts per trillion for drinking water. Prior to EPAs announcement, the McCrory administration began working with water systems that would exceed the new levels to ensure that the drinking water they provide is safe.
SANTA CLARA, Calif., Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today announced it has jointly developed a method to detect and identify perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water and soil using High-Performan...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
The mixing behavior of binary combinations of perfluoroalkanes in the bulk and in solid monolayers adsorbed at the graphite/liquid interface, determined by calorimetry and powder diffraction, is reported. The perfluoroalkanes are found to generally have a smaller excess enthalpy of mixing on the surface than in the bulk, and their relative size ratio is a good parameter to predict the mixing behavior. The excess enthalpy of mixing for perfluoroalkanes is found to be significantly smaller than that of the closely related hydrocarbons. The preferential adsorption of longer homologues over shorter ones is observed. Interestingly, the extent of preferential adsorption with relative size ratio is very similar to that of the hydrocarbons. These results can be understood in terms of the increased compressibility and lower polarizability of the perfluoroalkanes compared to hydrocarbons.. ...
We are happy to welcome our new PhD student Flora Allendorf. Floras project "toxicokinetic modeling of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans" is a PhD project of IP Exposom.. Additionally, we now are happy to welcome our PhD student Andrea Ebert here in Leipzig, who spent her first year of PhD in a cooperating group in Linz. Andrea investigates the membrane permeability of ionic and neutral species. ...
Biological immunomodulators are routinely evaluated as a natural source of molecules with profound effects on the immune system. They belong to a group of physiologically active compounds, collectively termed biological response modifiers. Most of the studies were focused on immune system stimulation. Recently, they have become the focus of studies seeking molecules that are able to overcome negative effects of various immunotoxins. This paper concentrates on the effects of a glucan/resveratrol/vitamin C combination on immunosuppressive effects of mercury and perfluorinated hydrocarbons. Effects described in this review have strong clinical potential, as environmental contaminants have adverse effects on all aspects of the immune system and represent a serious threat to the health of both humans and animals.
Pemion™ membranes have been developed for superior chemical stability, showing a significant increase in lifetime over perfluorinated materials.
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... _Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and ...Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl AcidsBreastfeeding Da
Affiliation:岐阜大学,教育学部,教授, Research Field:Chemical pharmacy, Keywords:formylation,β-alkoxyalkenyl lithium,hepta-2,4,6-trienal,α,β-unsaturated ketone,vinyl selenide,vinyl sulfide,perfluoroalkyl,polyene,ラジカル環化反応,加水分解, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:0
A process is provided for making a liquid composition of a perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups in a liquid medium by contacting the polymer with a mixture of 25 to 100% by weight of water and 0 to 75% by weight of a second liquid component such as a lower alcohol, e.g., propanol or methanol, at a temperature of at least 180° C. (at least 240° C. when about 90% to 100% water is used), in a closed system. The liquid composition made by this process, or modified liquid products prepared therefrom, are used in coating various substrates, in casting films, and in repairing perfluorinated ion exchange films and membranes. The process is also useful in recovering perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups from scraps and used articles made of such polymer or containing such polymer as a component part thereof.
While fluorochemicals have been detected all over the world and in wastewater treatment plants, the effect of wastewater effluent on the receiving waters has not been evaluated. In the first study, the mass flow of fluorochemicals emanating from wastewater treatment plants along the Glatt River in Switzerland was evaluated. The fluorochemical concentrations in daily composite samples of river water and wastewater were measured using LC/MS/MS. On average, the seven wastewater treatment plants proved ineffective in completely removing fluorochemicals from the influent and in some individual cases, the effluent concentrations of fluorochemicals were elevated when compared to the influent. Fluorochemical concentrations in wastewater were dominated by PFOS followed by PFHxS and PFOA; PFOS was detected in 100% of the samples. In the Glatt River, PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were detected in all samples. Mass flows were determined and showed that the mass loading from the treatment plants is additive and that ...
KleenWater.com PFOS, PFOA, Lead and Cyst Whole House Water Filter System [Pioneer-KW2520HT]PFOS, PFOA and Lead Filter PIONEER is the first of its kind PFOA/PFOS, lead, cyst, chemical, chlorine and chloramine removal filter. Whole House PFOS/PFOA System This is a PFOA/PFOS and lead whole house water filtration system. NSF Certified Filter System Complete whole house water filter system NSF certified for PFOS and PFOA removal. Large tank 8(D) x 40(H) delivers optimal filtration 100,000 gallons of performance per filter cartridge PFOS and PFOA are dangerous carcinogens Quick and Easy DYI filter
BBC News Online environment correspondent. Fumes given off by cancer-causing chemicals used to make non-stick frying pans are killing hundreds of pet birds every year, environmentalists say.. The Worldwide Fund for Nature says it is hearing reports that many US caged birds are being killed by the fumes.. It says the chemicals, perfluorinated compounds, are also contaminating both people and wildlife with grave effects.. The chemicals industry says it doubts that birds exposed to ordinary levels of the compounds could die from them.. Guilty till proved harmless. In a report, Causes For Concern: Chemicals and Wildlife, WWF says the compounds, also used in some textiles and food packaging, are among "the most prominent new toxic hazards".. It says: "Scientists have found perfluorinated compounds, classified as cancer-causing chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in dolphins, whales and cormorants in the Mediterranean; seals and sea eagles in the Baltic; and polar bears.". Elizabeth ...
On April 1, 2011, after the conclusion of the seventh meeting of the Chemical Review Committee (CRC 7) held in Rome, Italy during 28 March - 1 April 2011, the UN chemical experts recommended that two pesticides - endosulfan and azinphos methyl - and one severely hazardous pesticide formulation - Gramoxone Super - be included in the Rotterdam Conventions Prior Informed Consent procedure. Three industrial chemicals - perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its salts and precursors; pentaBDE commercial mixtures; and octaBDE commercial mixtures - were also recommended for inclusion. ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA) supports CRCs recommendations and urges Government of India to pay heed to the recommendations of CRC in the interest of the public health of Indian citizens of present and future generations ...
CAS 68081-81-2 Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World Report This CAS 68081-81-2 - Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World...
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.. Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.. Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were ...
Dear Reader,. We know that dangerous chemicals like hormone disruptors are found in many products.. Thats why EWG has partnered with the Keep A Breast Foundation to develop our latest report - the Dirty Dozen list of endocrine disruptors.. There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another - and so much more.. Click here to see this list of the dirtiest and most common endocrine disruptors.. The EWG/KAB Dirty Dozen list includes BPA, phthalates and other endocrine disruptors that are widespread in consumer products such as plastic containers, food cans and fragrances. The list also includes common contaminants that many people dont realize can be hormone disruptors, not only those familiar toxins - arsenic, mercury and lead - but other, less familiar chemicals such as glycol ethers and perfluorinated chemicals. The guide is intended for ...
Limited Brands, which also owns La Senza, a Canadian intimate-apparel line, will kick off its commitment by disclosing discharge data from 80 percent of its worldwide supply chain by the end of 2013, according to the environmental nonprofit. The corporation has also committed to a complete ban of perfluorinated chemicals, a class of industrial chemicals used primarily to repel water and oil in outerwear, by July 2015.. "Limited Brands has the chance to move from toxic villain to Detox angel with its commitment to completely eliminate all hazardous chemicals from its supply chains and products," says Marietta Harjono, Detox campaigner at Greenpeace International. "The onus is now on the company to follow up on its ambitious statement and quickly turn words into action.". Other companies that have answered Greenpeaces call are Adidas, C&A, Esprit, H&M, Levi Strauss, Li-Ning, Mango, Nike, Puma, Marks & Spencer, Uniqlo, Zara, and most recently, Benetton. Companies that still need to enter the ...
Nonstick cookware isnt the healthiest option, thanks to toxic chemicals. Whats a home cook to do? Here are seven nonstick cookware alternatives.
PFOA, PFOS and other PFASs are widespread around the globe, primarily due to their current and/or historical manufacturing, processing and use here in the U.S. and internationally. They are widespread in part because they are persistent in the environment - that is, they do not break down when exposed to air, water or sunlight. As a result, people may become exposed to PFASs manufactured months or years in the past.. Due to their persistence, PFASs can travel long distances through the air; monitoring in the Arctic has shown levels of PFASs in air, water, and living things. As a result, people may become exposed to low levels of PFASs manufactured or emitted from production facilities thousands of miles away.. Because these chemicals have been used in an array of consumer products, most people have been exposed to low levels of them. Studies have found PFOS and PFOA in blood samples of humans and wildlife nationwide. Using data from CDCs 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination ...
Batch studies will be performed using both aerobic activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge to determine biotransformation pathways of PFACs and initial kinetic parameters. Additional kinetic studies will be performed using continuously stirred reactors with cell retention (porous pot reactors) to approximate activated sludge treatment. In an attempt to shift microbial community structure towards increased PFAC degradation rates, actively-degrading cultures will be successively transferred to new medium containing PFACs. Microbial communities will be assessed using terminal restriction length fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP). ...
Ion-exchange membranes are widely used in modern technologies, particularly in the field of water treatment and make it possible to considerably reduce expenses for wastewater treatment and ensure high degree of purification. Currently, perfluorinated sulfated proton-conducting membranes are often used, such as NAFION and its Russian analogue, MF-4SK based on co-polymerization product of a perfluorinated vinyl ether with tetrafluoroethylene. However, with development of the industry, materials with improved properties and lower cost are required. The aim is to obtain ion-exchange membranes for water treatment from metal ions and to study physico-chemical properties of obtained membranes. In this study, cation exchange composite membranes with modified polyaniline surface layer on nylon and PTFE substrate have been obtained. Changes in the structure of membranes were recorded using a microscope. Throughput capacity of the membranes was determined by passing a certain volume of distilled water through the
What are PFASs? Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (together known as PFASs) are a class of man-made chemicals, ... Environmental contamination
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the concentration of six PFASs: PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and n-PFOS. All measured compounds were above the detection limit in both mothers and children except for PFHxS in one child. There was a significant correlation between the levels in children and their mothers, indicating a family-related exposure pattern. However, we also found that the levels of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and total-PFOS were significantly higher in children compared to their mothers. This may be due to higher ...
Although some statistically significant positive associations have been reported, for example, with cancers of the prostate, kidney, testis, and thyroid, the majority of relative risk estimates for both PFOA and PFOS have been between 0.5 and 2.0 (with 95% confidence intervals including 1.0), inconsistently detected across studies, counterbalanced by negative associations, not indicative of a monotonic exposure-response relationship, and not coherent with toxicological evidence in animals, in which the primary target organs are the liver, testis (Leydig cells), and pancreas (acinar cells). Many positive associations with PFOA exposure were detected in community settings without occupational exposure and were not supported by results in exposed workers ...
Contrast variation SANS and F-19 chemical shifts were measured for three mixed equimolar micelle systems: sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPED) and sodiumdecylsulfate (SDeS) in 200 mM NaCl, lithium perlluorononanate LiPFN) and lithium dodecylsulfate (Li DS) in 200 mM LiCl, and a nonionic system C8F17C2H4(OC2H4)(9) and C12H25(OC2H4)(8) in water, all at 25 C. The chemical shift measurements allow the calculation of the average fraction of nearest neighbors of each kind around the reporter group (the trifluoromethyl group). A preference for like neighbors were found in all systems, smallest in the SDeS/SPFO system and largest in the nonionic system, but in all cases substantially smaller than expected at critical conditions. From the SANS measurements the width of the micelle composition distribution was obtained. For the ionic systems similar values were obtained, showing a broadening compared to ideal mixtures, but not broad enough for demixing or clearly bimodal distributions. In the nonionic system the
September 2016 -- we issued a technical advisory to help laboratories analyze drinking water samples for PFOA using EPA Method 537 Rev. 1.1 ...
PFCs, found in pizza boxes, fast-food wrappers, popcorn bags, certain clothing, and more, have been tied to a lower level of antibodies in kids.
A class of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long been linked with cancer, hormone disruption, immune dysfunction, and high cholesterol. Now comes a new study from Harvards Chan School of Public Health, linking them to obesity. A Chan School news release reports that the chemicals have been used for more than 60 […]. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
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Page 1 All Articles on PFOA articles published by Common Dreams, an independent newscenter serving the progressive community since 1997
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfluorooctanoic_acid Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8 and perfluorooctanoate, is a synthetic...
1 Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): A Global Water Contaminant Brandon M. Montes, Ernesto M. Garcia and Antonio F. Machado Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, California State University, Northridge Found in the blood of nearly all American citizens at an average level of.04 ppm. PFOA is very persistent with a half-life of 2.5-3.5 years in the human body Perfluoroalkyls are mobile in soil and leach into groundwater PFOA can now be traced in some foods, drinking water, and in dust found inside regular homes. PFOA is otherwise known as C8 because of its 8 carbon chain (C8HF15O2) Perfluoroalkyls are human-made substances that do not occur naturally in the environment. Manufacturing started in 1947 by 3M Used as part of the process of making products containing fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers contained the property of both being lipophilic and hydrophobic Used to make non-stick pans, water/stain resistant materials, and water repellant aerosolized applicators. Although final products are ...
NGO comments on Draft Screening Assessment & Risk Management Scope Documents for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), its Salts, and its Precursors, and Long-Chain (C9-C20) Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs), their Salts, and their Precursors A Response to Canada Gazette Part I, Vol. 144, No. 44 - October 30, ...
Exposure of animals to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a surfactant used in emulsion polymerization processes causes early pregnancy loss, delayed growth and development of fetuses. The mechanisms of action are largely unknown. We studied the effect of PFOA on implantation using an in vitro spheroid-endometrial cell co-culture model. PFOA (10-100. μM) significantly reduced Jeg-3 spheroid attachment on RL95-2 endometrial cells. PFOA also suppressed β-catenin expression in Jeg-3 cells. The Wnt agonist Wnt3a stimulated β-catenin expression in Jeg-3 cells and reversed the PFOA suppression of the spheroid attachment. The putative PFOA receptors (PPARα, β, γ) present in both cell lines were not affected by PFOA (0.01-100. μM). The PPARα antagonist MK886 restored the β-catenin and E-cadherin expression levels in Jeg-3 cells and reversed the suppression of the spheroid attachment caused by PFOA. Taken together, PFOA suppresses spheroid attachment through PPARα and Wnt signaling pathways via down
Contents of the 15 Chapter for This Anionic Surfactants Market Study:-. Chapter 1: to describe Global Anionic Surfactants Market Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2: to analyze the top manufacturers of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, with sales, revenue, and price of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 3: to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 4: to show the Global Anionic Surfactants market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;. Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9: to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 10 and 11: to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, Methodology, Analyst Introduction, Data ...
PFNA is found in a wide array of consumer products, food, water, and air. Levels of PFNA in the environment continue to increase, and can accumulate over a lifetime. Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating major processes of the human body. Decreasing levels of thyroid hormones could potentially interfere with essential metabolic processes. Results of this study help researchers better understand the levels of serum PFNA found in the U.S. general population, and adds to the growing body of knowledge of PFNA in relation to thyroid hormone levels.
Dont drink the water. Thats what people from Flint, Mich., to a little New York town called Hoosick Falls have been hearing.. In Flint, its lead. We all know what that is. In Hoosick Falls, its perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Never heard of it? Well, its probably in your kitchen or closet, and almost definitely in your body.. PFOA is a type of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), a group of chemicals studied by Laura MacManus-Spencer. And PFAAs are used in everything from Gore-Tex clothing and Duponts StainMaster carpet to non-stick pans and coatings for microwave popcorn bags.. "PFAAs are everywhere in the environment. Every U.S resident has a measurable amount of PFAAs in their blood," she said. "And literally every organism that scientists pluck out of the environment has these chemicals in their blood.". "These chemicals are not known to be very acutely toxic (it wont cause illness immediately), unless youre exposed to really high concentrations," MacManus-Spencer continued. "The concern is ...
Presented by: Tom Bruton, Ph.D.Green Science Policy Institute The use of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) for extinguishing flammable liquid fires has led to contamination of groundwater with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Sorption to activated carbon is the current presumptive
Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced
When first I heard the Horsham Water and Sewer Authority (HWSA) was compelled to remove three water wells located near the NAS-JRB Willow Grove property due to the presence of Perfluorinated Compounds in tested ground water, I really wasnt all that concerned. My home doesnt use well water - or so I thought; and since those…
PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. Herein, we maintained human Sertoli cells in a mitotically active state in vitro, thus enabling transfection experiments that altered gene expression to explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying toxicant-induced cell injury. Human Sertoli cells obtained from men at ages 15, 23, 36 and 40 were cultured in vitro. These differentiated Sertoli cells remained mitotically active when cultured in the presence of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), with a replication time of ~1-3 weeks. At ~80% confluency, they were used for studies including toxicant exposure, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence analysis, tight junction (TJ)-permeability assessment, and overexpression of BTB (blood-testis barrier) regulatory genes such as FAK and its phosphomimetic mutants. PFOS was found to induce Sertoli cell injury through disruptive effects on actin microfilaments and ...
Less] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) . . . [More] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found ...
Literature References: Commercial grade perfluorohexanes contain a mixture of five acyclic C6F14 isomers and two C6F12 perfluorinated cyclic alkanes. Discovery: J. H. Simons, L. P. Block, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 1407 (1937). Prepn and physical properties: V. E. Stiles, G. H. Cady, ibid. 74, 3771 (1952); R. D. Dunlap et al., ibid. 80, 83 (1958). Critical properties and virial coefficients: Z. L. Taylor, Jr., T. M. Reed, III, AIChE J. 16, 738 (1970). Conformational analysis: P. Piaggio et al., J. Mol. Struct. 26, 421 (1975). 19F-NMR characterization of commercial product: T. A. Kestner, J. Fluorine Chem. 36, 77 (1987). Use as a solvent in bromination reactions: S. M. Pereira et al., Synth. Commun. 25, 1023 (1995). Evaluation in acute lung injury in rabbits: M. Hübler et al., Crit. Care Med. 30, 422 (2002). ...
For the past two years, there has been a growing concern over the safety of the manmade chemical known as C-8 or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) which can be
Hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) compounds, including polymers, expressed by the general chemical formula (1) below: ##STR1## wherein R1 is a single bond, an alkylene group of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or said alkylene group in which a part of, or all of, the hydrogen atoms are substituted by fluorine atoms, Rf is a fluorine atom, a perfluoroalkyl group of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or a perfluoroalkyl ether group, and n is 0 or an integer of at least 1. A manufacturing method for the HFPO compounds which is characterized by the reaction between hexafluoropropylene oxide and a vinyl group containing compound, expressed by the general chemical formula (2) below: ##STR2## wherein R1 and Rf are same as above. The compounds have utility as important intermediate raw materials for the production of novel functional silicone compounds having HFPO polymer units.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 2-{[(3α,5β,6α,7α,17ξ)-3,6,7-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]amino}ethanesulfonic acid.
No abstract available Keywords: 4,4-Diaminodiphenyl sulphone; Perfluorooctanoic acid, ammonium salt; CAS number: 80-08-0; CAS number:3825-26-1 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2005.248a Question Number: EFSA-Q-2004-071 EFSA-Q-2004-094 EFSA-Q-2003-214 EFSA-Q-2 .... ...
Effect of perfluorohexane on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules and surfactant protein A in human mesothelial cells in vitro.: The intraperitoneal in
Drops of water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions have great potential for compartmentalizing both in vitro and in vivo biological systems; however, surfactants to stabilize such emulsions are scarce. Here we present a novel class of fluorosurfactants that we synthesize by coupling oligomeric perfluorinated polyether
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Antiatherosclerotic compounds are provided which have the following structure: wherein R is lower alkyl; R1 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy, R2 and R3 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl or aryl; Ar is phenyl, indanyl, benzhydryl, or phenyl substituted with one or more member selected from the group consisting of halogen, lower alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, lower alkoxy, perfluoroalkylalkoxy, dialkylamino, and aryloxy; or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
Struggling to improve its financial position, Chemours is once again pruning operations. By the end of 2016, the company plans to eliminate 600 jobs worldwide and shut down its sodium and lithium metals facility in Niagara Falls, N.Y., the only such operation in the U.S.. The cutback will allow Chemours, which separated from DuPont in July, to operate more efficiently and concentrate on its core titanium dioxide and fluorochemicals businesses, says CEO Mark Vergnano.. About ...
Bed sediments and a dated sediment core were collected upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon (France) to assess the spatial and temporal trends of contamination by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in this section of the Rhône River. Upstream from Lyon, concentrations of total PFASs (ΣPFASs) in sediments are low (between 0.19 and 2.6 ng g⁻¹ dry weight - dw), being characterized b ...
Analysis of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) has been a hot topic for envoironmental labs for the last several years. Currently there are two C8 based PFAS compounds (PFOA and PFOS) with a health advisory level of 70 ppt in drinking water announced by the US EPA. In 2018 at the National Leadership Summit, […]. ...
Additives China, Sodium Allyl Sulfonate, Useage: 1)As the third monomer of acrylic, this produt can improve the dying properities, the heat resistance and flexib...
Aminoskābes ir aizvietotās karbonskābes, kuru ogļūdeņraža atlikumā viens vai vairāki ūdeņraža atomi ir aizvietoti ar aminogrupu (-NH2). Tā kā aminoskābes satur karboksilgrupu (kas ir skāba) un aminogrupu (kas ir bāziska), tās var reaģēt gan ar skābēm, gan ar bāzēm. Brīvā veidā, neitrālā vidē, aminoskābju karboksilgrupa ir izreaģējusi ar aminogrupu, veidojot iekšējo sāli (betaīnu). Tām organismā oksidējoties, rodas ūdens, oglekļa dioksīds un slāpekli saturoši savienojumi.. Amonoskābes var iedalīt:. ...
Grease is grease, right? Unfortunately, the answer is not that simple, because there are many types of greases. If the right grease is not being used in equipment, you could be paying too much for...
| Temelleri 1940l y llara dayanan Acar Kimya, kimyevi hammadde ithalat , ihracat ve pazarlamas yapmaktad r. Firmam z, m teri talepleri do rultusunda fason retim, dan manl k hizmeti ve teknik destek hizmeti de vermektedir.
Non-stick cookware contains several toxic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) like perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which can cause thyroid disease.
The study reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds, with a focus on compounds that ultimately degrade to form perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Most metabolism studies have been performed with either microbial systems or rats and mice, and comparatively few studies have used fish models. Furthermore, biotransformation studies thus far have predominately used the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) as the substrate. However, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating 6:2 FTOH biotransformation as a result of industrys transition to shorter-chain fluorotelomer chemistry. Studies with the 8:2 FTOH metabolism universally show the formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and, to a smaller fraction, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and lower-chain-length PFCAs. In general, the overall yield of PFOA is low, presumably because of the multiple branches in the biotransformation pathways, including conjugation reactions in animal ...
Industry and government officials say perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the toxic chemical blamed for contaminating drinking water supplies in Hoosick Falls, N.Y., and several other area communities, is no longer used in manufacturing in the United States. But if PFOA has been phased out, what are industries using in its place?. People like Silvia Potter would like to know the answer to that question for the two Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics plants that still operate in Hoosick Falls. Potter says people in her community know "absolutely nothing" about the identity of the chemical or chemicals the company is using as a replacement for PFOA.. The lack of information has been frustrating for her and other members of their local advocacy group, NY Water Project. "We only know what the company volunteers," she says. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), widely used for decades in the making of nonstick coatings like Teflon and a variety of other consumer products, is considered toxic even in tiny amounts. ...
The occurrence and effects of ubiquitously present persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is one of the challenges the society is facing today. Two categories of chemicals that have gained increased public attention during the last decades are organic flame retardants (FRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Many representatives from these compound groups have bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties. This has led to a ban of some of these compounds based on international agreements.. FRs and PFASs end up in surface waters and sometimes also in ground water due to their widespread distribution, disinclination of getting removed at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and persistence. However, the knowledge of the occurrence, fate, and effect in the environment of FRs and PFASs is still in great need of research, especially for recently introduced compounds (such as novel FRs). The objective of this project was to provide a snapshot of the current pollution situation ...
3.3.2.6 Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooc-tane sulfonate (PFOS) as lead compounds of perfluorinated chemi-cals (PFC) in sewage sludge and compost by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric ...