Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity, which are less suitable for use in gasoline. They form instead the major part of diesel and aviation fuel. Diesel fuels are characterised by their cetane number, cetane being an older name for hexadecane. However the higher melting points of these alkanes can cause problems at low temperatures and in polar regions, where the fuel becomes too thick to flow correctly. Mixtures of the normal alkanes are used as boiling point standards for simulated distillation by gas chromatography.[1] Alkanes from hexadecane upwards form the most important components of fuel oil and lubricating oil. In latter function they work at the same time as anti-corrosive agents, as their hydrophobic nature means that water cannot reach the metal surface. Many solid alkanes find use as paraffin wax, used for lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles. Paraffin wax should not be confused with beeswax, ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
1] Fujii, T., Narikawa, T., Takeda, K., Kato, J., Biotransformation of various alkanes using the Escherichia coli expressing an alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF6. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 68(10) 2171-2177 (2004) [2] Liu Li, Xueqian Liu, Wen Yang, Feng Xu, Wei Wang, Lu Feng, Mark Bartlam, Lei Wang and Zihe Rao. Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase. Journal of molecular biology, 376: 453-465 (2008) [3] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Mitsuru Haruki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Masaaki Morikawa & Shigenori Kanaya. Gene Cloning of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermophilic Alkane-Degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans B23. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(1):100-102 (2001) [4] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya, Masaaki Morikawa. Gene cloning and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from long-chain alkane-degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23. ...
Introduction. PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. The alkanes that I will use are Pentane (C5 H12 ), Hexane (C6 H14 ), Heptane (C7 H16 ) and Nonane (C9 H26 ). The formula that I will use to find the heat released is :- Mass (g) x Specific Heat Capacity (4.2/J/g/�C) x Temperature Rise (�C) ? Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). ...read more. Middle. - Using a clamp I will hold the brass beaker about 15cm above the ...
Free Notes on Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - KCET Engineering. Read all the Important points and Chapterwise Notes on KCET Engineering
Alkane-degrading bacteria have developed different ways to accommodate alkane oxidation. In order to regulate alkane oxidation in E. coli, genes encoding a regulatory mechanism controlled by alkane levels must be incorporated. High alkane levels can then be used to activate expression of specific genes involved in the alkane degradation. Two types of regulatory constructs will be created in the form of BioBricks to achieve this. The first construct proposed is based on a catabolic repression pathway encoded by the P.putida Gpo1 OCT plamid. The second mechanism makes use of a global regulator protein from E.coli which is known to bind to regions of promoters known to activate genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The BioBricks including these mechanisms will be implemented in Escherichia coli K12 and characterized and evaluated on it regulating capabilities controlled by alkane levels. ...
These various contortions greatly increase the number of ways energy can be dispersed by this molecule. It is for this reason that larger molecules (alkanes, organic, or otherwise), tend to have greater entropy values than smaller ones.. A closer inspection of the graph reveals that there is not a increase from every alkane to the next. There is a decrease in entropy from butane to pentane before continuing upward again through dodecane and (presumably) beyond. Why the drop from butane to pentane? This can be answered by looking into the difference between the first four alkanes and the next eight. The answer cannot be found from this graph, but rather an investigation of states of matter. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are all gases at room temperature. Pentane, and the seven others displayed in this graph, are liquids. There is a drop in entropy when the alkanes change from gases to liquids at room temperature. The reason is once again linked to dispersal of energy. Gases have the ...
Introduction. Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and dont cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. ...read more. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. AU - Trionfetti, C.. AU - Agiral, A.. AU - Gardeniers, Han J G E. AU - Lefferts, L.. AU - Seshan, K.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as feedstock for commercial fuels and chemicals. However, direct conversion of lower alkanes for such purposes is a challenging problem. A discussion covers the oxidative conversion of light alkanes in the presence of cold plasma in a microreactor; variables influencing products selectivities; characteristics of the plasma microreactor; formation of C-C bonds; and directly upgrading cheap low molecular weight alkanes to commercially useful fuels and/or feedstock materials for the chemical industry. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 42nd Loss Prevention Symposium (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).. AB - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as ...
Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the ...
The equivalent orbital (EO) method is investigated and used for predicting outer and inner ionization potentials of the linear alkanes. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with those observed in photoelectron spectra provided that a set of 12 parameters is used in the theory. An optimization technique is used to find the best values for thle parameters and a single transferable parameter set can be found which is applicable to all the n-alkanes. A good fit to the experimental results can only be obtained if the uppermost molecular orbital of the n-alkanes is an antisymmetrical orbital built up from CH equivalent orbitals.. ...
The reason this is an approximation is that a very slightly higher concentration of H+(aq) exists in reality, due to the autodissociation of water, H2O(l) ⇌ H+(aq) + A−(aq). We neglect this effect since water produces a far lower concentration of H+(aq) than most weak acids. If you were studying an exceptionally weak acid (you wont at A-level), this assumption might begin to cause big problems ...
Tī piau-chún chōng-hóng hā, CH4 kàu C4H10 sī khì-thé, C5H12 kàu C17H36 sī e̍k-thé, C18H38 chi-āu tō lóng-sī kò͘-thé. In-ūi hun-chú ê tāng-liōng sī éng-hióng alkane hut-tiám tōa-sè ê chú-iàu in-sò͘, in-chhú alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám hām hun-chú-liōng ê tōa-sè ū sòaⁿ-sèng koan-hē. Iû piⁿ-á ê chhu-sè-tô͘ ē-sái khòaⁿ-chhut: múi cheng-ka chi̍t-ê carbon, alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám tō ē cheng-ka 20 kàu 30°C.[3] Ti̍t-liān alkane ê hut-tiám lóng pí ū hun-chi ê kôaiⁿ, in-ūi hun-chi ē kiám-chió hun-chú chi-kan ê chiap-chhiok piáu-bīn-chek, khì éng-hióng-tio̍h alkane hun-chú chi-kan ê van der Waals le̍k. Pí-lūn-kóng, pí-kàu n-butane kah isobutane (2-methylpropane), in-ê hut-tiám hun-pia̍t sī 0°C kah -12°C.[3] ...
Acute Fish Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not cause acute toxicity to fish with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). Chronic Fish Toxicity: Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)did not cause toxicity to fish ina 21-day toxicity study with Brachydanio rerio following standard test guidelines at a nominal loading of 5000 mg/l.These results indicate that hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)is not expected to be chronically toxic to fish.These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%). Acute Invertebrate Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not ...
A process for the desulfurization of a fluid catalytically cracked naphtha wherein the valuable olefins are retained and recombinant mercaptans are prevented from forming, resulting in a low sulfur naphtha. Embodiments disclosed herein may allow for more flexibility in varying the end point of the naphtha used in gasoline blending.
Varnish makers naphtha and painters naphtha - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the properties and catalytic activity of the third phase in a phase transfer catalytic system. The conditions of formation of the third phase are investigated by changing the kind of phase transfer catalyst (PTC), organic solvents, and concentration of potassium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. When tetrabutylammonium bromide, (Bu),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase is formed with both dodecane and toluene as organic solvents. On the other hand, when tetrahexylammonium bromide, (Hex),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase forms with dodecane but not with toluene.,BR,The volume of the third phase, the base strength, the concentration of catalyst, water, and organic solvent in the third phase were measured. Solidification phenomena are observed for some cases of higher KOH concentrations in the aqueous phase.,BR,Dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromooctane in the ...
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European benzenes premium to naphtha slipped to a 3.5 month low at the end of last week as benzene failed to keep pace with strengthening upstream markets, as per Platts. The spread between spot benzzene and its feedstock naphtha was assessed at US$363 ...
Alkanes.........C_nH_(2n+2) Olefins.........C_nH_(2n) Alkanes are saturated molecules. Their formulae correspond to C_nH_(2n+2). Try it out with methane, ethane,.....hexane. Olefins have ONE so-called degrees of unsaturation with respect to equivalent alkanes. For instance, compare the formula of ethylene and propylene, H_2C=CH_2, and H_3C-CH=CH_2, with that of their saturated precursors, H_3C-CH_3, and H_3C-CH_2CH_3. What are the C_nH_m formula? How many degrees of unsaturation does acetylene have? A degree of unsaturation corresponds to the presence of an olefinic bond, HC=CH, OR a ring junction (the ring junction reduces the overall hydrogen count by 2). Halogens count for 1 hydrogen, oxygens we ignore (though a carbonyl bond could be the source of unsaturation), and if there is nitrogen present we subtract NH from the formula before we assess saturation. For more details, see here. For a practical example of how we can use this idea to interrogate a formula see here.
Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are provided.
Manganese propane and manganese butane complexes derived from CpMn(CO)(3) were generated photochemically at 130-136 K with the alkane as solvent and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with in situ laser photolysis. Time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements were performed at room temperature with the same laser wavelength. The ν(CO) bands in the IR spectra of the photoproducts in propane are shifted to low frequency with respect to CpMn(CO)(3), consistent with formation of CpMn(CO)(2)(propane). The (1)H NMR spectra conform to the criteria for alkane complexes: a high-field resonance for the η(2)-CH protons that shifts substantially on partial deuteration of the alkane and exhibits a coupling constant J(C-H) on (13)C-labeling of ca. 120 Hz. The NMR spectrum of each system exhibits two diagnostic product resonances in the high-field region for the η(2)-CH protons, corresponding to CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C1-H-alkane) and CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C2-H-alkane) isomers. Partial
This chapter focuses on the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, with an emphasis on alkanes, and the applications of enzymes involved in these processes for biocatalysis. Yeasts and fungi are often mentioned as alkane degraders, for example in connection with the production of single-cell proteins or organic acids and amino acids from hydrocarbons. Soluble and particulate mono-oxygenases are known to oxidize the same compounds, and some of the gene diversity detected with primers that amplify membrane-bound methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) genes may well be due to short-chain alkane-degrading bacteria instead of methanotrophs. The application of oxygenases in biocatalytic processes is more complicated than that of enzymes such as hydrolases, because of cofactor and oxygen requirements, the sensitive nature of many oxygenases, the toxicity of substrates and products to the biocatalyst, and the uptake of the lipophilic substrates. The best strain in this study was a hexane-degrading
View Notes - Chapter 3 from CHE 201 at SUNY Buffalo. Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated with hydrogens Ratio: CnH2n+2 Alkane homologs: CH3(CH2)nCH3 Same ratio for branched
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Alkane Resources Limited executive: Karen Brown. Insider profile, background and performance of Karen Brown and Alkane Resources and other executives: Alkane Resources | ALKEF.
The above are the structural formulas of two compounds which have the same molecular formula. Which of following statements is correct?. a) The bond angle \(\alpha\) is the same as the bond angle \(\beta\).. b) Compound (A) is a saturated hydrocarbon and compound (B) is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.. c) The bond length between the carbon atoms is identical for all bonds. d) None of the above. ...
In horses, the quantity of faeces and the faecal concentrations of plant and synthetic alkanes are inconsistent throughout the day. The estimation of feed intake and digestibility can additionally be limited by irregular and incomplete faecal recovery of alkanes that are used as dietary markers. The correction of alkane concentrations minimizes the bias of estimates, but requires the determination of faeces quantity by total collection. However, in consideration of the dynamics of alkane concentrations in faeces, sampling at selected timeframes throughout a day may be useful in avoiding such correction. Five adult horses were fed a hay-based diet offered three times a day in equal amounts. Horses received a bolus with similar quantities of n-octacosane (C28), n-dotriacontane (C32) and n-hexatriacontane (C36) synthetic alkanes twice a day. Total faeces were quantified over 3 consecutive days. Dry matter intake (DMI), output (DMO) and digestibility (DMD) were determined from the total collection ...
A series of sulfated alumina catalysts were synthesised by wet impregnation with sulfate-containing solutions. The degree of surface sulfation and corresponding surface acidity could be readily tuned by varying the molarity of impregnating solution. Strong acid treatments (,0.1 M) induced aluminium-sulfate crystallisation with a concomitant decrease in porosity and surface acidity. Platinum-doped sulfated aluminas showed enhanced activity towards methane, ethane and propane combustion. Activity scaled with the degree of accessible surface sulfate and platinum loading, however C-H bond scission appeared rate-limiting over both pure and presulfated aluminas. The magnitude of sulfate-promoted propane oxidation was greatest under heavily oxidising conditions (C3H6O2 , 120) but independent of Pt loading, confirming that support-mediated alkane activation is the dominant factor in the promotional mechanism. ...
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Alkane series definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as methane, CH 4 , or ethane, C 2 H 6 . See more.
Angewandte Books Chemie Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes The research area covered by this book is the atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric pollution, and photochemical formation of ozone and photooxidants. It essentially focuses on the oxidation of alkanes and haloalkanes, but it also includes the subsequent oxidation processes of primary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, nitrates, hydroperoxides, and multifunctional products. It essentially deals with gas-phase chemistry and photochemistry, and thus it includes neither chemistry in the liquid phase nor heterogeneous chemistry on atmospheric particles. The book provides a fairly large number of data on reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, product formation, UV absorption spectra, and photochemical reactions, arranged on nearly 1000 pages, with numerous tables and figures and an exhaustive list of references. This volume is a follow-up of two previous books by Calvert et al. on the atmospheric oxidation ...
Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes - Chemistry LibreTexts Straight-chain hydrocarbon , Britannica.com hydrocarbons. in hydrocarbon: Physical properties. For a given number of carbon atoms, an unbranched alkane has a higher boiling point than any of its branchedchain isomers. This effect is evident upon comparing the boiling points (bp) of selected C 8H 18 isomers. Straight-Chain and … ...
The complete structural and molecular formula for the alkane series of hydrocarbons.. Click on each image to show or hide the proper name of the alkane and its molecular formula.. ...
Definition of Alkane 1-monooxygenase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The smallest alkane with such a chemical bond, ethane, exists as an infinite number of conformations with respect to rotation around the C-C bond. Two of these are recognised as energy minimum (staggered conformation) and energy maximum (eclipsed conformation) forms. The existence of specific conformations is due to hindered rotation around sigma bonds, although a role for hyperconjugation is proposed by a competing theory.. The importance of energy minimum and energy maximum is seen by extension of these concepts to more complex molecules for which stable conformations may be predicted as minimum energy forms. The determination of stable conformations has also played a large role in the establishment of the concept of asymmetric induction and the ability to predict the stereochemistry of reactions controlled by steric effects.. In the example of staggered ethane in Newman projection, a hydrogen atom on one ...
Comprehension of reactive chemical dynamics in the gas phase and at the gas/organic-surface interface and non-reactive dynamics at the interface between hydrophobic surfaces and water requires an understanding of the fundamental atomic and molecular interactions that undergird these important phenomena. In an effort to study these regimes of chemical interaction, we have performed computational simulations that probe the dynamics of chemical systems that exemplify each of these domains. To study gas-phase chemical dynamics, we reparametrized semiempirical Hamiltonians so that they can accurately describe the potential energy surfaces for two distinct atom+alkane reactions. In addition to their demonstrated accuracy, these methods possess the attractive quality of being computationally inexpensive enough to afford extensive direct-dynamics trajectory studies. Our results on the dynamics of atom+alkane hydrogen-abstraction reactions have shown good agreement with experimental metrics that are as ...
The analysis of catalytic partial oxidation of light alkanes indicates that processes involving this group proceed via the formation and consecutive transformations of free radicals. Depending on the properties of the catalytic system and reaction conditions the same primary radical can give different final products, olefins, oxygenated organic substances and carbon oxides. An approach to design a complex catalytic system for efficient alkane partial oxidation based on separation of zones where free radicals are formed and where they are transformed into desired products is suggested and examples of its implementation are presented.
Alkane Exploration Ltd (ALK.AX) shares are being watched closely by traders as the Awesome Oscillator signal is revealing a downward trend building over the past five bars, signaling that market momentum is building for the name.. The Awesome Oscillator (AO), created (and aptly named) by Bill Williams, is an indicator which is able to show what is happening with driving force of the market.. The Awesome Oscillator is created using the difference between the 34-period and 5-period simple moving averages of the bars midpoints (H+L)/2. The AO is usually planned as a histogram in which bars higher than the preceding bar will be colored green. Bars lower than the preceding one will be colored red. The Awesome Oscillator was introduced by Williams in his book "New Trading Dimensions".. When applying indicators for technical analysis, traders and investors might want to look at the ATR or Average True Range. The current 14-day ATR for Alkane Exploration Ltd (ALK.AX) is currently sitting at 0.02. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Possible Infinite Number of Components in a Single Crystalline Phase. T2 - On the Isomorphism of Brivaracetam-Guest Molecules. AU - Couvrat, Nicolas. AU - Sanselme, Morgane. AU - Cartigny, Yohann. AU - De Smet, Frederic. AU - Rome, Sandrine. AU - Aerts, Luc. AU - Quéré, Luc. AU - Wouters, Johan. AU - Coquerel, Gérard. PY - 2018/9/5. Y1 - 2018/9/5. N2 - This article highlights the unusual behavior of brivaracetam (BRV: An active pharmaceutical ingredient against epilepsy), which leads to a unique phase-ranging from clathrate to solvate to cocrystal-formed with an impressive number of apolar guest molecules (any linear alkanes to esters of fatty acids/alcohols, or waxes). Moreover, the investigation of binary systems between linear alkanes and BRV displayed the systematic existence of a syntectic invariant (one solid melts into two nonmiscible liquids) for CnH2n+2 with n , 7.. AB - This article highlights the unusual behavior of brivaracetam (BRV: An active pharmaceutical ...
EC number: 295-311-3 , CAS number: 91995-50-5 A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by treating a light distillate from steam-cracked naphtha. It consists predominantly of aromatic hydrocarbons. ...
Naphtha is selectively hydrodesulfurized using selectively poisoned hydrotreating catalyst to remove sulfur while minimizing loss in octane level due to olefin saturation.
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Global oxygenates markets increase; MTBE approaches commodity status. The global market for methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is projected to increase from just over 8 million metric tons in 1991 to 33 million metric tons in 2000. Significant new capacity will be needed to meet blending requirements for oxygenated gasoline demand. The US and Western Europe are forecast to import increasing volumes of MTBE supplied from Venezuela, the Middle East, Africa and Canada. MTBE is the preferred oxygenate, but other oxygenates such as TAME and ethanol will play a role. (Editor s note There is some foreshadowing in this editorial).. Naphtha buyers face nasty surprise. In a new report, naphtha buyers will experience a bitter surprise in the second half of the decade. Shortages are anticipated as naphtha supplies fail to meet demand. Slumping world economy and diversification in feedstock are believed to be responsible for future naphtha shortages. In 1991, global ...
After a Naphtha chemical leak at the PBF Refinery Wednesday, officials debated whether they should open nearby Paulsboro High School the following day. But
* Taiwans Formosa bought naphtha at $9.50 to $10 a tonne aboveits own price formula on a cost-and-freight (C&F) basis, tradersfamiliar with the matter said.* Formosa bought 200,000 to 250,000 tonnes of open-specificationnaphtha this week for first-half February arrival at Mailiaowhere it operates three crackers* The fresh premiums were lower versus the $11 to $12 a tonnepremium Formosa paid on Dec. 13, which marked the highest levelthe petrochemical company had forked out since July 2014.* Traders expect a muted market next week due to year-endfestive season.(Reporting by Seng Li Peng; Editing by Sunil Nair)
Current Texas lawmakers took $11.3 million from the oil and gas industry over the past two election cycles, according to a new report, "Running on Hydrocarbons," released today by Texans for Public Justice, Public Citizen and the Sierra Clubs Lone Star Chapter. The Energy & Natural Resources sector supplies lawmakers with more money than any other sector besides Lawyers & Lobbyists (even as Energy & Natural Resources is the leading employer of Texas lobbyists ...