There is no reproductive toxicity data available for Dodecane, however; OECD Guideline 422 studies are available from structural analogues, Decane and Undecane. Additionally, an OECD 443 (extended one-generation reproductive toxicity - with developmental neurotoxicity (Cohorts 1A, 1B without extension, 2A and 2B)) test is proposed for structural analogues, Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, ,2% aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, ,2% aromatics. This data is read across to based on analogue read across and a discussion and report on the read across strategy is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13. This endpoint will be updated subsequent to ECHAs approval of the testing proposal and availability of data upon completion of the study. Oral Decane In an OECD Guideline 422 study (Sasol, 1995), groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with decane daily by gavage at exposure levels of 0, 25, 150, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed from the ...
Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity, which are less suitable for use in gasoline. They form instead the major part of diesel and aviation fuel. Diesel fuels are characterised by their cetane number, cetane being an older name for hexadecane. However the higher melting points of these alkanes can cause problems at low temperatures and in polar regions, where the fuel becomes too thick to flow correctly. Mixtures of the normal alkanes are used as boiling point standards for simulated distillation by gas chromatography.[1] Alkanes from hexadecane upwards form the most important components of fuel oil and lubricating oil. In latter function they work at the same time as anti-corrosive agents, as their hydrophobic nature means that water cannot reach the metal surface. Many solid alkanes find use as paraffin wax, used for lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles. Paraffin wax should not be confused with beeswax, ...
BioBricks, the making of= Two BioBricks are the final constructs for this sub-project. The BioBricks K398015 and K398022, implemented in E.coli, will be able to degrade medium (C5-13) and long chain (C15-36) alkanes respectively, while utilizing them as a C-source. The oxidation route of the alkanes is illustrated in figure 1. [[Image:TUDelft_Alkane_degradation_route.png,600px,thumb,center,Figure 1 - Schematic description of the alkane degradation pathway with the corresponding genes.]] To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and combined with promoters and RBSs obtained from the BioBrick distribution plates. Combination of these genes resulted in the following final BioBrick constructs (the intermediate have also been submitted to the registry). ==BBa_K398014 - Short-chain (C5-13) Alkane degradation== The short-chain hydrocarbon degrading BioBrick contains the AlkB gene cluster from Gordonia sp. TF6[1]. ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
1] Fujii, T., Narikawa, T., Takeda, K., Kato, J., Biotransformation of various alkanes using the Escherichia coli expressing an alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF6. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 68(10) 2171-2177 (2004) [2] Liu Li, Xueqian Liu, Wen Yang, Feng Xu, Wei Wang, Lu Feng, Mark Bartlam, Lei Wang and Zihe Rao. Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase. Journal of molecular biology, 376: 453-465 (2008) [3] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Mitsuru Haruki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Masaaki Morikawa & Shigenori Kanaya. Gene Cloning of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermophilic Alkane-Degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans B23. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(1):100-102 (2001) [4] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya, Masaaki Morikawa. Gene cloning and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from long-chain alkane-degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23. ...
Molbase Encyclopedia provides dodecane (112-40-3) basic information, physical and chemical properties, safety information, toxicity, customs data, synthetic routes, maps, MSDS, generation methods and uses, and its upstream and downstream products.
Introduction. PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. The alkanes that I will use are Pentane (C5 H12 ), Hexane (C6 H14 ), Heptane (C7 H16 ) and Nonane (C9 H26 ). The formula that I will use to find the heat released is :- Mass (g) x Specific Heat Capacity (4.2/J/g/�C) x Temperature Rise (�C) ? Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). ...read more. Middle. - Using a clamp I will hold the brass beaker about 15cm above the ...
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil.[1][2][3] It is most usually desulfurized and then catalytically reformed, which re-arranges or re-structures the hydrocarbon molecules in the naphtha as well as breaking some of the molecules into smaller molecules to produce a high-octane component of gasoline (or petrol). There are quite literally hundreds of different petroleum crude oil sources worldwide and each crude oil has its own unique composition or assay. There are also hundreds of petroleum refineries worldwide and each of them is designed to process either a specific crude oil or specific types of crude oils. That means that it is virtually impossible to provide a definitive, single definition of the word naphtha since each refinery produces its own naphthas with their own unique initial and final boiling points and other physical and compositional characteristics. In other words, naphtha is a generic term rather than a specific ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of Liquid-Phase Alkane Mixtures in Silicalite. T2 - Simulations and Experiment. AU - Chempath, Shaji. AU - Denayer, Joeri F.M.. AU - De Meyer, Kurt M.A.. AU - Baron, Gino V.. AU - Snurr, Randall Q. PY - 2004/1/6. Y1 - 2004/1/6. N2 - A combination of experimental and computational studies of adsorption from liquid-phase mixtures of linear alkanes in the zeolite silicalite is presented here. Configurational biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations combined with identity-swap moves are used to equilibrate the simulations in reasonable times. Interesting trends observed in experiments have been captured quantitatively by simulations. A siting analysis of the simulation data reveals that, during adsorption from a liquid mixture, shorter alkanes prefer the zigzag channels and longer alkanes concentrate in the straight channels of silicalite.. AB - A combination of experimental and computational studies of adsorption from liquid-phase mixtures of linear alkanes in the ...
Free Notes on Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - KCET Engineering. Read all the Important points and Chapterwise Notes on KCET Engineering
These various contortions greatly increase the number of ways energy can be dispersed by this molecule. It is for this reason that larger molecules (alkanes, organic, or otherwise), tend to have greater entropy values than smaller ones.. A closer inspection of the graph reveals that there is not a increase from every alkane to the next. There is a decrease in entropy from butane to pentane before continuing upward again through dodecane and (presumably) beyond. Why the drop from butane to pentane? This can be answered by looking into the difference between the first four alkanes and the next eight. The answer cannot be found from this graph, but rather an investigation of states of matter. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are all gases at room temperature. Pentane, and the seven others displayed in this graph, are liquids. There is a drop in entropy when the alkanes change from gases to liquids at room temperature. The reason is once again linked to dispersal of energy. Gases have the ...
Introduction. Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and dont cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. ...read more. ...
By synthesizing alkanes in organisms, alkanes can become a useful renewable energy source; CO2 emitted from burning the alkanes are converted to glucose through photosynthesis, and then the glucose can be fed to alkane-synthesizing organisms to restart the cycle. This cycle can be drastically improved if there were fewer steps in the cycle. We explored the possibility of optimizing the alkane biosynthesis system in different micro-organisms, with the idea that perhaps with autotrophic organisms, we do not need to obtain glucose for the reaction ...
Background Breathing alkanes are reported to be able to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy people. with the chemiresistor sensor attached at its inside bottom to measure the sensor peak output (percentage change of baseline resistance measured before exhalation buy Maackiain to peak resistance) and the time taken for the baseline resistance to reach peak resistance. Results Analysis of multivariate variance and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that the peak output and the time to peak values for the lung cancer patients were statistically different from that for both the COPD patients and the controls without lung disease, Pillais Trace =0.393, F=3.909, df = (4, 64), P=0.007. A 2.20% sensor peak output and a 90-s time to peak gave 83.3% sensitivity and 88% specificity in diagnosing lung cancer. Tobacco smoking did not affect the diagnostic accuracy of the buy Maackiain sensor. Conclusions The alkane sensor could discriminate patients with lung cancer from COPD patients and people without ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. AU - Trionfetti, C.. AU - Agiral, A.. AU - Gardeniers, Han J G E. AU - Lefferts, L.. AU - Seshan, K.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as feedstock for commercial fuels and chemicals. However, direct conversion of lower alkanes for such purposes is a challenging problem. A discussion covers the oxidative conversion of light alkanes in the presence of cold plasma in a microreactor; variables influencing products selectivities; characteristics of the plasma microreactor; formation of C-C bonds; and directly upgrading cheap low molecular weight alkanes to commercially useful fuels and/or feedstock materials for the chemical industry. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 42nd Loss Prevention Symposium (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).. AB - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as ...
Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) on Candida maltosa EH 15 Strain: Influence on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity and n-alkanes Biodegradation. AU - Chrzanowski, Łukasz AU - Owsianiak, Mikolaj. AU - Wyrwas, Bogdan AU - Aurich, Andreas AU - Szulc, Alicja AU - Olszanowski, Andrzej. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The effect of exogenously added sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) surfactant on biodegradation of a mixture of straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (dodecane and hexadecane) and resulting cell surface hydrophobicity changes of Candida maltosa EH 15 were investigated. Results indicated that up to 75 mg/L SDBS improves the biodegradation potential of examined yeast. A decrease in hydrophobicity was observed when SDBS was supplemented in higher concentrations, having strong impact on biodegradation rates. Phase distribution of surfactant molecules was investigated using methylene blue active substances method (MBAS), accompanied by surface and interfacial ...
The equivalent orbital (EO) method is investigated and used for predicting outer and inner ionization potentials of the linear alkanes. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with those observed in photoelectron spectra provided that a set of 12 parameters is used in the theory. An optimization technique is used to find the best values for thle parameters and a single transferable parameter set can be found which is applicable to all the n-alkanes. A good fit to the experimental results can only be obtained if the uppermost molecular orbital of the n-alkanes is an antisymmetrical orbital built up from CH equivalent orbitals.. ...
The reason this is an approximation is that a very slightly higher concentration of H+(aq) exists in reality, due to the autodissociation of water, H2O(l) ⇌ H+(aq) + A−(aq). We neglect this effect since water produces a far lower concentration of H+(aq) than most weak acids. If you were studying an exceptionally weak acid (you wont at A-level), this assumption might begin to cause big problems ...
Tī piau-chún chōng-hóng hā, CH4 kàu C4H10 sī khì-thé, C5H12 kàu C17H36 sī e̍k-thé, C18H38 chi-āu tō lóng-sī kò͘-thé. In-ūi hun-chú ê tāng-liōng sī éng-hióng alkane hut-tiám tōa-sè ê chú-iàu in-sò͘, in-chhú alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám hām hun-chú-liōng ê tōa-sè ū sòaⁿ-sèng koan-hē. Iû piⁿ-á ê chhu-sè-tô͘ ē-sái khòaⁿ-chhut: múi cheng-ka chi̍t-ê carbon, alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám tō ē cheng-ka 20 kàu 30°C.[3] Ti̍t-liān alkane ê hut-tiám lóng pí ū hun-chi ê kôaiⁿ, in-ūi hun-chi ē kiám-chió hun-chú chi-kan ê chiap-chhiok piáu-bīn-chek, khì éng-hióng-tio̍h alkane hun-chú chi-kan ê van der Waals le̍k. Pí-lūn-kóng, pí-kàu n-butane kah isobutane (2-methylpropane), in-ê hut-tiám hun-pia̍t sī 0°C kah -12°C.[3] ...
Acute Fish Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not cause acute toxicity to fish with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). Chronic Fish Toxicity: Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)did not cause toxicity to fish ina 21-day toxicity study with Brachydanio rerio following standard test guidelines at a nominal loading of 5000 mg/l.These results indicate that hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)is not expected to be chronically toxic to fish.These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%). Acute Invertebrate Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not ...
A process for the desulfurization of a fluid catalytically cracked naphtha wherein the valuable olefins are retained and recombinant mercaptans are prevented from forming, resulting in a low sulfur naphtha. Embodiments disclosed herein may allow for more flexibility in varying the end point of the naphtha used in gasoline blending.
Varnish makers naphtha and painters naphtha - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
1. Callaghan, A., Gieg, L., Kropp, K., Suflita, J. and Young, L. Comparison of mechanisms of alkane metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions among two bacterial isolates and a bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2006, DOI: 10.1128/AEM02896-05 2. Callaghan, A., Wawrik, B., Ní Chadhain, S., Young, L. and Zylstra, G. Anaerobic alkane-degrading strain AK-01 contains two alkylsuccinate synthase genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.11.094 3. Callaghan, A., Morris, B., Pereira, I., McInerney, M., Austin, R., Groves, J., Kukor, J., Suflita, J., Young, L., Zylstra, G. and Wawrik, B. The genome sequence of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01: a blueprint for anaerobic alkane oxidation. Environ Microbiol, 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02516.x 4. Canfield, D., Jorgensen, B., Fossing, H., Glud, R., Gundersen, J., Ramsing, N., Thamdrup, B., Hansen, J., Nielsen, L. and Hall, P. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments. ...
1. Callaghan, A., Gieg, L., Kropp, K., Suflita, J. and Young, L. Comparison of mechanisms of alkane metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions among two bacterial isolates and a bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2006, DOI: 10.1128/AEM02896-05 2. Callaghan, A., Wawrik, B., Ní Chadhain, S., Young, L. and Zylstra, G. Anaerobic alkane-degrading strain AK-01 contains two alkylsuccinate synthase genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.11.094 3. Callaghan, A., Morris, B., Pereira, I., McInerney, M., Austin, R., Groves, J., Kukor, J., Suflita, J., Young, L., Zylstra, G. and Wawrik, B. The genome sequence of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01: a blueprint for anaerobic alkane oxidation. Environ Microbiol, 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02516.x 4. Canfield, D., Jorgensen, B., Fossing, H., Glud, R., Gundersen, J., Ramsing, N., Thamdrup, B., Hansen, J., Nielsen, L. and Hall, P. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments. ...
A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.
Volatilisation is dependent on Henrys Constant (HC) which is not applicable to complex substances. However, HC values for representative structures are included in the PETRORISK spreadsheet attached to IUCLID Section 13. Henrys law constant for decane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 3.311 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for undecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 4.47 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for dodecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 6.17 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for tetradecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 11.48 atm-m3/mol. ...
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the properties and catalytic activity of the third phase in a phase transfer catalytic system. The conditions of formation of the third phase are investigated by changing the kind of phase transfer catalyst (PTC), organic solvents, and concentration of potassium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. When tetrabutylammonium bromide, (Bu),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase is formed with both dodecane and toluene as organic solvents. On the other hand, when tetrahexylammonium bromide, (Hex),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase forms with dodecane but not with toluene.,BR,The volume of the third phase, the base strength, the concentration of catalyst, water, and organic solvent in the third phase were measured. Solidification phenomena are observed for some cases of higher KOH concentrations in the aqueous phase.,BR,Dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromooctane in the ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
European benzenes premium to naphtha slipped to a 3.5 month low at the end of last week as benzene failed to keep pace with strengthening upstream markets, as per Platts. The spread between spot benzzene and its feedstock naphtha was assessed at US$363 ...
The normal alkanes (n-alkanes) and their hydrogen isotopic (δD) values in sediments and aquatic and terrestrial plants from Fuxian Lake area of China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), respectively. According to the δD values of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes, the sediment samples were divided into types I and II. The type I samples had a heavier hydrogen isotopic composition (-161 to -155‰ on average) compared to that of the type II samples (-208 to -173‰ on average). This isotopic difference is likely a result of their different biological sources. Similarity in the average n-alkane δD values in the sediments and plants indicated that C17 and C21 to C25 were mainly derived from aquatic submerged plants in... the lake, C27 and C29 mainly from woody plants from the surrounding area, and C31 and C33 principally from a mixture of terrestrial herbaceous and woody plants. The results further demonstrate that ...
Alkanes.........C_nH_(2n+2) Olefins.........C_nH_(2n) Alkanes are saturated molecules. Their formulae correspond to C_nH_(2n+2). Try it out with methane, ethane,.....hexane. Olefins have ONE so-called degrees of unsaturation with respect to equivalent alkanes. For instance, compare the formula of ethylene and propylene, H_2C=CH_2, and H_3C-CH=CH_2, with that of their saturated precursors, H_3C-CH_3, and H_3C-CH_2CH_3. What are the C_nH_m formula? How many degrees of unsaturation does acetylene have? A degree of unsaturation corresponds to the presence of an olefinic bond, HC=CH, OR a ring junction (the ring junction reduces the overall hydrogen count by 2). Halogens count for 1 hydrogen, oxygens we ignore (though a carbonyl bond could be the source of unsaturation), and if there is nitrogen present we subtract NH from the formula before we assess saturation. For more details, see here. For a practical example of how we can use this idea to interrogate a formula see here.
Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are provided.
Manganese propane and manganese butane complexes derived from CpMn(CO)(3) were generated photochemically at 130-136 K with the alkane as solvent and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with in situ laser photolysis. Time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements were performed at room temperature with the same laser wavelength. The ν(CO) bands in the IR spectra of the photoproducts in propane are shifted to low frequency with respect to CpMn(CO)(3), consistent with formation of CpMn(CO)(2)(propane). The (1)H NMR spectra conform to the criteria for alkane complexes: a high-field resonance for the η(2)-CH protons that shifts substantially on partial deuteration of the alkane and exhibits a coupling constant J(C-H) on (13)C-labeling of ca. 120 Hz. The NMR spectrum of each system exhibits two diagnostic product resonances in the high-field region for the η(2)-CH protons, corresponding to CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C1-H-alkane) and CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C2-H-alkane) isomers. Partial
This chapter focuses on the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, with an emphasis on alkanes, and the applications of enzymes involved in these processes for biocatalysis. Yeasts and fungi are often mentioned as alkane degraders, for example in connection with the production of single-cell proteins or organic acids and amino acids from hydrocarbons. Soluble and particulate mono-oxygenases are known to oxidize the same compounds, and some of the gene diversity detected with primers that amplify membrane-bound methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) genes may well be due to short-chain alkane-degrading bacteria instead of methanotrophs. The application of oxygenases in biocatalytic processes is more complicated than that of enzymes such as hydrolases, because of cofactor and oxygen requirements, the sensitive nature of many oxygenases, the toxicity of substrates and products to the biocatalyst, and the uptake of the lipophilic substrates. The best strain in this study was a hexane-degrading
Many bacteria capable of degrading long-chain alkanes have been isolated, and the enzyme systems that oxidize long-chain n-alkanes up to C16 have been characterized (see references 18, 26, and 30 for reviews). Although long-chain alkanes are more persistent in the environment than shorter-chain alkanes, genes involved in degradation of n-alkanes longer than C16 had not been reported prior to the work of Throne-Holst et al. (25) and Feng et al. (5). A flavin-binding monooxygenase involved in oxidation of very-long-chain n-alkanes up to C32 has been characterized in Acinetobacter sp. strain DSM17874 (25), and LadA from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 is the first long-chain n-alkane monooxygenase functional on alkanes in the range from C15 to C36 to be cloned and structurally characterized from a Gram-positive strain (5). Both enzymes show little or no homology with the widespread and well-characterized AlkB-type alkane hydroxylases usually reported as being functional on long-chain ...
Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ability to use wide range of hydrocarbons is advantage of this bacterium to other marine community bacteria. A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) and the second system is cytochrome P450. Until now there is not any report on cloning of cytochrome P450 gene of A. borkumensis. In this study cytochrome P450 gene from A. borkumensis was cloned. At first P450 gene was cloned in pBluescript plasmid by blunt cloning and insertion was confirmed by colony PCR. Then P450 gene was cloned in PET-26 expression vector and finally, IPTG induced gene expression in E.coli BL-21 bacterium. It was shown that longer induction time led to more expression level. The recombinant enzyme has difference absorbance in 450 nm that confirmed the activity of this recombinant enzyme.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Evaluation of Peroxisomal and Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes in n-Alkane-Assimilating Diploid Yeast, Candida tropicalis. AU - Ueda, Mitsuyoshi. AU - Kanayama, Naoki. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The n-alkane-assimilating diploid yeast, Candida tropicalis, possesses two acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (Thiolase I) isozymes encoded by one allele: peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is encoded by both CT-T1A and CT-T1B. To clarify the function of peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is, the site-directed mutation leading Thiolase I ΔC6 without a putative C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal was introduced on CT-T1A locus in the ct-t1bΔ-null mutant. The C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I was active and solely present in the cytosol. Although the ct-t1aΔ/t1bΔ-null mutants showed mevalonate auxotrophy, the mutants having the C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I did not require mevalonate for growth, as did the strains having cytosolic Thiolase I. These ...
Looking for online definition of alkane in the Medical Dictionary? alkane explanation free. What is alkane? Meaning of alkane medical term. What does alkane mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of a Pseudomonas rhamnolipid biosurfactant on cell hydrophobicity and biodegradation of octadecane. AU - Zhang, Y.. AU - Miller, R. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In this study, the effect of a purified rhamnolipid biosurfactant on the hydrophobicity of octadecane-degrading cells was investigated to determine whether differences in rates of octadecane biodegradation resulting from the addition of rhamnolipid to four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be related to measured differences in hydrophobicity. Cell hydrophobicity was determined by a modified bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon (BATH) assay. Bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon quantitates the preference of cell surfaces for the aqueous phase or the aqueous-hexadecane interface in a two- phase system of water and hexadecane. On the basis of octadecane biodegradation in the absence of rhamnolipid, the four bacterial strains were divided into two ...
Gordonia sp. SoCg, a Gram positive strain able to grow on long chain n-alkanes1, possess a single copy of alkB2 gene, whose product is required for n-alkane hydroxylation3. An analysis of alkB flanking regions revealed five ORFs which were designed as orf1, rubA3, rubA4, rubB and alkU, according to the sequence 14 homology with that of known alk clusters3. In G. sp. SoCg the transcription of these genes was induced by long-chain and solid n-alkanes as revealed by quantitative RT-PCR, and the essential role of alkB in nalkane degradation was demonstrated by the construction of an alkB disruption mutant strain3. The SoCg alkB gene was successfully expressed in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 (M145-AH), and the production of 1-hexadecanol from n-hexadecane oxidation was observed3. A differential study of global gene expression of M145-AH cultures was performed, where n-hexadecane (C16) glucose (GLU) and none (NC) were provided as only carbon source, respectively. Proteomic analysis, based on 2D-DIGE ...
0004] Provided herein are recombinant phototrophic microorganisms, comprising one or more alkane oxidation genes whose expression results in oxidation of alkanes and assimilation of the resulting products into the central metabolic pathways in phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria. The one or more alkane oxidation genes can be an alkane monooxygenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase or an aldehyde assimilatory gene. The recombinant photosynthetic organism converts the entire feed of alkane into the targeted product because it uses sunlight to provide energy and oxygen needed for oxidation of alkanes. Having the ability to couple oxidation of alkanes such as methane with sunlight in the recombinant phototrophic organism and energy can allow molecules of interest (e.g., butanol) to be produced biologically from natural gas in an efficient and cost effective manner. Because the recombinant phototrophic organism converts alkanes into metabolic products that are natively part of central metabolic ...
The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by mortality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute lethal toxicity to Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14 -C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). In another study, the acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by mortality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute lethal toxicity to Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data ...
For the linear alkanes, the internal methylene groups $\left(-\ce{CH2}-\right)$ are considered to be the functional group defining the homologous series:. $$ \ce{H3C-\underline{(\ce{CH2})_n}-CH3}~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{n-alkanes} $$. Alternatively, this series is defined by the absence of any particular functional group other than methyl and methylene.. Ethane, $\ce{C2H6}$ is the member of the series for $n=0$. Technically, one could exclude methane, $\ce{CH4}$, from the series, since it doesnt have two capping methyl groups. However, to my knowledge its usually considered part of the series as a special case.. For the 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes, the double and triple bonded carbons are the functional groups defining the series:. $$ \ce{H3C-(CH2)_n-\underline{\ce{CH=CH2}}} ~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{1-alkenes} $$. $$ \ce{H3C-(CH2)_n-\underline{\ce{C#CH}}} ~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{1-alkynes} $$. Parallel to the alkanes, the shortest official members of the two series are technically propene ...
Basic understanding of the combustion kinetics of jet fuels is critical to optimal design of gas-turbine engines. Because jet fuels contain a large number of compounds, a current approach to their combustion kinetics is to use a surrogate, containing several compounds, to mimic jet-fuel behaviors. Towards the goal of developing a combustion kinetic model for jet-fuel surrogates, a theoretical study was undertook here, focusing largely on a particular class of surrogate component, namely, the normal alkanes.; To develop a combustion reaction model for fuel surrogates requires a reliable H2/CO/C1-C4 combustion sub-model as its foundation. Therefore, a significant portion of the current work is to improve H2/CO/C1-C4 high-temperature combustion model through a critical evaluation of rate parameters, theoretical studies for several key reactions, ab initio calculations of thermochemical properties, and validation tests against a wide range of experimental data.; Notably, the kinetics of reactions ...
Basic understanding of the combustion kinetics of jet fuels is critical to optimal design of gas-turbine engines. Because jet fuels contain a large number of compounds, a current approach to their combustion kinetics is to use a surrogate, containing several compounds, to mimic jet-fuel behaviors. Towards the goal of developing a combustion kinetic model for jet-fuel surrogates, a theoretical study was undertook here, focusing largely on a particular class of surrogate component, namely, the normal alkanes.; To develop a combustion reaction model for fuel surrogates requires a reliable H2/CO/C1-C4 combustion sub-model as its foundation. Therefore, a significant portion of the current work is to improve H2/CO/C1-C4 high-temperature combustion model through a critical evaluation of rate parameters, theoretical studies for several key reactions, ab initio calculations of thermochemical properties, and validation tests against a wide range of experimental data.; Notably, the kinetics of reactions ...
Anaerobic methane metabolism is solely conducted by Archaea, through a unique pathway with the key enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) for methane activation/production. Recently, the MCR-based pathway was also found in propane and n-butane oxidation and related genes was also found actively expressed in natural environment. In this study, we then made a global metagenome-based survey of mcr containing archaeal genomes. Methane metabolizing archaea were found present in various environments such as lakes, hot springs, marine environments. In addition to the Euryarchaeota and Bathyarchaeota, MAGs (metagenome assembled genomes) harbouring mcr genes were found belonging to diverse archaeal lineages including such as the Korarchaeota, Hadesarchaeota, Verstraetearchaeota, Nezhaarchaeota (a new archaeal group named in this study using the Chinese mythological character Nezha, who flies on the wind and fire wheels), far more diversified than ever recognized. The finding of anaerobic alkane ...
Both the human and animal data indicate that exposure to high levels of gasoline can produce acute central nervous system depression. There is also evidence from the clinical literature that repeated exposure to gasoline at very high levels, under abuse conditions, can produce more profound central nervous system effects. Less clear is the degree to which these effects may have been due to the lead additives as opposed to the hydrocarbon constituents. There is little evidence of chronic neurological effects in humans exposed repeatedly at lower, occupational levels. The animal data provide little experimental support for chronic neurological effects from either unleaded gasoline or naphtha blending stocks. Initial studies with wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline provided evidence of exacerbation of normal, age-related changes. However, subsequent studies with gasoline vapor and naphtha blending stocks had no clear or reproducible effects on motor activity, produced no functional changes, and did ...
(plastemart) -- The Russian government has no plans to change the export duty on crude oil and products, including high export duties for gasoline and naphtha.In May 2011, the government introduced export duties for gasoline and naphtha at ...
The red line graph shows the boiling point of alkanes from methane CH4 (boiling point -164oC/109 K) to tetradecane C14H30 (boiling point 254oC/527 K). [Remember K = oC + 273] Note: The red line represents linear alkanes in all the graphs 1-3 and is a useful baseline to compare the intermolecular bonding present in other homologous series of non-cyclic aliphatic compounds.. So, in this discussion we are comparing the red line (linear alkanes) with the linear aliphatic monocarboxylic molecule AND comparing molecules with a similar number of electrons.. A plot of number of electrons in any molecule of a homologous series versus its boiling point (K) shows a steady rise with a gradually decreasing gradient.. I consider this the best for comparison of the effects of intermolecular bonding between different homologous series i.e. carbon chains with a different end functional group.. REMINDER: Intermolecular forces are all about partially positive (δ+) sites and partially negative (δ ) sites on ...
The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature of organic chemistry is the standardized official naming rule of organic compounds, developed by the IUPAC. In this page we will discuss the IUPAC naming of alkanes, branched-chain alkanes, alkanes with substituents, and cycloalkanes. In organic chemistry, a number of prefixes, suffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound. The steps for naming an organic compound …
Biocatalytic production of perillyl alcohol from limonene by using a novel Mycobacterium sp cytochrome P450 alkane hydroxylase expressed in Pseudomonas ...
United States Patent O 3,758,410 VICINAL SUBSTITUTED ALKANES Shih K. Lin, St. Louis, Mo., assignor to Monsanto Company, St. Louis, M0. N Drawing. Continuation-in-part of applications Ser. No. 710,644, Mar. 5, 1968, and Ser. No. 852,898, Aug. 25, 1969, both now abandoned. This application Apr. 21, 1971, Ser. No. 136,249 Int. Cl. Clld 3/075 U.S. Cl. 252-89 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Mixtures of internal position isomers of vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes wherein the alkyl chain contains from 15 to 17 carbon atoms and the substituents are hydroxy or alkoxy groups, at least one of the substituents being alkoxy groups, are effective surfactants. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This application is a continuation-in-part of US. patent application, Ser. No. 710,644, filed Mar. 5, 1968 and US. patent application, Ser. No. 852,898, filed Aug. 25, 1969, both of said applications now abandoned. This invention relates to novel surfactant compositions and to detergent ...
Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary systems nonane + benzene + [bmim][PF6], nonane + toluene + [bmim][PF6], nonane + m-xylene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + benzene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + toluene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + m-xylene + [bmim][PF6]) were determined at 298.15 K. Binodal curves were obtained by the cloud point method, while tie-line compositions were obtained by density and UV spectrophotometry measurements. In all cases the two-phase region is large and wide. The values of distribution coefficients and selectivities indicate that the ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] is a good solvent for the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic compounds. The consistency of the tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The experimental LLE data were correlated through the well-known NRTL model for the activity coefficient, with estimation of new interaction energy parameters, using the Simplex minimization method and a composition-based objective function. The ...
The solids hold-up and mean bubble behavior in a vertically-vibrated fluidized bed are experimentally studied in the present work by Means of Digital Image Analysis (DIA) for four different powders with Geldart classifications A, B and A/B. The bed has a small The solids hold-up and mean bubble behavior in a vertically-vibrated fluidized bed are experimentally studied in the present work by Means of Digital Image Analysis (DIA) for four different powders with Geldart classifications A, B and A/B. The bed has a small thickness (i.e. pseudo-2D bed) and operates in bubbling regime subject to a wide range of gas superficial velocities, vibration frequencies and vibration amplitudes. Mean parameters of the bed and the bubbles, such as solids hold-up, bubble fraction, bubble number density and bubble diameter and velocity, are characterized here by averaging the results over time and space. The results reveal that vibration of the bed promotes a confinement of the bubble path to the central section of ...
Materials and Methods. Microorganism, media and cultivation. The R. wratislawiensis BN38, employed in this study was isolated from soil polluted with hydrocarbons by a standard enrichment technique (Tuleva et al., 2008). Minimal salt medium (MSM) with the following composition (g/l): K2HPO4.3H2O, 4.8; KH2PO4, 1.5; (NH4)2SO4, 1.0; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.2; supplemented with trace element solution (mg/l): CaCl2.2H2O, 2.0; MnCl2.4H2O, 0.4; NiCl2.6H2O, 0.4; ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.4; FeCl3.6H2O, 0.2; Na2MoO4.2H2O, 0.2 and phenol and n-hexadecane at 500 mg/l, unless otherwise mentioned, was used. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.0. The MSM was solidified as MSM phenol agar by addition of 1.8 % agar when necessary. Cultures grown on MSM agar supplemented with 500 mg/l phenol were used to inoculate 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 100 ml liquid MSM. At each cycle MSM was supplemented to 100 ml with fresh sterile medium without cell transfer and only phenol was added. Cultures were incubated during the long-term ...
n this work, a simple numerical model of the evaporation process of a single droplet of various fuels, e.g., n-alkanes (n-decane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) and kerosene is evaluated with various correlations at standard pressure (0.1 MPa) and various uniform temperature fields. The effect of natural, forced or combined convection is explored using an effective Reynolds number (Reeff). Studies are performed for n-alkanes and kerosene droplets and have been compared with the empirical data available in the literature for the temporal variation of droplet diameter, droplet surface temperature, and average evaporation rate constants at various temperatures under free-stream and quiescent conditions. A good match is observed for a particular property rule (Eq. 10), with different convective correlations, depending on the convective conditions present.. ...
was isolated from this hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater and examined for its ability to utilize hexadecane. This strain was capable to grow on n-hexadecane as the sole source of carbon and energy. The ability of the isolate to degrade nhexadecane was assessed by growth assays and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Using GC analysis, it was shown that the strain KSS1060 was able to degrade 62 % of n-hexadecane within 6 days, which mostly (51.6 %) occurred within the first 24 h. Identification of this hexadecane-degrader bacterium was carried out using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Additionally, characterization of chemical composition of wastewater samples by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of Hexanal, Benzene methanol, Indanol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester, diisobutyl phthalate, and Phenol,4,4-(1- methylethylidene) in the major constituents of wastewater. In conclusion, this study can focus on more costefficient ...
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Synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon. 13 words related to aliphatic compound: acetylene, alkyne, ethyne, alicyclic compound, alkene, olefin, olefine, organic compound, alkane, alkane series.... What are synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon?
We are examining the reaction surface for alkanes in the coordination sphere of Rh and Ir complexes. It is generally believed now that oxidative addition and reductive elimination of alkanes to transition metal centers involve complexes of intact alkanes (sigma complexes) as intermediates, and considerable effect is widely going into trying to discern their properties and to observe them directly. We are investigating their intramolecular reactivity properties with respect to their barriers for oxidative addition, reductive elimination, migration of the metal about the intact alkane, and alkane dissociation, and competition for re-coordination of different hydrocarbons to the rhodium center. All of these processes must be central to any catalytic reaction for the modification or functionalization of alkanes mediated by these metals. Shown below is an example of a rhodium complex under investigation which exhibits migration of rhodium from C1 to C10 of its decyl group. Evidence strongly ...
68131-80-6 - Distillates (petroleum), steam-cracked, polymers with acid-treated coal solvent naphtha and phenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Daniel Freitig is Internal Auditor at Naphtha Israel Petroleum Corp Ltd. See Daniel Freitigs compensation, career history, education, & memberships.
The fractionated naphtha is divided into two streams, one to the thermal cracker (olefin plant) and the other to the reformer (aromatics plant). The exit streams are separated and individual chemicals subjected to separate treatments depending on the intermediates, monomers or polymers required.. A highly paraffinic naphtha is thus the best cracking feedstock for high yields of ethylene, and Figure 33 shows the kind of product distribution from a Kuwaiti naphtha under various cracking conditions. The major co-products - ethylene, propylene, butadiene (C4H6), mixed butene/butane (C4H8, C4H10) and pyrolysis gasoline (C5+) − vary in concentration depending on cracking severity. With naphthas derived from other crudes, the product distribution will be quite different (see Box 7). The proportion of unwanted byproducts like hydrogen, methane and carbon coke (not shown in the figure, but which gradually accumulate within the cracking tubes) increases with cracking severity. However, the product ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Based on data from drilling core,analysis assay and seismic data of the Central Tarim area,the authors deal systematically with the activities and mechanism of the deep fluid as well as its thermal effect on hydrocarbon accumulation.Based on the study for hydrothermal mineralization and alteration of Ordovician rock,paleo-thermal anomaly,inorganic CO_2 gas reservoir,inclusion temperature measurement and so on,the following conclusions are arrived: throught seismic,volcano or other variable channels such as fault,unconformity and so on,the deep fluid migrated upwards.Such fluid could improve not only the hydrocarbon-generation quantity and rate,but also lower the residual organic content in source rock and affects the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation.Deep fluid both has the destructive role of hydrothermal calcite filling and the constructive role of hydrothermal corrosion and hydrothermal secondary minerals for the gas reservoir.During the process of upward migration,abnormal high pressure caused by
Principal Investigator:YOSHIDA Yoichi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:エネルギー学一般・原子力学
Cellulose nanocrystals and their interactions with different surfactants in high ionic strength brine were studied to produce stable liquid-liquid interface (emulsions) and gas-liquid (foams) for potential application in underground CO2 storage, enhanced oil recovery, and biodegradation of crude oil at marine oil-spill sites. Three different but related studies were carried out to complete these objectives. Interfacial and surface properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and surfactants were studied in high ionic strength (I) brines and correlated to the stability of Pickering emulsions and foams in the presence of three different surfactants viz: Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) cocoalkylamine (CAA), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and Octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP). Emulsion stability studies revealed that ionic strength, wettability, adsorption energy, and oil content strongly affect emulsion stability, more so than surfactant adsorption. DTAB increased the stability of dodecane in SSW emulsions.
A large number of analytes, including non-fluorescent ones, can be sensitively detected by fluorescence scanning densitometry using silica gel HPTLC plates impregnated with a solution of coralyne cation. This is carried out by the variation, increase or decrease, that the corresponding analyte induces on native coralyne emission at a given excitation wavelength. A similar phenomenon was previously described for berberine cation, and Reichardts dye probes. However, the sensitivity of coralyne in HPTLC detection of non-fluorescent, structurally different analytes (e.g., long-chain alkanes, alcohols, alkylbromides, neutral lipids) is superior to that of the above-mentioned probes. In this work, the analytical viability of this phenomenon for HPTLC detection using coralyne as a probe is explored, and fluorescent responses of a number of analytes on the coralyne system are rationalized in the light of a previously proposed model. This establishes that the resulting intensity for a probe in the ...
The synthesis of a series of polymethylene chain-bridged 8-azapurines as potential DNA intercalating agents is described. N,N-Bis(5-amino-6-chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (III), N,N-bis(5-amino-6chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,8-diaminooctane (IV), and N,N-bis(5-amino-6-chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,12-diaminododecane (V) were synthesized from 5-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine (I) and 1,3-diaminopropane (II, n = 3), 1,8-diaminooctane (II, n = 8), and 1,12-diaminododecane (II, n = 12), respectively, as the starting materials. 1,3-Bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)propane (VI), 1,8-bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)octane (VII), and 1,12-bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)dodecane (VIII) were prepared by acid-catalyzed reaction of the corresponding pyrimidines III-V with triethyl orthoformate in N,N-dimethylacetamide. The polymethylene chain-bridged 6-hydroxy-8-azapurines XII-XIV were obtained via diazotization of the corresponding pyrimidines. The spectral data and other physical properties of the new compounds have been determined.. ...
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CL54950100 - 3-Azabicyclo(3.3.1)nonane, 9-alpha-methoxy-3-methyl-9-beta-phenyl-, citrate (1:1) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
0128] The Article provides a lather profile as described hereafter. The lather volume assessment is performed on 15 g/10 inch flat Oriental virgin hair switches that have been treated with 0.098 g of artificial liquid sebum [10-22% olive oil, 18-20% coconut oil, 18-20% oleic acid, 5-9% lanolin, 5-9% squalene, 3-6% palmitic acid, 3-6% paraffin oil, 3-6% dodecane, 1-4% stearic acid, 1-4% cholesterol, 1-4% coconut fatty acid, 18-20% choleth-24]. The hair switch is rinsed with 9-11 grain, 100° F. water at 1.5 gallons/min for 20 seconds with a shower nozzle. For testing the liquid control products, 0.75 cm3 of liquid product are applied to the center of the switch, the lower portion of hair on the switch is then rubbed over the product on the hair 10 times in a circular motion, followed by 40 strokes back and forth (a total of 80 strokes). Lather speed is recorded as the number of strokes when the first lather is obviously generated during the 80 strokes, Lather from operators gloves is transferred ...
The aim of this experiment is classified of the hydrocarbon and learn the test which are aromatic bromation, permanganate test, sulfuric acid test and nitration of aromatic hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon , any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series.The alkanes are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first and simplest member of this series is methane, CH4; the series is sometimes called the methane series. Each successive member of a homologous series of hydrocarbons has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms ...
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Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow