Calcium alginate is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate. Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. "Alginate" is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term "algin" is used instead of alginate. Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. The solution is too thick ...
Like many natural polysaccharides, dried alginates are not stable to heat, oxygen, metallic ions, etc. Stored in such circumstances, alginates will be degraded naturally. The high-viscosity alginate is more rapidly degraded than the medium-or low- viscosity ones. The order of stability in storage is: sodium alginate , ammonium alginate , alginic acid.. Different kind of alginate salt gives different stability, so does the different grade product. The industrial grade alginate solution is more easily degraded by microbe in the air, because such products contain much algal particles and nitrogenous matter which offer plenty of nutrition for microbe. The pure sodium alginate solution can be kept at room temperature for several months without obvious change in viscosity. When temperature increases, all alginate solutions will depolymerize. Alginate solutions are stable in the pH range 5.5 - 10 at room temperature for a long time, but will form the gel below pH 5.5. Propylene glycol alginate solution ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of sodium alginate on physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer. AU - Kim, Min Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Soo. AU - Hwang, Sung Joo. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium alginate on the physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer-equipped piston extruder and double-arm counter-rotating rollers. The mean values of the shape factor (eR) and the aspect ratio of Surelease®-matrix pellets were 0.615-0.625 and 1.06-1.070, respectively, indicating good sphericity of the pellets. The drug release rate increased as the amount of sodium alginate increased due to hydration, swelling, and erosion within the Surelease®-matrix pellets. In addition, the porosity of pellets also increased with increasing sodium alginate content. The results of this study show that sodium alginate has a greater effect on the drug release ...
The report on the Global Sodium Alginate market offers complete data on the Sodium Alginate market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Sodium Alginate market. The top contenders SNP, KIMICA, SNAP Natural & Alginate Products, IRO Alginate Industry, NovaMatrix, Bright Moon Seaweed, Lianyungang Tiantian Seaweed Industrial, Unikem of the global Sodium Alginate market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=19657. The report also segments the global Sodium Alginate market based on product mode and segmentation Industrial Grade, Food Grade, Pharma Grade. The study includes a profound summary of the key sectors and the segments Papermaking, Paper Coatings, Textiles, Food & ...
There have been few studies of the effect of alginate dressings on the processes of wound healing.. The healing of cutaneous ulcers requires the development of a vascularized granular tissue bed, filling of large tissue defects by dermal regeneration, and the restoration of a continuous epidermal keratinocyte layer. These processes were modeled in vitro in one study, utilizing human dermal fibroblast, microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC), and keratinocyte cultures to examine the effect of calcium alginate on the proliferation and motility of these cultures, and the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC.. In the study, the calcium alginate increased the proliferation of fibroblasts but decreased the proliferation of HMEC and keratinocytes. In contrast, the calcium alginate decreased fibroblast motility but had no effect on keratinocyte motility. There was no significant effect of calcium alginate on the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC. The effects of calcium alginate on ...
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Figure 1, a) 3D pore 100 µm droplet chip junction, b) 80 µm, c) 100 µm alginate beads.. The Dolomite Team is using microfluidics to produce small (80-120 µm) alginate beads suitable for cell encapsulation. A 2 % alginate solution was dissolved in water overnight with subsequent addition of Ca-EDTA. For the oil phase, 1 % Fluosurf in HFE 7500 was used with 0.05 % acetic acid to release the chelated calcium in the Ca-EDTA complex and allow alginate crosslinking from within. Both solutions were introduced into a 100 µm 3D pore fluorophilic single junction chip (figure 1a) to form spherical monodispersed beads. Depending on flow rates (Qd 16 µlmin-1 Qc 10 µlmin-1 and Qd 10 µlmin-1 Qc 18 µlmin-1) 80 µm (figure 1b) and 100 µm (figure 1c) alginate beads were produced respectively.. DOWNLOAD APPLICATION NOTE HERE. If you are interested in producing alginate beads for your applications, please contact us at [email protected], and keep an eye out for our alginate bead application ...
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The influence of the mixture of water and alcohols on the solubility and properties of alginate and its calcium-induced gels is of interest for the food, wound care and pharmaceutical industries. The solvent quality of water with increasing amounts of ethanol (0-20%) on alginate was studied using intrinsic viscosity. The effect of ethanol addition on the rheological and mechanical properties of calcium alginate gels was determined. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the network structure. It is shown that the addition of ethanol up to 15% (wt) increases the extension of the alginate chain, which correlates with increased moduli and stress being required to fracture the gels. The extension of the polymer chain is reduced at 20% (wt) ethanol, which is followed by reduced moduli and stress at breakage of the gels. The network structure of gels at high ethanol concentrations (24%) is characterized by thick and poorly connected network strands.. ...
Alginate hydrogels are commonly used in biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and as a medium for cell immobilization. Multivalent cations are often employed to create physical crosslinks between carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties on neighbouring polysaccharide chains, creating hydrogels with a range of mechanical properties. This work describes the manufacture and characterisation of sodium alginate hydrogels using the divalent cations Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+ to promote gelation via non-covalent crosslinks. The gelation time and Youngs modulus are characterised as a function of cation and alginate concentrations. The implications of this work towards the use of environmental elasticity to control stem cell differentiation are discussed.. ...
Sodium and potassium alginate are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders). Sodium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish, with no maximum recommended use level. Potassium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter). Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and potassium alginate were considered equivalent. The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food-producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed. The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes. They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidised alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells. AU - Wright, Bernice. AU - De Bank, Paul A.. AU - Luetchford, Kimberley. AU - Acosta, Fernando R.. AU - Connon, Che J.. PY - 2014/10. Y1 - 2014/10. N2 - Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2 - 0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: ...
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Oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis and enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.: Alginate production by the highly alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8821M wa
Objective(s): In this study, effects of encapsulated umbilical cord stem cells (UCSCs)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds was investigated on CCl4-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. Material and Methods: UCSCs were encapsulated in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds. Then the UCSCs differentiated into HLCs for treatment of CCl4-induced ALF in rats. Thirty rats randomly divided into 5 groups: Intoxicated group received only CCl4 to induce ALF. In other groups including cell-free, UCSCs and HLCs, alginate scaffolds were transplanted into the liver 4 days after CCl4 injection. Biochemical markers including albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Histological changes and gene expression of ALB, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) were also assessed.Results: Expression of CK-18 significantly increased in HLCs compared to the UCSCs
lginate is a polysaccharide found within brown seaweeds and has been targeted as a carbon source for biofuel production. Alginate consists of α-L-guluronate (G) and β-D-mannuronate (M) linked in various patterns, which results in either a homo- or heteropolymeric structure. Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade the linkage between G and M blocks and can have specificity to either polyG, polyM, or polyMG block degradation. The marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01 contains four putative alginate lyases which were investigated in this study. We identified, purified, and characterized the four PL7 alginates lyases. We found that these lyases have optimal activity between pH 7.5-8.5 and 20-25°C, consistent with use in a marine environment. Additionally, Ca 2+ is necessary for optimal enzyme activity. The binding constant (K m ) of the lyases toward alginate was found to be between 22 and 123 mM alginate and the maximum reaction rate (V max ) was found to be between 0.13 and 0.83 μM s -1 . ...
Alginates have many beneficial uses across a wide variety of industries. Alginates are salts of alginic acid taking the form of sodium, calcium and/or ammonium alginate precipitated from brown seaweed (algae).
All chronic wounds are colonised by bacteria; for some, colonisation progresses to become infection. Alginate wound dressings are used for highly exuding chronic wounds as they are very absorbent, taking up large quantities of exudate while maintaining a moist wound bed to support healing. Some alginate dressings are doped with antimicrobials, most commonly silver, but evidence regarding the efficacy of these is largely inconclusive. This manuscript describes the development and in vitro assessment of alginate materials doped with chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate (CHX-HMP), a sparingly soluble salt which when exposed to aqueous environments provides sustained release of the common antiseptic chlorhexidine. Comparator materials were a commercial silver alginate dressing material and an alginate doped with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHXdg). CHX-HMP alginates provided a dose-dependent CHX release which was sustained for over 14 days, whereas CHXdg alginates released limited CHX and this ceased ...
Research work that began in 2013 has been able to establish, optimise and standardise the cultivation of the soil bacterium and the biotechnological process for producing and isolating bacterial alginates. By working specifically on optimising the bacteriums alginate biosynthesis, the researchers succeeded in improving the composition, and therefore the properties and yield of the alginate. This meant that they could make customised alginates that are particularly suitable for producing fibres for use in medical products. In a pilot production facility, the research partners were able to spin fibres from alginate and alginate-viscose, and turn them into innovative nonwoven materials and wound dressings within the established process. When the new wound dressings were tested in use, the alginate product that had been made using biotechnology was impressive for its liquid absorption capacity, which was significantly better than that of commercially available marine alginate-based wound dressings. ...
The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions, and solvents were subsequently examined. The entrapment was found to have minimal beneficial stability gains. However, enhanced enzyme reusability (up to 3 cycles) and stability (up to 18 days at 4°C) of the calcium alginate entrapped lipase, as indicated by
The relationship of high and low molecular weight mannuronic acid (M)- and guluronic acid (G)-rich alginate nanoparticles as oral insulin carrier was elucidated. Nanoparticles were prepared through ionotropic gelation using Ca2 +, and then in vitro physicochemical attributes and in vivo antidiabetic characteristics were examined. The alginate nanoparticles had insulin release retarded when the matrices had high alginate-to-insulin ratio or strong alginate-insulin interaction via O-H moiety. High molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles were characterized by assemblies of long polymer chains that enabled insulin encapsulation with weaker polymer-drug interaction than nanoparticles prepared from other alginate grades. They were able to encapsulate and yet release and have insulin absorbed into systemic circulation, thereby lowering rat blood glucose. High molecular weight G- and low molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles showed remarkable polymer-insulin interaction. This retarded ...
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The analysts forecast the global sodium alginate market to exhibit a CAGR of 5.43% during the period 2019-2024. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global sodium alginate for 2019-2024. To calculate the market size, the report considers the sodium alginate sales volume and revenue.. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: regional markets, product, and application.. Download Free Sample Report @ https://www.radiantinsights.com/research/sodium-alginate-market/request-sample. Geographically, the global sodium alginate market is segmented into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa and South America. This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the ...
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This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. ...
Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. ...
The two-phase model used previously to calculate the polymer-subphase volume of alginic acid was applied to interpret the dependence of apparent metal binding equilibrium on environmental conditions. In this model, the polymer subphase, a small aqueous region surrounding the polymer chain, was considered as a separate phase in the aqueous solution and as a protonation-deprotonation and metal binding reaction zone. Three factors were taken into account when treating experimental data: (1) the electric field due to the charged ligands on the polymer molecule, (2) the effective concentration of ligands based on polymer-subphase volume, and (3) the competition from hydrogen ions for the metal binding sites. The data of base titration of alginic acid in the presence of trace amounts of copper at different alginic acid concentrations and ionic strengths yielded unique intrinsic stability constants for complexes formed between a cupric ion and one or two binding ligands ...
Dolomite Microfluidics systems are enabling reliable, reproducible production of monodisperse alginate beads, overcoming the challenges associated with traditional batch techniques. Controlled and reproducible generation of alginate gel beads is crucial for biomedical science and engineering applications that require biologically and chemically inert polymers, such as the encapsulation of drugs or cells. However, this can be difficult to achieve with batch synthesis, which produces large beads with a wide size distribution and minimal control over bead size. The reproducibility and throughput of the technique are also low. Microfluidic synthesis of alginate beads overcomes these difficulties, allowing precise control of bead formation and enabling rapid production of particles with well-defined sizes, shapes and morphologies ...
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It is also a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis, that confer it a high resistance to antibiotics and killing by macrophages. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms. Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. The monomers can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. A wide variety of brown seaweeds of the phylum Phaeophyceae are harvested ...
Sodium alginate is a seaweed-derived fibre that has previously been shown to moderate appetite in models of acute feeding. The mechanisms underlying this effect may include slowed gastric clearance and attenuated uptake from the small intestine. In order to assess whether alginate could be effective as a means of appetite control in free-living adults, 68 males and females (BMI range: 18.50-32.81 kgl M-2) completed this randomised, controlled two-way crossover intervention to compare the effects of 7 day daily ingestion of a strong-gelling sodium alginate formulation against a control. A sodium alginate with a high-guluronate content was chosen because, upon ingestion, it forms a strong gel in the presence of calcium ions. Daily preprandial ingestion of the sodium alginate formulation produced a significant 134.8 kcal (7%) reduction in mean daily energy intake. This reduced energy intake was underwritten by significant reductions in mean daily carbohydrate, sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein ...
Alginate can be produced by a microbial fermentation using bacteria such as Azobacter Vinelandii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Linker and Jones 1964, Gorin and Spencer 1966). These bacteria produce a polysaccharide with a structure resembling alginate, differing only in that there are acetyl groups on a portion of the C2 and C3 hydroxyls. It is believed that the acetate groups are associated mainly with the D-mannuronic acid residues (Davidson 1977, Sutherland 1983, Paul 1986). The level of acetylation is variable as is the mannuronic and guluronic acid content. However the level of guluronic acid in the final polymer can be controlled to some extent by altering the level of calcium in the fermentation broth (Haug and Larsen 1971). The sequence structures and acetylation patterns of bacterial alginate, from different sources, have been studied with 2D COSY proton NMR techniques. The acetyl residues were found to be exclusively associated with the mannuronic acid residues with degrees of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gypsum Compatibility of Antimicrobial Alginates After Spray Disinfection. AU - King, Barbara B.. AU - Norling, Barry K.. AU - Seals, Richard. PY - 1994/12. Y1 - 1994/12. N2 - This investigation examined the gypsum compatibility of two antimicrobial alginates after spray disinfection. Subjective compatibility evaluations were compared with objective quantitative profilometer readings of gypsum cast surface roughness. COE Hydrophilic Gel Alginate, Jeltrate Plus Antimicrobial Alginate, and their nonantimicrobial counterparts, Coe Alginate and Jeltrate Plus, were used in this study. After spray disinfection with water (control), Alcide LD, Biocide, OMC II, and 0.5% NaOCl, impressions of the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) specification no. 18 detail reproduction die and impressions made simultaneously of a smooth glass die were cast in Microstone, Silky‐Rock, and Die‐Keen. Five specimens were made for each alginate/disinfectant/gypsum ...
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Alginate lyase (Sphingomonas sp.) [ME-ALGLS] - High purity recombinant Alginate lyase (Sphingomonas sp.) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitrodiagnostic analysis. EC 4.2.2.3 CAZY Family: PL7 Recombinant. From Sphingomonas sp. In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate. endo-acting β-elimination cleavage of the polysaccharide, alginate. Specific activity: ~ 120 U/mg (40oC, pH 7.2 on sodium alginate). Store at 4oC.
In accordance with this invention, an aqueous solution of drug or drugs and alginate is prepared in DW/NS/PBS with an alginate: drug ratio of 1:6-1:8 w/w and a final alginate concentration of 0.05-0.07% w/v. Methanol may be added (if one of the drug is hydrophobic) in a ratio of 0.2:1-10 v/v. The mixture can comprise an excess amount of drug solution or sodium alginate solution, but which would only constitute a waste. To the mixture is added an aqueous solution of calcium chloride (drug-alginate solution: calcium chloride solution-18:1-22:1 v/v) with a molarity of calcium chloride maintained between 15-20mM. To the mixture is further added an aqueous solution of chitosan (drug-alginate solution: chitosan solution=8:1-12:1 v/v) with an alginatexhitosan ratio maintained preferably, but not limited to a ratio between 4:1-7:1 w/w. The nanoparticles formed are left as such for l-18h and subsequently collected by centrifugation at 19,000-37,000 rpm, at 4°C-30°C for 30 min-45 min ...
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Alginate is used in various pharmaceutical preparations. Chemically, it is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked ?-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer ?-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. Alginic acid can be separated from benzoate, citric acid and saccharin by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep C HPLC column. This method can be used to quantitate alginic acid, citric acid or saccharin in complex mixtures. Various detection technique can be used (UV, ELSD, LC/MS), based on mobile phase selection. ...
Chitosan, carrageenan and alginate are among the most abundant biopolymers in nature. They were prepared in uniform beads shape with a diameter of 2 mm ± 10%, using the encapsulator for removal of calcium, magnesium and iron cations from hard water. Solutions of 100-500 mg/L were prepared from each cation, and the detection of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer. Carrageenan and chitosan were able to chelate the three cations without further modification. However, alginate beads succeeded to chelate iron and magnesium and failed to chelate any calcium ions; in contrast, it increased the initial calcium concentration! That could be due to the pre-cross-linking of alginate beads using calcium chloride solution, which may be leaked back to the solution. However, grafting the alginate beads with polyethyleneimine and bromoacetic acid rectified this problem and the new functional group, -COOH, has been proved using the FT-IR. Optimization of the results in terms of beads ...
Injection of a biomaterial scaffold into the infarcted myocardium can replace the injured extracellular matrix and improve the mechanical strength of the scar. The present study aimed to determine and compare the effect of novel injectable alginate scaffold, with or without staged cardiomyocyte transplantation, with injectable collagen scaffold, or saline on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. We developed a novel injectable, absorbable biomaterial composed of a calcium cross-linked alginate solution, which displays low viscosity and undergoes phase transition into hydrogel after injection into the infarct. Rats (n=58) were subjected to anterior MI and subsequently treated with injection of alginate biomaterial (n=22), collagen (n=12), or saline (n=12) into the infarct. One week later, 10 of 22 biomaterial-treated rats and 10 MI rats received rat fetal cardiomyocyte transplantation (1×10 6 cells) into the scar. Hemodynamic studies, performed ...
Feb 24, 2016 ... Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used as a food additive with E number 405. Chemically speaking, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is ... Sodium Alginate.. Read More ...
Algal alginates are of great importance for industrial applications. Since their properties depend on the kind of algae and the time of harvesting, supply problems caused price fluctuations. Hence, current research focuses on alternative alginate sources. Back in the 60s, exopolysaccharides similar to algal alginates were found. They were produced by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains which embed themselves in a slime matrix containing bacterial alginates. The focus of this thesis was a comparisons of the physico-chemical properties of bacterial and algal alginates. The main results of the performed investigations are as follows: a) both substances aggregate in highly diluted solutions, b) bacterial alginates have a bigger molar mass than algal alginates, c) their mean squared radii of gyration are bigger than those of algal alginates, d) the second osmotic virial coefficients of these systems are negative and temperature dependent, e) acetylation of alginates support the aggregation, f) ...
This study is a randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial with participants randomly allocated into two groups: A (n= 8 volunteers) and B (n=8 volunteers). The study will include a total of four arms.. By administration of test meals #1 (iron in alginate beads) and #4 (iron in a capsule) the possible protective effect of alginate on iron absorption will be investigated. By administration of test meal #2 (iron in alginate beads + calcium capsule)and #3 (iron in a capsule + calcium in a capsule)the study will investigate whether alginates can bind calcium (a well-known iron inhibitor) in vivo, thus diminish the potential negative effect of calcium on iron absorption.. Only half (8) of the volunteers will undergo treatments including calcium. Therefore group A will undergo all 4 tests, whereas group B will undergo 2 out of 4 tests.. The four test meals will be administered a week apart following an overnight fast. On each occasion blood sampling will take place over a period of 6h with samples ...
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COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012. Synonyms Hydroxypropyl alginate; 1,2-Propanediol ester of alginic acid; Propylene glycol alginate. Definition. Einecs:. Chemical name: 1,2-Propanediol ester of alginic acid; varies in composition according to its degree of esterification and the percentage of free and neutralised carboxyl groups in the molecule. Chemical formula: (C 9 H 14 O 7 ) n (esterified). Molecular weight: 10 000-600 000 (typical average). Assay: Yields, on the anhydrous basis, not less than 16 % and not more than 20 % of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Description Nearly odourless, white to yellowish brown fibrous or granular powder. Identification. Test for 1,2-propanediol: Passes test (after hydrolysis). Test for alginic acid: Passes test (after hydrolysis). Purity. Loss on drying: Not more than 20 % (105 °C, 4 hours). Total propane-1,2-diol content: Not less than 15 % and not more than 45 %. Free propane-1,2-diol content: Not more than 15 %. Water insoluble matter: Not ...
EN] A simple and reliable procedure to prepare TiO2 and Au/TiO2 samples with high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation from water/methanol mixtures is reported, which uses natural alginate as the templating agent. Aqueous solutions of sodium alginate are flocculated as beads by Ti=O2+ ions in the presence or absence of AuCl4 . The resulting alginate beads containing approximately 25 wt% of Ti and various Au contents are dehydrated by ethanol washings before drying under supercritical CO2 conditions. The key step in the preparation method is to obtain Au/Ti-containing alginate aerogels of approximately 700 m2g 1 Brunauer¿Emmett¿Teller surface area. The surface area of the TiO2 and Au/TiO2 samples obtained after calcination of the organic biopolymer at 4508C under air ranges from 187 to 136 m2g 1, and the Au content has been varied from 1.3 to 0.05 wt% to optimize the photocatalytic activity of the samples. TiO2 forms in the anatase phase according to XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The ...
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