Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
2012 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 53, no Suppl 1, S248-S249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
The major focus of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms by which oxidative stress affects cardiovascular function. In particular, we are interested in the role of lipid peroxidation as a contributor to myocardial ischemic injury and atherosclerosis. Although lipid peroxidation generates several reactive intermediates and end products, lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes are believed to be a major source of oxidative stress and these toxicants appear to be critical mediators of tissue injury due to lipid peroxidation. In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. We have learned that the enzymes - aldose reductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde dehydrogenase are the major constituents of aldehyde metabolism in the heart, and vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and ...
Based on the quantitative profiles of aldehydes reportedly formed during autoxidation of fatty acids, such as oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acid,17 18we measured eight aldehydes in this study (pentanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, and HNE). Pentanal and hexanal are mainly generated from the peroxidation of linoleic and arachidonic acid, while heptanal is generated from oleic acid, and 2-hexenal from α-linolenic acid. 2-nonenal and HNE are also the main peroxidation products of γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid.17 Among these aldehydes, HNE has already been widely studied19 and hexanal has also been reported20 to be an indicator of lipid peroxidation. It has already been confirmed that not only hexanal, HNE, and MDA, but also other aldehydes, actually increase during peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and in rats loaded with ethanol.14 17 All of the aldehydes measured in this study were higher in the CLD infants than in the ...
The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7±2 μM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of ...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a segmented-flow analyzer was used for the analysis of aldehydes. The aldehydes, which were separated on a reversed-phase C_(18) column, were derivatized with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinonhe ydrazone (MBTH) and detected at 640 nm. MBTH reacts readily with all aliphatic aldehydes to form MBTH derivatives with high molar absorptivities. Aldehydes below 1 µM can be easily detected by this method. Because aldehydes and other solutes are separated by HPLC before derivatization, free aldehydes are detected without interference. Aldehydes in cloud- and fogwater samples were analyzed. Form-aldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal concentrations were determined. Results obtained with the MBTH method were consistent with those obtained with the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method. The MBTH method allows for the rapid determination of the concentration of free aldehydes; the DNPH method will yield similar results, although the ...
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Aldehydes are named by IUPAC nomenclature by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -al. Aliphatic aldehydes are named as derivatives of their longest alkyl chain. Thus, HCHO is named as a derivative of methane, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is named as a derivative of butane. The suffix -al replaces the -e of the alkane name. Thus, HCHO is named methanal, more commonly known as formaldehyde, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is named butanal. When a -CHO group is attached to a ring, the suffix -carbaldehyde is used. Thus, C6H11-CHO is known as cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. The name benzaldehyde is used as the root for aldehydes derived from benzene. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution. T2 - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures. AU - Schulte, Mitchell D.. AU - Shock, Everett L.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal ...
The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. Individual cells did not react or reacted to one or multiple aldehydes; in the latter case, cells only reacted to aldehydes of consecutive carbon chain lengths. The largest proportion of cells responded to octanal. It was also demonstrated that a structural difference as small as one hydrogenated carbon atom was detectable by the olfactory neurons. Neurons were increasingly able to discriminate between two aldehydes as the difference in chain length between the two increased. Discrimination between aldehydes with longer carbon chains was reduced. Although the odorants examined belong to a distinct chemical class and differ only slightly in structure, individual olfactory sensory neurons showed quite different receptive ...
Lipid peroxidation-derived cellular damage has been related to normal cellular aging and various age-related degenerative diseases. Tissues containing large numbers of postmitotic cells, as in the brain, skeletal muscles, or heart, are particularly at risk for age-related deterioration in function by lipid peroxidation products. The initiation of lipid peroxidation also requires the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The outer retina is exposed to light in an oxygen-rich environment, and unsaturated fatty acids are present in high concentrations in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. 24 Accordingly, evidence for light-induced lipid peroxidation reactions in the retina has been reported in several studies. 25 26 27 Exposure to intense light is thought to acutely induce retinal damage by generating the production of high doses of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA-reactive aldehydes that trigger photoreceptor cell apoptosis. 16 Besides ...
Changes in volatile aldehyde and ketone amounts from subcutaneous fat have been evaluated during the dry-curing process (987. days) of Iberian ham by purge & trap-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method, using the same hams for the first time. The subcutaneous adipose tissues of ten hams obtained from five Iberian pigs fed on acorns and pasture were sampled and analyzed periodically during whole processing time. Fifteen aldehydes and six ketones have been identified, all previously described except the 2,4-pentadienal that has been identified for the first time. A LDA was applied and the two discriminant functions were obtained using backward stepwise analysis retaining the variables: 4-octen-3-one, 2-methyl-butanal, butanal, 2-decenal, 2-heptanone, decanal, 2,4-pentadienal, pentanal, hexanal, 2-butanone, octanal and 2-octanone. A complete separation between the three periods was obtained, indicating that the retained variables are powerful descriptors to characterize samples from these ...
Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3I1; Involved in oxidative stress tolerance by detoxifying reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation. Medium- to long-chain saturated aldehydes are preferred substrates, while the short-chain aldehyde propanal is a weak substrate. Can use both NAD(+) and NADP(+), but the coenzyme preference is substrate dependent (550 aa ...
amino aldehydes Amino aldehydes are a group of compounds that have both amino (-NH2) and aldehyde (-CHO) groups. During the last decade α-amino aldehydes have attracted widespread attention as the important natural source of chiral substrates useful in stereocontrolled organic synthesis. They are of special interest due to their ready availability in both enantiomeric forms from natural sources, as well as their pronounced versatility, due to the presence of both the formyl group and suitably protected amino functionality in the molecule.
Full Text - Deposition and mobilization of fat in an organism aretightly controlled by multiple levels of endocrine and neuroendocrineregulation. Because these hormonal mechanisms ultimately act by affectingbiochemical reactions of fat synthesis or utilization, obesity could bealso modulated by altering directly the underlying lipid biochemistry. Wehave previously shown that genetically modified mice with an elevated levelof the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE become obese. We now demonstratethat the process is phylogenetically conserved and thus likely to beuniversal. In the nematode C. elegans, disruption of eitherconjugation or oxidation of 4-HNE leads to fat accumulation, whereasaugmentation of 4-HNE conjugation results in a lean phenotype. Moreover,direct treatment of C. elegans with synthetic 4-HNE causes increasedlipid storage, directly demonstrating a causative role of 4-HNE. Thepostulated mechanism, which involves modulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylaseactivity, could contribute to
Folates undergo oxidative cleavage in vivo, releasing a pterin aldehyde fragment that can be re-used in folate synthesis if the aldehyde group is reduced. High levels of NADPH-dependent reductase activity against pterin-6-aldehyde and its dihydro form were detected in Arabidopsis, pea and other plan …
Title: Chiral Pyrrolidine-Based Salen Ligands for the Enantioselective Alkylation of Aromatic Aldehydes. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 2. Author(s): M. Elisa da Silva Serra, Dina Murtinho, Albertino Goth and A. M. dA. Rocha Gonsalves. Affiliation:Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal.. Keywords:Pyrrolidine, diamine, Salen, diethylzinc, enantioselective, alkylation. Abstract: A new type of Salen ligands derived from (2R, 3R)-N-benzyl-2,3-diaminopyrrolidine and aromatic hydroxyaldehydes was synthesized and tested in the enantioselective alkylation of aromatic aldehydes with diethylzinc, moderate selectivity being observed. This study represents the application of a new type of Zn- Salen ligands and opens the way to exploring these promising new structures in other enantioselective and biological processes. ...
Our aldehydes are also sold to customers who produce transparent synthetic polymers for safety glass applications. Another example is their use as a chain regulator for polyolefin production. Further applications for aldehydes include: lacquers, polymer additives, flotation reagents, as well as building blocks for agrochemicals.. The widespread use of aldehydes as intermediates in organic synthesis is due to their high reactivity.. ...
Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
It is likely that the majority of proteins will undergo post-translational changes be it enzymatic or non-enzymatic. in the Western Society for the Biomedical Study on Alcoholism Achieving held September 12-15 2015 in Valencia Spain. electrophilic varieties including reactive aldehydes (carbonylation) acyl organizations (acetylation) and sugars moieties (glycosylation). CARBONYLATION A key contributor to the pathogenesis of ALD is definitely enhanced hepatocellular oxidative stress resulting from the production of reactive oxygen varieties induction of Cyp2E1 as well as xanthine and NADPH oxidases[12-16]. These reactive varieties in turn induce lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid forming α/β unsaturated aldehydes[17 18 The best KX2-391 2HCl characterized of these carbonyl-derivatives include 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal KX2-391 2HCl (4-HNE) 4 malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein. Following their formation these highly reactive lipid electrophiles improve DNA as well as ...
Abstract. A chiral bisaryl-silyl-protected pyrrolidine acts as a very selective epoxidation organocatalyst using simple oxidation agents. The scope of the reaction is demonstrated by the formation of optically active α,β-epoxy aldehydes in high yields and enantioselectivities. The asymmetric epoxidation reactions proceed also under environmental friendly reaction conditions in, for example, water mixtures of alcohols.. ...
Whole-cell catalysts overexpressing two enzymes for a double reduction cascade in which aliphatic α-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are converted into Guerbet alcohols as a highly demanded class of lubricants were constructed and characterized. The reaction conditions were optimized to suppress by-product Enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis
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Aldehydes are hydrocarbon-derived compounds containing terminal carbonyl groups. In the atmosphere, they are very reactive volatile organic compounds produced from the incomplete combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel and contribute to the production of ground level ozone. Examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde ...
This video explains how to identify aldehydes using some simple tests. Aldehydes are organic compounds containing formyl functional group, in which the carbonyl carbon is attached to a hydrogen atom and an R group.
Spectral data for 41 aldehydes have been recorded from 1/700 cm to 1/300 cm and analyzed for spectra-structure correlations. The information so attained can be applied in identifying aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Specific correlations were determined for aliphatic aldehydes with or without alpha-branching. Tentative correlations were observed for alphaolefinic, alicyclic, and aromatic aldehydes. (Author)
When treated with lithium aluminum hydride abbreviated LAH, esters are reduced to yield primary alcohols. As well as most mechanisms of reduction with LAH (reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines), this process is somewhat complex, so that a simpler version will be shown.. This reaction involves two equivalents of LAH. The first equivalent of LAH reduces the ester to an aldehyde and the second equivalent of LAH reduces the aldehyde to an alcohol. But with only one equivalent is not possible to produce aldehyde because aldehydes are more reactive than esters and will react with LAH immediately after being formed. For this purpose, DiBAl-H is used. ...
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Aldehydes is an organic compound containing functional group called as formyl group, which has numerous applications in medical disinfectant and antiseptic, food and cosmetics among others. It is anhydrous salt, a form of sodium bicarbonate, also called as washing soda. There are numerous types of aldehydes available such as butyraldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and others. However, there quantities are produced according to application and utilization. In industrial applications, it is used as precursor to numerous chemicals such as alcohols, resins, and acids.. Download PDF Brochure of Research Report @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/2358. Aldehydes Market Dynamics. Formaldehyde is among the most common type of aldehydes and is widely used aldehydes across the globe. It is prominently used in the manufacturing of numerous types of resins such as melamine formaldehyde resins, urea formaldehyde resins, and others, which is driving ...
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Breakdown chemical structures known as aldehydes are formed in cooked vegetable oils such as sunflower oil when heated to normal frying temperatures,and are also released into the air where they can be inhaled. Alternate food preparation methods such as roasting, steaming and broiling are safe methods of cooking foods to avoid the dangerous release of aldehydes andprovide a shield against cancer-forming particles and neurodegenerative decline. Prior studies have identified the health degrading nature of aldehydes, where their presence in organisms is linked to different types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Researchers also know that these compounds remain in vegetable oils after they have been used to fry foods and wanted to determine how they interact with proteins, hormones and enzymes in the body to impede its correct functioning. Many common vegetable oils produce dangerous aldehydes when heated The study team heated three types of oil (olive, ...
Catalyzes the oxidation 4-aminobutanal (gamma-aminobutyraldehyde) to 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyrate or GABA) (PubMed:3510672, PubMed:16023116). This is the second step in one of two pathways for putrescine degradation, where putrescine is converted into 4-aminobutanoate via 4-aminobutanal, which allows E.coli to grow on putrescine as the sole nitrogen source (PubMed:3510672, PubMed:22636776). Also functions as a 5-aminopentanal dehydrogenase in a a L-lysine degradation pathway to succinate that proceeds via cadaverine, glutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate (PubMed:30498244). Can also oxidize n-alkyl medium-chain aldehydes, but with a lower catalytic efficiency (PubMed:15381418, PubMed:16023116).
The oxidative modification of lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids results in a wide diversity of reactive products, including short-chain aldehydes, which can covalently modify proteins, a process called lipoxidation, and affect their function. The detection of lipoxidation adducts is extremely challenging due to their low abundance, so there is a need for new detection methods. Using the model proteins lysozyme and human serum albumin, five reporter ions for acrolein modification, eight for 4-hydroxyhexenal and one for 2-chlorohexadecanal were found by LC-MS/MS-based label-free method. Subsequently, a targeted multiple reaction monitoring method was developed as a potential tool for the identification and characterization of these modifications of human serum albumin in biological samples. Comparison between three different chromatographic methods for the separation of intact proteins unmodified or modified by short-chain aldehydes demonstrated that anion exchange chromatography was ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. A valine-derived, electron-deficient triazolium salt catalyzes a high yielding, highly chemo- and enantioselective cross-benzoin reaction between aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters. Diastereoselective reduction of the products gives access to densely oxygenated compounds with high chemo- and diastereoselectivity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomimetic flavin-catalyzed aldehyde oxidation. AU - Murray, Alexander T.. AU - Matton, Pascal. AU - Fairhurst, Nathan W. G.. AU - John, Matthew P.. AU - Carbery, David R.. PY - 2012/7/20. Y1 - 2012/7/20. N2 - The oxidation of alkyl and aryl aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids has been achieved through the action of a biomimetic bridged flavin catalyst. The reaction uses readily available 35% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and is operationally simple. The oxidation is a green and sustainable reaction, obviating chlorinated solvents with minimal byproducts.. AB - The oxidation of alkyl and aryl aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids has been achieved through the action of a biomimetic bridged flavin catalyst. The reaction uses readily available 35% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and is operationally simple. The oxidation is a green and sustainable reaction, obviating chlorinated solvents with minimal byproducts.. UR - ...
ALDEHYDE C-6 (HEXANAL) Green, fatty, leafy, vegetative, fruity and clean with a woody nuance. Used for its oily-green odour, at high dilution it adds an effect of freshly cut grass and unripe fruit.
Step 1 through 3 are an aldol reaction, steps 4 and 5 a 1,2-elimination via E1cB mechanism. Thus, aldol condensation is aldol reaction followed by 1,2-elimination.. OCHEMPAL IS NOW IN THE FORM OF A BOOK. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
The benefits of using the oxidized oils from rendering and recycling as an economic source of lipids and energy in animal feed always coexist with the concerns that diverse degradation products in these oxidized oils can negatively affect animal health and performance. Therefore, the quality markers that predict growth performance could be useful when feeding oxidized oils to non-ruminants. However, the correlations between growth performance and chemical profiles of oxidized oils have not been well examined. In this study, six thermally oxidized soybean oils (OSOs) with a wide range of quality measures were prepared under different processing temperatures and processing durations, including 45 °C-336 h; 67.5 °C-168 h; 90 °C-84 h; 135 °C-42 h; 180 °C-21 h; and 225 °C-10.5 h. Broilers and nursery pigs were randomly assigned to diets containing either unheated control soybean oil or one of six OSOs. Animal performance was determined by measuring body weight gain, feed intake, and gain to feed ratio.
Under pathological or other stressful conditions where reactive species are produced, cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids are modified into DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, and lipid peroxides, respectively. From the lipid peroxidation of plasma membrane, reactive lipid aldehydes such as HNE or hydroxyhexanal are produced via enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (Esterbauer et al., 1991). Newly synthesized HNE can readily move across cell membranes and can interrupt the normal functions of proteins as well as DNAs (Esterbauer et al., 1991; Martelli et al., 1994). Under extreme conditions of stress, concentration of newly synthesized HNE may reach up to 100 μM (Esterbauer et al., 1991) and thus, HNE may serve as a common cytotoxic signal in many cell types and tissues. For example, the levels of HNE-bound proteins are increased selectively in neurons in the substantia nigra of Parkinsons patients (Yoritaka et al., 1996) and levels of free HNE are increased more than 2-fold ...
IR Spectroscopy. Aldehydes show a the carbonyl stretch from 1740-1685. If the carbonyl is adjacent to saturated, aliphatic carbons, the C=O stretch is from 1740-1720. If the carbons alpha and beta to it are not saturated (for instance, if the carbonyl is on an aromatic ring), the C=O stretch shows up from 1710-1685.. Another useful diagnostic band for aldehydes is the C H stretch of the aldehyde group in the region 2830-2695. If you suspect a compound to be an aldehyde, always look for a peak in this region; it often appears as a shoulder-type peak just to the right of the alkyl C H stretches.. ...
Aldehydes are a class of chemicals made in our own bodies in small quantities but increasingly found everywhere in our environment. Exposure to these chemicals has previously been linked with cancer, but the reasons for the link remain unclear. New research led by Professor Ashok Venkitaraman, Director of the Medical Research Council Cancer Unit at the University of Cambridge, has used genetically-engineered human cells and cells from patients bearing a faulty copy of the breast cancer gene BRCA2 to identify the mechanism by which exposure to aldehydes could promote cancer.
Although aspalatone (acetylsalicylic acid maltol ester) is recognized as an antithrombotic agent with antioxidative and antiplatelet potential; its efficacy in preventing endothelial dysfunction is not known. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of aspalatone in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Specifically, the effect of aspalatone on VEGF-induced HAECs growth, migration, tube formation, and levels of lipid peroxidation-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined. Our results indicate that the treatment of HAECs with aspalatone decreased VEGF-induced cell migration, tube formation, and levels of MDA. Aspalatone also inhibited VEGF-induced decrease in the expression of eNOS and increase in the expression of iNOS, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Aspalatone also prevented the VEGF-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Furthermore, aspalatone also prevented VEGF-induced release of inflammatory markers such as Angiopoietin-2, Leptin, EGF, G-CSF,
The aldol condensation reaction is an organic reaction introduced by Charles Wurtz, who first prepared the β-hydroxy aldehyde from acetaldehdye in 1872.
Here aldohexose reacts with one molecule of phenylhyrazine which condenses with the aldehyde group to give phenylhydrazone. When warmed with excess of phenyl hydrazine, the secondary alcoholic group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidised by another molecule of phenylhydrazine, to a ketonic group. With this ketonic group, the third molecule of phenylhydrazine condenses to give osazone. The phenylhydrazinyl group is transferred from osazone to C6H5CHO giving C6H5CH = N×NHC6H5 and a dicarbonyl compound called an osone. The more reactive aldehyde group of the osone is reduced, not the less reactive keto group and it gives the 2-ketohexose.. b) The configurations of these carbons which are unchanged in the reactions, must be identical in order to get the same osazone. Question:3, Why should isoelectric point for Aspartic acid (2.98) be so much lower than that of leucine?. Solution: This may be explained by considering following ion equilibria. ...
Optimum conditions have been worked out for the condensation of urea with aromatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate. 2-Keto-4, 6-diarylhexahydro-s-triazines and 1, 3-bis-(arylidene) ureas have been prepared using eight substituted benzaldehydes in the condensations. Their ultra-violet and infrared absorption data are recorded for characterisation. ...
CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity 1 Summary Table Oxidation: Adding O, Losing H Chromic Acid (Cr(VI)) is a powerful oxidizing agent 4 Oxidation Mechanism When Aldehydes are formed by Cr(VI) in water, they
VOCs and aldehydes are frequently emitted from automotive components. Some emissions are highly toxic (including the carcinogens benzene and formaldehyde), whereas others have nuisance value. Recognizing the public health issues, regulatory bodies and industry increasingly seek to reduce exposure to these emissions.