TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. T2 - A prospective cohort study. AU - Wetherbee, Erin E.. AU - Niewoehner, Dennis E.. AU - Sisson, Joseph H.. AU - Lindberg, Sarah M.. AU - Connett, John E.. AU - Kunisaki, Ken M.. PY - 2015/7/20. Y1 - 2015/7/20. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods and measurements: We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (,1 drink/month), light-to-moderate (1-60 drinks/month), or heavy alcohol users (,60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Results: ...
MODELING LONG-TERM EFFECTIVENESS OF PREVENTION OF HARMFUL AND HAZARDOUS ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION BASED ON SCREENING AND BRIEF INTERVENTION
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. Method: The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. Results: High alcohol consumption was underreported in ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
PAC1 receptor (ADCYAP1R1) genotype and problematic alcohol use in a sample of young women Wojciech Łukasz Dragan,1 Piotr M Czerski,2 Małgorzata Dragan3 1The Interdisciplinary Center for Behavior Genetic Research, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, 2Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 3Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Background: Recent studies revealed the role of the PAC1 (ADCYAP1R1) gene variability in vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Due to the relatively high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder, we hypothesized about possible associations between PAC1 gene and problematic alcohol use. Method: The sample studied consisted of 491 women aged 18–28 years (mean age =21.76 years; SD =1.83) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to assess drinking problems. We successfully genotyped 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in
Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and per capita consumption of wine. There was also a trend towards a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old females and per capita consumption of wine. No correlations between suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and per capita consumption of beer or spirits were found. In the whole population (all ages), suicide rates in males were negatively correlated with consumption of wine and positively correlated with consumption of spirits. As expected, suicide rates in males were significantly higher than in females. It is possible that the observed relationship is a result of a third factor affecting both suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and consumption of wine.. Reference. 1. Sher L. Relation ...
Washington, DC - Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all-causes, according to a new, large study of over 333,000 U.S. adults published yesterday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study findings did not differentiate between beer, wine and spirits. The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a 21 percent and 34 percent decreased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and a 13 percent and 25 percent decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, in both men and women. Similar findings were observed for light drinking among men and women.. The researchers found, the protective effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was more pronounced in women, middle-aged and older populations.. The researchers noted that previous studies showed that all alcoholic drinks at moderate level were associated with lower risk of heart disease, suggesting a major benefit is ...
Introduction: Although current alcohol consumption appears to be a risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), limitations related to self-reported alcohol use and confounding in observational studies limit the certainty of conclusions regarding causality. Whether cessation of alcohol consumption can protect against incident AF remains unknown.. Methods: We examined all participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a population-based cohort of 15,792 men and women aged 45-65, without prevalent AF. Past alcohol consumption was assessed via self-report during the baseline dietary intake assessment. Cases of incident AF were ascertained via study ECGs, hospital discharge ICD-9 codes, and death certificates.. Results: Among 15,262 participants with complete survey data, 2,898 (19.0%) were former drinkers. During an average follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 380 cases of incident AF in former consumers. Both before and after adjustment for potential confounders, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults Alcohol Use. AU - Thrul, Johannes. AU - Kuntsche, Emmanuel. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed ...
This resource provides information on data sources and methods used for the Status report on alcohol consumption, harm and policy responses in 30 European countries 2019.. Per capita alcohol consumption in the WHO European Region, including the European Union (EU), is the highest in the world, which results in proportionally higher levels of burden of disease attributable to alcohol use compared to other regions.. While there have been welcome improvements in terms of overall mortality and alcohol-attributable mortality in EU+ countries (EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland), there was no statistically significant decline in total alcohol per capita consumption between 2010 and 2016 and the observed decreases in heavy episodic drinking seem to have come to a halt. Assessment of alcohol policies in the 10 areas defined in the European action plan to reduce the harmful use of alcohol 2012−2020 revealed huge variability across the countries, including the implementation of the three WHO best ...
Background: Excess alcohol consumption can lead to myocardial dysfunction. However, whether novel cardiac biomarkers tests can detect subclinical myocardial damage and wall stress in asymptomatic populations exposed to alcohol is currently unknown.. Objective: To characterize the association of alcohol consumption with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by a novel highly sensitive assay for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and wall stress, as assessed by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).. Methods: Using data from the community-based ARIC Study we examined the cross-sectional association of categories of self-reported alcohol consumption with cardiac biomarkers among 10,381 individuals without cardiovascular disease (1990-92). We also examined the prospective association of alcohol consumption with 6-year change in cardiac biomarkers in a subset of participants (n=8,972 for hs-cTnT and n=9,060 for NT-proBNP), who had each biomarker measured at two time points. Incident ...
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
Figure 4a. Estimated average alcohol consumption on the last alcohol drinking day (among last day consumers). 2015. Centilitres of 100 % alcohol. (Table 17). ...
Abstract: Alcohol abuse is fast becoming a public health concern among the Nigerian youths and adults strata of the society. A study on the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on haematological parameters was conducted on 130 subjects, comprising of 46 non-alcohol consumers who served as controls and 84 heavy alcohol consumers to determine the possible haematological attendant risks of the social behavior. Their ages ranged between 18-60 years. Sysmex KX-2IN instrument was used to determine the haematological parameters such as PCV, Haemoglobin, Red blood cell, Platelets, White blood cells total and differential counts of neutrophil and lymphocytes automatically. The result shows a significant difference (p,0.05) in the values obtained for alcohol drinkers which are high compared to that of the control group which could be dehydration based haemoconcentration. This study showed that abstinence from alcohol consumption had no effects on haematological parameters while its heavy consumption has ...
Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrolled between 1995 and 1996. A stochastic actor-based model is used to model the co-evolution of alcohol use and friendship connections. Selection effects play a significant role in the creation of peer clusters with similar alcohol use. Friendship nominations between two students who shared the same alcohol use frequency were 3.60 (95% CI: 2.01-9.62) times more likely than between otherwise identical students with differing alcohol use frequency. The model controlled for alternative pathways to friendship nomination including reciprocity,
Years of heavy alcohol consumption can lead to progressive arterial stiffness that does not seem to be reversed even when a person stops drinking, according to new data from a 25-year study of British civil servants.. The main message of this study is that men who consistently drink above the recommended maximum alcohol intake guidelines have significantly higher arterial stiffness by early old age compared to those who drink consistently moderately-moderately defined as below the recommended maximum intake levels, study author Darragh ONeill, PhD (University College London, London, England), said in an email.. Prior research has suggested that arterial stiffness may be a marker of cardiovascular disease risk. To TCTMD, ONeill added that it is predictive of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been shown to improve prediction of such outcomes independent of other known risk factors. In the new study, arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave artery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa. AU - in t Veld, Diana Huis. AU - Pengpid, Supa. AU - Colebunders, Robert. AU - Skaal, Linda. AU - Peltzer, Karl. N1 - NPP. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder ...
Unhealthy alcohol use threatens the health benefits seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. Although research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief interventions, motivational counseling, and medications to treat unhealthy alcohol use in HIV uninfected patients, there is limited research or use of these treatments in HIV+ patients. We have demonstrated that integrated treatment of addiction in HIV clinics is feasible. Stepped care algorithms can facilitate the evaluation of varying intensities of treatments for unhealthy alcohol use. The proposed study will compare onsite Integrated Stepped Care treatment (ISC) to treatment as usual (TAU) in three, linked, 6-month randomized clinical trials in 642 HIV+ patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Screened patients are randomized to ISC or TAU after determining that they meet criteria for either 1) at-risk drinking, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence or 3) moderate alcohol consumption in the presence of liver disease. ISC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Naloxone attenuation of voluntary alcohol consumption. AU - Froehlich, J. C.. AU - Harts, J.. AU - Lumeng, L.. AU - Li, T. K.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023275292&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023275292&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3426696. AN - SCOPUS:0023275292. SP - 333. EP - 337. JO - Alcohol and Alcoholism. JF - Alcohol and Alcoholism. SN - 0735-0414. IS - SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population. The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the
Alcohol is one of the main causes of high blood pressure. A doctor recommends cutting back on alcohol when a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. Alcohol affects the body in different ways. For example, steady alcohol consumption over a long period permanently changes the brain by reducing the amount of brain tissue. Steady alcohol consumption also deprives the heart of essential nutrients. This weakens the heart muscles and hinders its ability to pump blood. This increases blood pressure and causes heart attacks and strokes. Alcohol also affects the liver, skin, lungs and bones among other parts of the body. In addition, alcohol contains sugar and other carbohydrates that increase weight. Weight gain is another cause of high blood pressure.. How Alcohol Increases Blood Pressure There is no concrete proof as to how alcohol affects blood pressure. However, researchers believe alcohol interferes with the livers ability to metabolize hormones. Hormones such as renin and angiotensin are ...
Firstly, alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of HCC. As the median amount of alcohol intake was low in consumers (15 g/day, 95% CI: 5-20), we can conclude that light-to-moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of HCC in HCV patients with compensated cirrhosis. In addition, the amount of alcohol intake did not impact the risk of HCC, suggesting that there is no safe threshold for alcohol in these patients. This is a major finding as alcohol use and HCV infection frequently coexist [30. Daily intake of small amounts of alcohol is usually considered non-detrimental to general health or to the liver, and sometimes is even considered beneficial. Several studies have shown that the mortality rate in the general population is increased in people who never drink alcohol compared to people who drink less than 20 g per day [31. The results of the present study contrast with these concepts and with the results of the first report of the CirVir prospective cohort study that has been ...
Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol consumption (in terms of pure litres of alcohol) by individuals aged ,15 years in 2010.[1] SA has a particularly harmful pattern of drinking. This indicator considers the manner and circumstances in which alcohol is consumed, rather than the prevalence of drinking. The quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion, festive drinking, the proportion of drinking events that end in drunkenness, the proportion of drinkers who drink daily, and the prevalence of drinking outside of mealtimes and in public places are considered in compiling the pattern-of-drinking score.[2] The WHO classifies countries patterns of drinking on a five-point scale, where 1 indicates the least risky pattern of drinking and 5 the most risky pattern.[2] According to this scale, many Western European countries score a 1. At the other extreme, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are the only two countries ...
ARPS - Alcohol Related Problems Survey. Looking for abbreviations of ARPS? It is Alcohol Related Problems Survey. Alcohol Related Problems Survey listed as ARPS
The PRIME-Alcohol model effectively demonstrates the potential impact of population usual alcohol consumption on chronic disease mortality, bringing together a wide range of risk and protective effects of alcohol, including the increased risks of many cancers and the protective effect of low-to-moderate consumption on CVD. Modelling demonstrated that the optimum population median alcohol consumption level appears to be substantially lower than the currently recommended safe levels in the current UK public health guidance. Based on this model, reducing the median population alcohol consumption among current drinkers to around half a unit (5 g of alcohol) per day would result in around 4600 fewer deaths annually, primarily due to reductions in cancers and liver cirrhosis. This level of consumption would equate to as little as one-quarter of a glass of wine or one-fifth of a pint of beer per day on average.. The model showed no additional benefit to chronic disease mortality if the proportion of ...
Most long-term studies on drinking alcohol have found that light-drinkers are less likely to die prematurely than abstainers. This study re-assesses the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on health and mortality. The team hypothesised that misclassification of former drinkers and occasional drinkers had introduced consistent errors, affecting the results of previous studies.. This study re-examines 54 all-cause mortality and 35 Coronary Heart Disease mortality studies. Most of these studies committed the consistent and serious error of including as abstainers, people who had cut down or ceased drinking alcohol due to declining health, frailty, medication use or disabilitysometimes as the result of past heavy alcohol consumption. When combined in the same group as long-term abstainers or very light drinkers, deaths among these people may have increased the apparent risk of long-term abstinence for the group as a whole.. This study shows that it is possible to perform new analyses on studies ...
The effects of chronic alcohol intake on menstrual cycle status and hormonal function were studied in 26 healthy, adult women under controlled research ward conditions. Women were classified as heavy, social or occasional alcohol users on the basis of the actual number of drinks consumed during 3 consecutive weeks of alcohol availability. Heavy, social and occasional users drank an average of 7.81 ( +/- 0.69), 3.84 ( +/- 0.19) and 1.22 ( +/- 0.21) drinks/day, respectively. This drinking pattern was highly consistent with subjects self-reports of alcohol use before the study. No evidence of menstrual cycle dysfunction or abnormality in reproductive hormone levels was found in the occasional drinkers or in two of the social drinkers who consumed less than an average of three drinks/day. In contrast, 50% of the social drinkers who consumed more than three drinks/day and 60% of the heavy drinkers had significant derangements of menstrual cycle and reproductive hormone function. The major ...
When you drink alcohol it is absorbed into your bloodstream where it circulates thus affecting the whole body. The blood alcohol concentration begins to rise ten minutes after the first sip. One drink of alcohol stays in the body for 2 hours after being consumed. The alcohol is absorbed by the stomach and the small intestines, and it is metabolized by the liver. The processing of alcohol is determined by many factors, including if your stomach is full meaning you have eaten recently, the size of your body and the rate at which you drink. A larger body has more circulating blood in its system so alcohol levels rise more slowly than in a smaller body; this explains why females tend to have more alcohol in their bloodstream compared to men. Also the amount of fat in the organism defines the alcohol levels because fat tissue does not absorb alcohol. Drinking slowly, while eating and also after meals slows the rate at which alcohol is absorbed. Liver metabolism is the process of converting alcohol ...
Most of the previous studies assessed alcohol intake at baseline; however, in this study researchers collected detailed information seven times over 40 years. Consumption patterns usually change during life, Streppel said. This enabled us to study the effects of long-term alcohol intake on mortality. Researchers found that the number of alcohol users nearly doubled from 45 percent in 1960 to 85 percent in the 2000 survey. Average alcohol consumption rose and then fell at various points during the study. Users consumption was eight grams a day in 1960, then survivors consumption was 18 grams a day in 1985, dropping to 13 grams per day in 2000. The percentage of wine users increased during follow-up from 2 percent in 1960 to more than 40 percent among the survivors in 2000. One can speculate that a protective effect of light alcohol intake could be due to an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or to a reduction in blood clotting, due to an inhibition of platelet ...
Regular moderate alcohol intake was a modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation that was linked to conduction slowing and lower atrial voltage, according to a study published in HeartRhythm.“This study underscores the importance of excessive alcohol consumption as an important risk factor in AF,” Peter Kistler, MBBS, PhD, FHRS, of the Heart Centre at Alfred Hospital in Melbourne,
Alcohol gets into your bloodstream quickly.. The amount and type of food in your stomach can change how quickly this occurs. For example, high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods can make your body absorb alcohol more slowly.. Certain types of alcoholic drinks get into your bloodstream faster. Stronger drinks tend to be absorbed faster.. Alcohol slows your breathing rate, heart rate, and how well your brain functions. These effects may appear within 10 minutes and peak at around 40 to 60 minutes. Alcohol stays in your bloodstream until it is broken down by the liver. The amount of alcohol in your blood is called your blood alcohol level. If you drink alcohol faster than the liver can break it down, this level rises.. Your blood alcohol level is used to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls between 0.08 and 0.10 in most states. Below is a list of blood alcohol levels and the likely symptoms:. ...
Abstract: The effectiveness of dietary changes as a means of reducing blood lipid levels and ultimately controlling the development of coronary heart disease has been debated for many years. The possible effects of alcohol consumption on blood lipids were usually not considered. Our findings indicate a significant positive correlation between the extent of coronary artery occlusion and total plasma cholesterol levels and a negative association between the coronary occlusion and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Since moderate alcohol consumption increases the HDL cholesterol levels, one can also postulate that it affects coronary artery lesions. The attenuating effect of alcohol on the coronary occlusion was negated by sporadic drinking of large amounts of alcohol. In evaluating the possible effect of alcohol on coronary artery disease, it is also necessary to consider Its addictive potential as well as other untoward sequelae of alcohol consumption such as hypertension, damage to the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Drinking contexts and alcohol consumption. T2 - How much alcohol is consumed in different Australian locations?. AU - Callinan, Sarah. AU - Livingston, Michael. AU - Room, Robin. AU - Dietze, Paul. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixtythree percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinkers own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who ...
Objective: There is little systematic information on the patterns of Chinese adolescents alcohol expectancies and the influence of expectancies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese high school students alcohol expectancies and gender and drinking status (non-drinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) differences in expectancies. Method: We administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Huhhot City, Chayouhou Qi, and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results: We identified eight expectancy factors: three negative (general negative consequences, harm to person/reputation, and negative uses of alcohol) and five positive (general positive perceptions, tension reduction/relaxation, drinking as social courtesy, social facilitation, and beneficial drinking/moderation). MANOVA results indicated that males had higher positive perception expectancies
A drink a night is better for your heart than none at all, according to new research published recently in the European Heart Journal. The study, involving nearly 15,000 participants over a period of 25 years, monitored rates of heart failure in four categories: former drinkers, abstainers, drinkers of up to 7 drinks/week (,7) ≥7 to 14, ≥14 to 21, and ≥21 drinks/week. Surprisingly, despite alcohol being a known cardiac toxin, those consuming a moderate level of alcohol (, 7 units a week, which equates to 7 small glasses of wine or 3.5 pints of beer) were shown to be up to 20% less likely to suffer from heart failure than those who consumed no alcohol at all, although the effect was slightly diminished (16%) for female participants. Although the study also took into account a number of other lifestyle factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol and physical activity, Professor Scott Solomon, one of the authors was still keen to point out that the lowered risk may not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol among low-level alcohol consumers. AU - Weidner, Gerdi. AU - Connor, Sonja L.. AU - Chesney, Margaret A.. AU - Burns, John W.. AU - Connor, William E.. AU - Matarazzo, Joseph. AU - Mendell, Nancy R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a sample of community-living women and men who consumed 1 drink of alcohol/day or less. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and clinical assessments of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were obtained twice, at 12 months apart. Among men, consumption of 1 drink/day or less was unrelated to levels in HDL-C. In contrast, among women alcohol consumption throughout this relatively low consumption range was positively associated with HDL-C levels. These findings indicate that the association of alcohol and higher levels of HDL-C may occur at lower intakes of alcohol in women than in men.. AB - The purpose of ...
Alcohol may stay in our breath which d epending on the alcohol degree, the duration of alcohol leaving in your breath varies. For instance, to detect alcohol in your breath, a Breathalyser is used. They can detect alcohol in your breath for up to 24 hours after consumption. On average, the liver can metabolize 1 standard drink per hour for men, or about 0.015g/100mL/hour (i.e., a reduction of blood alcohol level, or BAC, by 0.015 per hour). Coffee, cold showers, and sleeping it off will not sober you up. Mouth Wash. The bloodstream moves the alcohol throughout your body, and the smell of it on your breath originates from your lungs. Alcohol can leave the body through the breath, perspiration and urine, though a majority will be broken down with the metabolism. Time is the only thing that can lower your BAC, so be smart about your drinking and always have a backup plan to get home. Your breath alcohol level has a direct relation to the amount of alcohol in your blood. Alcohol has two exit paths ...
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Understandably, research into this topic has thus far focussed on heavy alcohol consumption and chronic alcohol addiction rather than low-level social drinking.. We are far less aware of the potential risks of irregular, light alcohol consumption during pregnancy than, for example, the likelihood of foetal alcohol syndrome in children born to mothers with severe alcohol dependency issues.. As a result, some people suggest that low-level consumption is less of a concern.. For example, a study undertaken by Harvard Medical School in 2012 found that minimal alcohol consumption in the first trimester didnt seem to be linked to low birth weights, premature births, or other pregnancy complications [2].. Likewise, they found that low-to-moderate levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy had no noticeable effect on the executive function (meaning the organising, managing, and memory) of five-year-old children [3].. Of course, despite this medical professionals still continued to recommend abstinence ...
According to existing evidence, it is true that Russians drink a lot of alcohol.. 1. Adult Per Capita Consumption The World Health Organization 2011 Global status report on alcohol and health provides us with statistics in regard to average alcohol consumption per year, for people aged 15 and above, in liters of pure alcohol. Russia ranks fourth, with 15.76 liters ( of which 6.88 liters are consumed in the form of spirits ), more than double the world average - 6.13.. 2. Alcoholism. The report provides no information specifically about alcoholism prevalence in Russia, but using The Global Information System on Alcohol and Health ( http://www.who.int/globalatlas/alcohol ) shows Russia as having the highest rate of males aged between 18 and 65, which are dependent on alcohol: 17.61%. 3. Mortality. The report tells us that Russia has one of the highest proportion of alcohol-attributable mortality, but doesnt give precise numbers - most of the data in this report is given by WHO subregion. ...
Alcohol policies at College Drinking, Facts about alcohol, Research on alcohol abuse, Research on binge drinking, Binge drinking and college students, Alcohol abuse and college students, College alcohol policies, College presidents and alcohol, High School Administrators and alcohol, College parents and alcohol, High school parents and alcohol, Research-based college alcohol information
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004-08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. ResultsOverall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of
TY - JOUR. T1 - A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women. T2 - Application in the Safe Passage Study. AU - Baker, Travis. AU - Haynes, Robin L.. AU - Paterson, David S.. AU - Broadbelt, Kevin G.. AU - Markianos, Kyriacos. AU - Holm, Ingrid A.. AU - Boyd, Theonia. AU - Roberts, Drucilla. AU - Goldstein, Richard G.. AU - Stein, Hanno. AU - Maggiotto, Claire. AU - Hassett, Catherine. AU - Schissler, Kathryn. AU - Habbe, Donald. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. AU - Randall, Bradley. AU - Sens, Mary Ann. AU - Van Eerden, Peter. AU - Berg, Elizabeth. AU - Friedrich, Christa. AU - Jackson, Marge. AU - Mack, Luke. AU - Swenson, Liz. AU - Tobacco, Deb. AU - Groenewald, Coen. AU - Carstens, Erna. AU - Potter, Mandy. AU - Brink, Lucy. AU - du Plessis, Carlie. AU - de Jager, Milly. AU - Nugent, J. David. AU - Condon, Carmen. AU - Isler, Joseph R.. AU - Shair, Margaret C.. AU - Thai, Tracy. AU - Yang, Joel S.. AU - Hoffman, Howard J.. AU - Li, Chuan Ming. AU - Dunty, ...
Regular alcohol consumption can lead to binge drinking among all gender and age groups, a new study suggests.. What we found is that when people drink more often, they are more likely to drink more, take more drinks, and go to binge drinking, said Andree Demers of Universite de Montreal, the studys main researcher.. She classified binge drinking as five drinks or more per occasion.. Usually you take one or two drinks, she said yesterday. If you want to celebrate, youre going to take two or three or four or five drinks.. The study was conducted by researchers from the Universite de Montreal and the University of Western Ontario and published in the latest edition of Addiction.. The study established one drink as either five ounces of wine; 1.5 ounces of liquor; 12 ounces of beer or cooler; or three ounces of port, sherry or vermouth.. About 11,000 respondents - 5,743 women and 4,723 men - were asked to report on their alcohol consumption over a year. The data was gathered by the Genacis ...
Heavy alcohol use negatively impacts HIV/AIDS in several important ways. It increases HIV-risk behaviors, impairs the immune system and accelerates HIV disease progression. Heavy alcohol use also interferes with HIV care compliance, including appointment attendance and medication adherence.. Women are particularly important targets for alcohol use interventions. The threshold for harmful alcohol effects is strikingly low in women, with two drinks per day placing women at risk for negative health consequences. Heavy/hazardous alcohol use is less likely to be detected in women receiving health services. Women may be less likely to seek and or engage in alcohol treatment services, making nontraditional care settings particularly important for reaching this population.. This proposal tests the utility of a brief alcohol intervention for HIV+ women delivered in a medical setting. Hazardous/binge female drinkers will be identified in the Johns Hopkins Hospital HIV clinic and will be randomized to ...
Alcohol drinking and related malignancy, alcohol risk, alcohol and associated malignancy, alcohol and cancer, alcohol use and cancer, alcohol cancer risk, alcohol risk of cancer, alcohol risks to health
A minimum price of 50p per unit of alcohol should be introduced for all alcohol sales along with prohibition of all alcohol advertising and sponsorship, according to a report from the Alcohol Health Alliance, British Liver Trust and University of Stirling. Health first - an evidence based alcohol strategy for the UK also wants to see at least one third of every alcohol label given over to an evidence based health warning and for the sale of alcohol in shops to be restricted to specific times of the day and designated areas.. The document is supported by organisations including Alcohol Concern, Cancer Research UK and ten royal colleges, and among its other recommendations are for the tax on every alcohol product to be proportionate to the volume of alcohol it contains, a tightening of the drink driving limit and the development of guidelines for the portrayal of alcohol in television and film. Public health and community safety should be given priority in all alcohol policy making, it ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas high serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, whether light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is still related to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease irrespective of GGT level is uncertain. METHODS We performed a 12.5-year cohort study of 2336 men (excluding exdrinkers) who were free from cardiovascular disease. They were classified into 4 groups according to alcohol consumption: never, and current light, moderate, or heavy drinker. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of alcohol consumption for incidence of coronary artery disease, total stroke, and ischemic stroke compared with those of never drinkers were assessed with stratification by GGT median (32 IU/L). RESULTS In participants with GGT |32 IU/L, the hazard ratios of all current drinkers for total and ischemic stroke were higher than those of never drinkers.
A new study by a research team including scientists from the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation provides a systematic review of research that examines relationships between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents and young adults. The researchers identified 38 cross-sectional studies that examined the relationship between alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors over a 40-year period. Across types of alcohol use outcomes, such as lifetime alcohol use and alcohol problems, exposure to marketing such as alcohol advertising, alcohol-related merchandise, and alcohol promotion and media sources, such as television and billboards, the researchers concluded that alcohol marketing exposure was positively associated with young peoples alcohol use. In general, relationships for alcohol promotion, such as alcohol-sponsored events, and owning alcohol-related mer-chandise were more consistently positive than for other ...
Background: Alcohol consumption is a frequently studied risk factor for chronic diseases, but many studies are hampered by self-report of alcohol consumption. The urinary metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG), reflecting alcohol consumption during the past 72 h, is a promising objective marker, but population data are lacking.. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of EtG as a marker for habitual alcohol consumption compared with self-report and other biomarkers in the general population.. Methods: Among 6211 participants in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, EtG concentrations were measured in 24-h urine samples. EtG was considered positive when concentrations were ,= 100 ng/mL. Habitual alcohol consumption was self-reported by questionnaire (categories: no/almost never, 1-4 units per month, 2-7 units per week, 1-3 units per day or ,= 4 units per day). Plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine lifetime drinking patterns in men and women with alcohol-induced pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with patients with alcoholic use disorder (AUD) without pancreatic disease. METHODS: Alcohol consumption patterns were assessed using a validated questionnaire, the Lifetime Drinking History (LDH), during an outpatient visit. Patients diagnosed with AIP were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years) with patients with AUD in addiction treatment. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with AIP (35 males, 10 females) and 45 AUD patients were included. Alcohol consumption patterns were not significantly different between males and females with AIP and those with history of acute AIP and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Alcohol consumption patterns of AIP and AUD patients were similar in terms of onset age and duration of alcohol consumption, lifetime alcohol intake and drinks per drinking day. A higher proportion of binge drinking was found among patients with AUD than those with AIP (median ...
FERREIRA, Luciano Nery et al. Prevalence and associated factors of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2013, vol.18, n.11, pp.3409-3418. ISSN 1413-8123. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232013001100030.. The scope of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction and the respective associated factors in the urban population of a city of northeastern Brazil. It is a population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the consumption of alcohol of 270 people living in the urban area of Jequié, State of Bahia. Alcohol abuse, defined by a score of , 8 from responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol addiction was identified by a score , 2 obtained in the application of the Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE). The analysis used the logistic regression model. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.5%. For alcohol addiction it was 10.4%. After adjusted analysis, the groups ...
Background Changes in per capita alcohol consumption are temporally linked to changes in rates of alcohol-related harm. Methodological approaches for analysing this relationship have been suggested, however, the problem of time lags is not well-addressed. This study provides a review of time lag specifications, looking at (a) time to first effect on harm, (b) time to full effect and (c) the functional form of the effect accumulation from first to full effect to inform modelling of the relationship between changes in aggregate alcohol consumption and changes in rates of harm. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched and citation and reference checking was used to identify studies. Included studies were time series analyses of the relationship between aggregated population alcohol consumption and rates of alcohol-related harms where time lag specifications had been derived or tested. Results 36 studies were included with liver cirrhosis, heart disease and suicide dominating the evidence base. ...
Background Because the effects of susceptibility genes on alcohol use may differ as a function of age throughout adolescence and young adulthood, prospective study designs, in addition to cross-sectional ones are needed in genetic association studies. The short, low activity allele of a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been related to alcohol dependence. In the current study we tested whether 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with adolescent alcohol use both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods Non-regular drinkers (n=202) were selected from Dutch, nationwide sample of adolescents (mean age 13.4 at baseline) who were assessed across five annual waves. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to examine individual development of alcohol use over time, by estimating the initial level of alcohol use at Wave 2 (intercept), and the rate of change in alcohol use across time (slope). Results The 5-HTTLPR short allele predicted adolescents growth (slope) in ...
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and alcohol consumption are prevalent and have health consequences among people living with HIV infection or AIDS (PLWHA). Food insecurity could be associated with unhealthy alcohol use via hunger or other mechanisms. However, it is not well-known whether the two (food insecurity and unhealthy alcohol use) are associated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine an association between food insecurity and unhealthy alcohol use in people with HIV/AIDS and substance use disorder. It was hypothesized that food insecurity, compared to food security, would be associated with unhealthy alcohol use in this population. METHODS: This study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from adults with HIV infection and current alcohol or other drug dependence or ever injection drug use, who were participants in a cohort study known as the Boston Alcohol Research Collaboration on HIV/AIDS (ARCH) study. Food insecurity, the independent variable, was assessed ...
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption may affect the course of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART). The authors investigated the association between self-reported alcohol consumption and HIV surrogate markers in both treated and untreated individuals. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, the authors analyzed 2 groups of individuals in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: (1) ART-naïve individuals remaining off ART and (2) individuals initiating first ART. For individuals initiating first ART, time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between alcohol consumption, virological failure, and ART interruption. For both groups, trajectories of log-transformed CD4 cell counts were analyzed using linear mixed models with repeated measures. RESULTS: The authors included 2982 individuals initiating first ART and 2085 ART naives. In individuals initiating first ART, 241 (8%) experienced virological failure. Alcohol consumption was
Background: Leukemia is the most frequently occurring cancer in children. Although its etiology is largely unknown, leukemia is believed to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Among different potential risk factors, the possible role of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been questioned.. Methods: To assess the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and childhood leukemia, a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies was done.. Results: Twenty-one case-control studies were included in categorical and dose-response meta-analyses. No cohort study was identified. Analyses were conducted by type of leukemia, childrens age at diagnosis, and type of alcoholic beverage and trimester of pregnancy at alcohol use. Alcohol intake during pregnancy (yes versus no) was statistically significantly associated with childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) [odds ratio (OR), 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.15] but ...
Observational studies suggest that lower educational attainment (EA) may be associated with risky alcohol use behaviors; however, these findings may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using summary statistics from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with |780,000 participants to assess the causal effects of EA on alcohol use behaviors and alcohol dependence (AD). Fifty-three independent genome-wide significant SNPs previously associated with EA were tested for association with alcohol use behaviors. We show that while genetic instruments associated with increased EA are not associated with total amount of weekly drinks, they are associated with reduced frequency of binge drinking ≥6 drinks (ßIVW = −0.198, 95% CI, −0.297 to -0.099, PIVW = 9.14 × 10−5), reduced total drinks consumed per drinking day (ßIVW = −0.207, 95% CI, −0.293 to -0.120, PIVW = 2.87 × 10−6), as well as lower weekly distilled spirits intake
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood mental ability and adult alcohol intake and alcohol problems: the 1970 British cohort study. AU - Batty, G. David. AU - Deary, Ian J.. AU - Schoon, Ingrid AU - Emslie, Carol. AU - Hunt, Kate. AU - Gale, Catharine R.. N1 - ET 27-7-12. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - This study examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years.. AB - This study examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST. AU - Pleil, Kristen E.. AU - Helms, Christa M.. AU - Sobus, Jon R.. AU - Daunais, James B.. AU - Grant, Kathleen A.. AU - Kash, Thomas L.. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory ...
Alcohol use disorder is a diagnosis made when an individual has severe problems related to drinking alcohol. Alcohol use disorder can cause major health, social, and economic problems, and can endanger affected individuals and others through behaviors prompted by impaired decision-making and lowered inhibitions, such as aggression, unprotected sex, or driving while intoxicated.. Alcohol use disorder is a broad diagnosis that encompasses several commonly used terms describing problems with drinking. It includes alcoholism, also called alcohol addiction, which is a long-lasting (chronic) condition characterized by a powerful, compulsive urge to drink alcohol and the inability to stop drinking after starting. In addition to alcoholism, alcohol use disorder includes alcohol abuse, which involves problem drinking without addiction.. Habitual excessive use of alcohol changes the chemistry of the brain and leads to tolerance, which means that over time the amount of alcohol ingested needs to be ...
To assess the role of acute alcohol ingestion as a risk factor for cerebral infarction, we administered a pretested questionnaire to 205 middle-aged and elderly acute ischemic stroke patients and 410 outpatient controls matched by age, sex, race, and method of hospital payment. Paired Mantel-Haenszel analysis revealed that alcohol ingestion within 24 (p = 0.07) and 72 (p = 0.001) hours of stroke onset and medical histories of smoking (p less than 0.0001), hypertension (p less than 0.001), and transient ischemic attacks (p = 0.051) were more common among stroke index cases than controls. Matched multiple logistic analysis revealed that both hypertension (p less than 0.05) and smoking (p less than 0.05) were independently associated with stroke, while alcohol consumption was not. In analyses to assess the possibility of mutual confounding effects of independent variables, the effect of alcohol ingestion was lost when adjusting for smoking. We conclude that acute alcohol ingestion is not an ...
Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Positive and negative alcohol-related consequences. T2 - Associations with past drinking. AU - Lee, Christine M.. AU - Maggs, Jennifer. AU - Neighbors, Clayton. AU - Patrick, Megan E.. PY - 2011/2/1. Y1 - 2011/2/1. N2 - While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image) and negative (Physical, Behavioral, Driving) consequences of alcohol use among individuals with prior drinking histories who completed surveys the summer before their first year at university. Fun/Social consequences were reported more frequently than any negative consequences. Alcohol consequences were associated with drinking behaviors. In particular, positive Fun/Social consequences and negative Physical and ...
Objectives. The extensive consumption of alcohol can be defined as a major problem in Western countries. Primarily students are affected by negative health outcomes resulting from alcohol consumption. The most popular theory to explain Behavior is the Theory of Planned Behavior. Although, the Theory of Planned Behavior a valid method to predict human behavior regarding alcohol consumption, its predictive value is limited. In response to these limitations, there are other schools of thought which lead to an explanatory value to alcohol-related behavior. A crucial factor for the prediction of alcohol consumption is personality. Based on literature the personality traits Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking were chosen for this study. Although, most people know the negative consequences of drinking alcohol it is still a popular practice. The knowledge of the negative consequences and the and the contradictory desire to drink create a state of cognitive dissonance. To reduce this dissonance the ...
Information regarding alcohol consumption in Mauritius based on the World Health Organisations 2018 Global Health Report on Alcohol.
Alcohol refers to a group of organic compounds with a vast range of forms and uses in cosmetics and in other types of products and solutions. For skin, there are good alcohols and bad alcohols, corresponding to high-molecular-weight alcohols and low-molecular-weight alcohols, respectively, which can have emollient properties (cetyl alcohol) or act as detergent cleansing agents like isopropanol. There also are benign forms, including glycols, which are used as humectants to help hydrate and deliver ingredients into skins uppermost layers.. Alcohols with low molecular weights-the bad-for-skin kind-can be drying and sensitizing. The alcohols to be concerned about in skincare products are ethanol or ethyl alcohol, denatured alcohol, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, SD alcohol, and benzyl alcohol. The concern is when one or more of these are listed among the main ingredients; tiny amounts in an otherwise good formula arent a problem.. In addition to being drying and sensitizing, these alcohols can ...
Alcohol is a depressant drug involved in modulating thinking and behavior by affecting brain. Alcohol had been in use since ancient times and its use can be traced back to 8000 BC. Alcohol belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. It is chemically known by other names such as ethanol; ethyl alcohol; methylcarbinol; grain alcohol; ethyl hydroxide. Ethanol (alcohol) is a naturally occurring byproduct of the yeast metabolism and can also be commonly found in overripe fruit. Pure alcohol (Ethanol) was first discovered by Iranian/Persian alchemist named Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi during wine distillation. Alcohol is normally produced by the fermentation process, and also by distillation of various fruits, vegetables or grains. Fermented beverages such as beer and wine possess maximum alcohol content (about 15 per cent). Distilled beverages, also known as hard liquor or spirits, (rum, whisky and vodka), also have high alcohol content. Alcoholic beverages are ...
Binge drinking is the most common pattern of excessive alcohol use in the United States and those who binge drink tend to do so frequently and with high intensity. According to the latest estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, excessive alcohol use is responsible for 88,000 deaths in the United States each year, including 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults aged 20-64 years.^1^ Estimates also suggest that over 700 Utahns die from alcohol-attributable causes each year and Utah is ranked seventh in the nation for alcohol poisoning deaths.^2^ Excessive alcohol use is also associated with many health and social harms, including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, unintentional injuries, violence and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Excessive drinking cost the United States $249 billion in 2010.^3^ In 2014, the cost of excessive alcohol use in Utah was estimated to be $1.2 billion.^4^[[br]][[br]] ---- #Preventing Chronic Disease, 2014, Contribution of ...
According to drugs.com, it is not advisable to drink alcohol while taking Prednisone, one of the more commonly prescribed oral steroids. Many drugs can interact with Drinking beer after taking Prednisone? , Yahoo Answers Drinking beer after taking Prednisone? I just think its odd that in order for me to find out that I shouldnt drink alcohol while on Prednisone, PredniSONE - Corticosteroid - Endocrine-Metabolic Agent If you drink alcohol along with using this medication for a long time, Ask your doctor how much alcohol, if any, is safe while you are taking prednisone. If I Am on Prednisone 50 Mg for 5 Days Can I Drink Alcohol IF I AM ON PREDNISONE 50 MG FOR 5 DAYS CAN I DRINK t drink alcohol, esp since you Is it harmful to drink alcoholic beverages while taking prednisone Is it ok to drink while taking prednisone and azathioprine Is it ok to drink while taking prednisone and azathioprine? Drinking while taking Aza is especially hard on the liver. Not sure about meds and alcohol, Prednisone ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal growth and preterm birth and to estimate the effect of dose and timing of alcohol exposure in pregnancy. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study linked to birth information on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System. SETTING: Western Australia. POPULATION: A 10% random sample of births restricted to nonindigenous women who had delivered a singleton infant (n= 4719) in 1995-1997. METHODS: The impact of alcohol consumption in pregnancy on fetal growth (small-for-gestational-age [SGA] and large-for-gestational-age infants [LGA]) and preterm birth (|37 weeks of gestation) was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis and adjusting for confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios and 95% CI, attributable risk, and population attributable risk were calculated. RESULTS: The percentage of SGA infants and preterm birth increased with higher levels of prenatal alcohol exposure; however, the
However, alcoholic beverages consumption, especially excessive consumption, can impact health, including likelihood of cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization classified the consumption of alcoholic beverages as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1 agent) in 2007. Studies from around the world have consistently shown that regular alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and oesophageal cancers. When compared with people who do not drink, consumption of about 50g of alcohol (about 5.3 units) daily will increase the risk of the above cancers two to three times. Another research has found that daily consumption of 50g of alcohol will increase the risk of breast cancer 1.5 times when compared with non-drinkers.. The effect of smoking and drinking on cancer seems to multiply the risk. Additionally, many studies suggest that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for liver cancer. Drinking can also cause ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to care for an infant after the birth if the drinking continues. The use of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with domestic violence and potential harm to the infant. Different body systems in the infant grow, mature and develop at specific times during gestation. The consumption of alcohol ...
This project attempts to measure more accurately the level of alcohol consumption in different societies by factoring in the amount of unrecorded consumption. Unrecorded production of alcoholic beverages contributes significantly to overall alcohol availability, especially in developing countries and countries in the former Soviet Union. In some countries production in the informal sector is as high as 80%. Data from this project can be used for more precise estimates of per capita alcohol use and the burden associated with alcohol. As the consumption of home brews and other forms of non-commercial beverages is a problem in many countries, it is important to determine the extent of this form of alcohol use and its public health impact. The WHO project on unrecorded alcohol consumption was conducted in four mega-countries: Brazil, China, India and Nigeria. Data collection has been completed in all countries and analysis of data is currently taking place. ...
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is not a single disease but a range of disorders which include numerous physical and mental problems, as well as various developmental defects, that may occur as a result of alcohol consumption by the mother while pregnant. No amount of alcohol is considered safe during pregnancy since alcohol passes easily through the placenta to reach the fetus, where it may also affect the fetal brain. Consuming even a small amount of alcohol carries the potential danger of irreversible birth defects in the baby. However, the risk may be lower with occasional drinking than with regular heavy drinking.. The whole spectrum of disorders associated with alcohol use and its effect on the unborn baby is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which may range from mild learning disorders to severe birth defects. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the extreme form of FASD and may include features such as facial abnormalities, small head (microcephaly), growth disorders, learning ...
Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and disability in the world and is a major driver of NCDs including cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis of the liver and various cancers. Harmful alcohol use is also associated with several infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol also causes harm far beyond diminishing the physical and psychological health of the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others and put them at risk of traffic accidents. Alcohol costs more than 1% of the gross national product in high-income and middle-income countries and is linked to poverty. Apart from money spent on drinks, heavy alcohol consumers may suffer other economic problems such as lower wages, lost employment opportunities and increased medical and legal expenses. Evidence-based regulations can reduce the negative costs of alcohol use. An analysis of the strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, ...
Despite the age old warnings against the use of alcohol during pregnancy, and the abundance of scientific research that links Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) with prenatal maternal alcohol ingestion, FAS/FAE remains one of the leading causes of birth defects and mental retardation. It is critical to explore the reasons why women may choose to drink alcohol during their pregnancies to identify areas which may direct interventions and future research. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was completed using Beekers Health Belief Model (1974) as a guide to exploring the phenomena of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A researcher designed self-reporting questionnaire that incorporated previously used tools and open-ended questions was used to gather information from the 117 pregnant study participants regarding their knowledge, beliefs, behaviours, and decision making related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A small number of study participants continued to ...
BACKGROUND Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among tuberculosis (TB) patients are associated with nonadherence and poor treatment outcomes. Studies from Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC), Chennai have reported that alcoholism has been one of the major reasons for default and mortality in under the DOTS programme in South India. Hence, it is planned to conduct a study to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and AUDs among TB patients attending the corporation health centres in Chennai, India. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional cohort study covering 10 corporation zones at Chennai and it included situational assessment followed by screening of TB patients by a WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test AUDIT scale. Four zones were randomly selected and all TB patients treated during July to September 2009 were screened with AUDIT scale for alcohol consumption. RESULTS Out of 490 patients, 66% were males, 66% were 35 years and above, 57% were married, 58% were from the low monthly income
We have tested for effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genotypes on self-reported alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol dependence, recorded on three occasions up to 15 years apart, in 377 male and female subjects of European descent. ADH2 genotype had significant effects on both consumptio …
Downloadable! In this paper, we analyze the impact of smoking bans on restaurant and at-home alcohol consumption using rational addiction model. We use a pseudo-panel data approach which has many advantages compared to aggregate and panel data. While cigarette and restaurant alcohol consumptions fit well with the rational addiction model, at-home-alcohol consumption does not. This result might be due to possible inventory effects. Our results suggests that although cigarettes and alcohol reinforce each other in consumption, consumers substitute them when there are permanent changes in prices. In the semi-reduced system, the cross-price elasticity of restaurant(at-home) alcohol demand with respect to cigarette price is positive and significant. We find that smoking bans increase restaurant alcohol consumption, but decrease at-home alcohol consumption. After a smoking ban is imposed, nonsmokers are likely to stay longer at restaurants and consume more alcohol. On the other hand, when smokers are not
Background. The number of patients with alcohol-related burns admitted to burn units has increased. It has been reported previously that alcohol-related burns are an indicator of alcohol dependence, but there are few studies addressing alcohol use several years after burn injury.. Objective. To investigate alcohol consumption 2-7 years after burn injury and to examine possible contributing factors.. Methods. Consecutive adult patients with burns (n = 67) were included during hospitalization, and an interview was performed at 2-7 (mean = 4.6) years after burn. Data assessed at baseline were injury characteristics, sociodemographic variables, coping, and psychiatric disorders. At follow-up, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to identify at-risk drinking.. Results. Overall, 22% of the burns were alcohol-related; however, this was not associated with at-risk drinking at follow-up. Of the former patients with burns, 17 (25%) were identified as having an at-risk drinking pattern at ...
BACKGROUND: A recent switch in methadone formulation from methadone (1 mg/mL) to Methadose (10 mg/mL) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was associated with increased reports of opioid withdrawal and increases in illicit opioid use. Impacts on other forms of drug use have not been assessed. Since alcohol use is common among people receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), we assessed if switch was associated with increased prevalence of heavy alcohol use. METHODS: Drawing on data from two open prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, BC, generalized estimating equations (GEE) model examined relationship between methadone formulation change and heavy alcohol use, defined by National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). A sub-analysis examined relationship with heavier drinking defined as at least eight drinks per day on average in last six months. RESULTS: Between June 2013 and May 2015, a total of 787 participants on methadone were eligible for the ...
Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil. Between December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a
Millions of individuals use alcohol every day; however, not everyone experiences a problem due to such use. It is therefore helpful to conceptualize alcohol use as ranging on a continuum from nonproblematic social use (e.g., a glass of wine with dinner) to alcohol misuse (e.g., a one-time incident of binge drinking), to excessive use or abuse (e.g., frequent use of alcohol that results in a negative impact on the life of the individual and those around him or her, such as recurrent driving under the influence of alcohol), and finally, to physical dependence or addiction to alcohol (e.g., a chronic disorder that may require medical detoxification and/or formal treatment). While not used professionally, the commonly used term alcoholism has been used synonymously with alcohol addiction and refers to the compulsive use of alcoholic beverages. Both terms imply a progressive deterioration of the individuals social, physical, and mental status combined with the inability to stop using alcohol even ...
Define alcoholic drink. alcoholic drink synonyms, alcoholic drink pronunciation, alcoholic drink translation, English dictionary definition of alcoholic drink. Noun 1. alcoholic drink - a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; alcohol ruined him alcohol, alcoholic beverage, inebriant, intoxicant...
ARG has long been a leader in survey methodology and alcohol intake measurement. With many of our alcohol consumption measures being used throughout the US and around the world, including estimates of specific beverage types, alcohol content and life-course consumption, we continue to design, conduct and analyze national and regional studies to advance the field of alcohol research. Past investigations have included the assessment of alcohol content in drinks consumed at home and in bars and restaurants, providing information that enabled the development of individual estimations in the National Alcohol Survey (NAS) and produced the only study of calorie content of measured drinks. Our methodological research also extends to include estimates of US per capita alcohol consumption, alcohol tax rates and affordability, and the development of protocols for emergency room assessment of alcohol and injuries.. ...
The research found that universal screening of admissions for alcohol misuse is feasible and can identify a group of patients with frequent emergency department attendances, recurrent admission and elevated risk of alcohol related liver disease. There were 53,165 admissions and 48,211 (90.68%) completed screening. Of these, 1,122 (2.3%) were classified as increasing, and 1,921 (4.0%) as high risk of alcohol harm. High risk patients had more hospital admissions in the three previous years (average 4.74) than the low (3.00) and increasing (2.92) risk groups (p ,0.001). The high-risk patients also had more frequent emergency department attendances (7.68) than the lower (2.64) and increasing (3.81) groups (p ,0.001 for both).. A total of 1,396 (72.6%) of the high-risk group were seen by the Alcohol Specialist Nurse Service and 1,135 (81.2%) had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score over 20 with 527 (37.8%) recording the maximum value of 40. Compared to the other groups, high ...
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Read More ...
Alcoholism is not a switch that can be turned off and on. It and other alcohol use disorders develop over time, and usually involve certain preexisting risk factors that make the individual more susceptible to developing it if they drink alcohol. The substance abuse treatment can help individuals identify whether their levels of alcohol consumption put them at risk of developing alcohol dependence and help such persons develop a plan to change their drinking habits. The NIAAA defines low-risk drinking as no more than 4 drinks on any single day or 14 drinks per week for men, and no more than 3 drinks on any single day or 7 drinks per week for women. About one-quarter of those who exceed such limits already has an alcohol use disorder, and the rest are at increased risk of developing such a condition which will be fixed easier at an Alcohol detox center.. According to the intensive outpatient program alcohol addiction is often a divisive topic, separating those who follow the addiction as a ...
Teens and young adults who binge drink in college may be raising their risks of cardiovascular disease later in life, a U.S. researcher says. Shane Phillips of the University of Illinois at Chicago looked for early signs of heart disease by comparing 19 binge drinkers to 17 non-drinkers ages 18-25. Even though these individuals are young and healthy and dont have any other overt cardiovascular signs of disease, these data would suggest they may be on the road to developing problems, Phillips said in a statement. Phillips examined the ability of small blood vessels such as those in the arm to dilate, or widen. Reduction in dilating is a sign of an early tendency toward heart disease. Phillips found changes in the binge drinker group. The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, found the binge drinkers had a reduction in the ability of the main artery of the upper arm to respond to stress-induced increased blood flow by widening, as compared to their non-drinking ...