TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and molecular characterization of a family affected with X-linked ocular albinism (OA1). AU - Lam, Byron L. AU - Fingert, J. H.. AU - Shutt, B. C.. AU - Singleton, E. M.. AU - Merin, L. M.. AU - Brown, H. H.. AU - Sheffield, V. C.. AU - Stone, E. M.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Thirty-one members of a family affected with X-linked ocular albinism (OAI) were studied to characterize the clinical phenotype and identify the disease-causing mutation. The family members were examined with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, and Goldmann perimetry. Linkage analysis was performed with markers from the OAI locus. Exons 2 and 8 of the OAI gene were assayed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The six affected males had visual acuities ranging from 20/40 to 20/200. All had nystagmus, iris transillumination, and foveal hypoplasia. The eldest affected male had 20/40 vision and was asymptomatic. The level of the visual acuity of the affected males was not related to the ...
Ocular albinism is a form of albinism which, in contrast to oculocutaneous albinism, presents primarily in the eyes.[1] There are multiple forms of ocular albinism, which are clinically similar.[2]:865. Both known genes are on the X chromosome. When the term "autosomal recessive ocular albinism" ("AROA") is used, it usually refers to mild variants of oculocutaneous albinism rather than ocular albinism, which is X-linked.[3]. ...
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. Synonyms: Forsius-Eriksson syndrome; FORSIUS-ERIKSSON TYPE OCULAR ALBINISM
Its estimated that about one in every 18,000-20,000 people in the United States have some form of albinism.. There are several different forms. Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) happens when theres a mutation in one gene. OCA results in white skin, white hair, and blue eyes.. X-linked ocular albinism occurs only in men, and manifests as light-colored skin and hair thats still considered within the "normal" range.. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome has symptoms similar to OCA, but its more common in Puerto Rico and its usually accompanied by blood, lung, and bowel disorders.. And Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare version that gives hair a silver cast and causes skin to be grayish. White blood cell counts are often affected as well, making people with this type more prone to infections.. As for eye color in humans with albinism, the red, pink, or purple appearance can show up when the light is just right. While the eyes themselves can be blue or brown, the lack of pigmentation can make them seem ...
Ocular albinism, type 1: lt;table class=infobox cellspacing=3 style=border-spacing:3px;width:22em;|>||Ocular Albinis... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Purpose: Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and abnormal crossing of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. It is caused by mutations in the OA1 gene. How the reduced melanosomal pigmentation of OA1 RPE exerts its effects upon the RGCs to influence the misrouting of their axons at the optic chiasm remains unsolved. In mouse, by embryonic day 15, the RPE is already melanized, the ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs have been generated and the majority of their axons pass through the optic chiasm. Our aim is to identify candidate genes critical for normal pigmentation of the RPE and crossing of the optic nerves using microarrays hybridized with mRNAs from 15 days post coito (dpc) ocular albino (Oa1-/-) and control (B6/NCrl) embryonic mice eyes.. Methods: 15.5 dpc mouse embryos (6-10/litter) were collected from pregnant Oa1-/- and the corresponding control B6/NCrl females. Total RNA was isolated from the eyes of ...
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Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that reduces the pigmentation of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye, and the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Many folks with ocular albinism have difficulty seeing outside without sunglasses and transitioning from outside to inside.. Nystagmus is a condition in which the eyes move in an involuntary and repetitive way. Sometimes the movement is slow and horizontal. Other times the movement is fast twitched, vertical, and rotary. There are supposedly 49 different subtypes of nystagmus with varying degrees of severity. These movements often result in reduced vision and depth perception. The condition tends to improve until about age 10, and stabilizes for the remainder of the persons life.. Due to her visual issues, Sonyas best corrected visual acuity is 20/200, the cut off point for legal blindness. In other words, even with glasses or contacts, she can only see something clearly from 20 feet away that other ...
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boys Ocular Albinism, I stopped in at Guest Relations right inside the entrance and asked if there would be any accommodations they could offer us as the boys are extremely photophobic (their eyes are very sensitive to bright light/sunlight) and I explained that it would be hard for them to stand in long lines in the sun for extended periods of time. The person behind the desk was very understanding and gave us a Ride Accessibility Pass (RAP) which allowed us to set up a time to get on each ride without having to stand in line. Instead, we could wait elsewhere out of the sun and then enter the ride through the exit and get on almost immediately. We actually only ended up needing to use this pass a handful of times though since we were at the park on a Monday and the lines were not terribly long to begin with ...
... Vision for Children nears a cure for genetic eye disorder Posted on June 30, 2017 When Vivian and Sam Hardages newborn son was diagnosed with ocular albinism more than two decades...
I am the mom of 2 awesome boys. My youngest son has life-threatening food allergies to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish. Both kiddos also have seasonal and environmental allergies, eczema, asthma, and a vision impairment called Ocular Albinism. "Life is a journey, not a destination ...
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Kannuka k las aland suvitajate juurevool 1883-84. aastail, m ni aasta enne talude m mist (1888). See ajandki talude hinnad k rgeks. Suvitajaist saadud sissetulek aidand tasuda ostuv lga ja v imaldand veel uusi suvimarju juure ehitada. N udmine suvikorterite j rele olnud nii suur, et kus aga uus maja rajatud, siis tellitud juba ette tarvitamiseks, makstud osa riraha avansiks. Teenitud lisaks veel suvitajate kraami vedamisest jne., n nda et v ike Kannuka k la (9 talu) omand varsti umbes 50 suvemaja. Suvitajad tarvitand rohkesti ka k iksuguseid p llumajandussaadusi, eriti piima ja v id. Juba enne kui Kannukal suvemaju oligi viidud rohkesti v id Sillam ele suvitajaile, aga kui Kannukal aland suvitamine, siis pidand iga ks piimakarja suurendama, v i ja piim tarvitatud suvel k ik kohal. Suvitajaid k ind peamiselt Peterburist ja Moskvast, v hem osa Tartust. N d (1931) seisab suur osa majadest t hjad, kuigi neist on s ilind veel ainult ks neljandik osa. Mitmest majast on varastatud klaasid ja praeahjud ...
A five generation family with an X linked ocular disorder has been investigated. The major clinical features were reduced visual acuity, nystagmus, and myopia. Although impaired night vision was not a symptom, using psychophysical and electrophysiological testing both rod and cone function were found to be abnormal in all affected males. No abnormality was detected in carrier females. Gene location studies showed X linked transmission of a gene that maps to proximal Xp11. The findings observed in this cohort are similar to those previously reported in both congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2) and Aland Island eye disease (AIED). This study addresses whether CSNB2 and AIED are a single entity or whether the latter is a subset of the former.
MalaCards based summary : Ocular Albinism with Congenital Sensorineural Deafness, also known as waardenburg syndrome type 2 with ocular albinism, is related to albinism, ocular, with late-onset sensorineural deafness and ocular albinism. An important gene associated with Ocular Albinism with Congenital Sensorineural Deafness is TYR (Tyrosinase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Transcriptional misregulation in cancer and Neural Crest Differentiation. Affiliated tissues include eye and skin, and related phenotypes are craniofacial and hearing/vestibular/ear ...
PURPOSE The purpose of the current research was to detect the underlying genetic defect in a Chinese family with X-linked congenital nystagmus and perform prenatal genetic diagnosis for their current pregnancy. METHODS A common clinical examination and an ophthalmic evaluation were performed on the proband, one carrier, and one unaffected member. Mutation analysis of the G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) and four-point-one (4.1), ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain-containing 7 (FRMD7) genes was performed by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified exons in the proband. The detected GPR143 mutation was tested in all available family members and 200 normal controls by direct sequencing. RESULTS Congenital nystagmus, obvious fundus hypopigmentation, and foveal hypoplasia were observed in the proband but not in the carriers or the unaffected members. A novel splicing mutation c.658+1 g|t not found in 200 unrelated controls was identified and co-segregated with X-linked ocular albinism (XLOA) in this
In this study, we report a family with typical clinical signs of X-linked congenital nystagmus. The sequence analysis of GPR143 identified a novel duplication mutation in exon 1. All affected males were hemizygous for the mutation whereas female carriers were heterozygous for the duplication. Nystagmus is common in all types of albinism. Diagnosis of the underlying disease often requires extensive clinical, electrophysiological, psychophysical, and eventually molecular genetic examinations, especially when clinical findings are unrevealing. A few individuals initially misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus have been shown to be affected by ocular albinism type 1 by screening GPR143 [10,11]. However, in our study, none of the patients with the GPR143 mutation had the classical phenotype of ocular albinism. GPR143 was cloned from the OA1 critical region in Xp22.3-22.2 in 1995 [7]. To date, more than 90 different GPR143 mutations have since been described. However, there were only nine different ...
Fisher SE, Ciccodicola A, Tanaka K, Curci A, Desicato S, Durso M, Craig IW. Sequence-based exon prediction around the synaptophysin locus reveals agene-rich area containing novel genes in human proximal Xp.Genomics. 1997 Oct 15;45(2):340-7. PMID: 9344658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. The human Xp11.23-p11.22 interval has been implicated in several inherited diseases including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; three forms of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiaisis; and the eye disorders retinitis pigmentosa 2, congenital stationary night blindness, and Aland Island eye disease. In constructing YAC contigs spanning Xp11. 23-p11.22, we have previously shown that the region around the synaptophysin (SYP) gene is refractory to cloning in YACs, but highly stable in cosmids. Preliminary analysis of the latter suggested that this might reflect a high density of coding sequences and we therefore undertook the complete sequencing of a SYP-containing cosmid. Sequence data were extensively analyzed using ...
The human Xp11.23-p11.22 interval has been implicated in several inherited diseases including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; three forms of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiaisis; and the eye disorders retinitis pigmentosa 2, congenital stationary night blindness, and Aland Island eye disease. In constructing YAC contigs spanning Xp11. 23-p11.22, we have previously shown that the region around the synaptophysin (SYP) gene is refractory to cloning in YACs, but highly stable in cosmids. Preliminary analysis of the latter suggested that this might reflect a high density of coding sequences and we therefore undertook the complete sequencing of a SYP-containing cosmid. Sequence data were extensively analyzed using computer programs such as CENSOR (to mask repeats), BLAST (for homology searches), and GRAIL and GENE-ID (to predict exons). This revealed the presence of 29 putative exons, organized into three genes, in addition to the 7 exons of the complete SYP coding region, all mapping within a 44-kb ...
Visual function and ocular pigmentation are being studied in patients with albinism and other disorders associated with hypopigmentation. The degree of ocular pigmentation is assessed clinically by estimating the melanin content of the iris, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid. Visual function is measured in the conventional manner to study central vision, and electrophysiological methods to detect a misrouting of the visual pathways. The purpose of this study is to document the visual deficit and the pigmentary changes of patients with albinism, to observe their natural course, and to determine whether misrouting of the visual pathways is present and is correlated with pigmentation ...
There are about 16 different genes responsible for eye color, it is mostly attributed to two adjacent genes on chromosome 15, hect domain and RCC1-like domain-containing protein 2 (HERC2) and ocular albinism (that is, oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2)). An intron in HERC2 contains the promoter region for OCA2, affecting its expression. Therefore, singlenucleotide polymorphisms SNP in either of these two genes have a large role in the eye color of an individual. Furthermore, with all genetic expression, aberration also occurs. Some individuals may express two phenotypes-one in each eye-or a complete lack of pigmentation, ocular albinism. We could say that a conserved regulatory element within intron 86 of the HERC2 gene that is perfectly associated with the brown/blue eye color, in studied individuals from Denmark, Turkey and Jordan. This element had an inhibitory eVect on the OCA2 promoter activity in cell cultures, and the blue and the brown alleles were shown to bind non-identical subsets of ...
There are about 16 different genes responsible for eye color, it is mostly attributed to two adjacent genes on chromosome 15, hect domain and RCC1-like domain-containing protein 2 (HERC2) and ocular albinism (that is, oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2)). An intron in HERC2 contains the promoter region for OCA2, affecting its expression. Therefore, singlenucleotide polymorphisms SNP in either of these two genes have a large role in the eye color of an individual. Furthermore, with all genetic expression, aberration also occurs. Some individuals may express two phenotypes-one in each eye-or a complete lack of pigmentation, ocular albinism. We could say that a conserved regulatory element within intron 86 of the HERC2 gene that is perfectly associated with the brown/blue eye color, in studied individuals from Denmark, Turkey and Jordan. This element had an inhibitory eVect on the OCA2 promoter activity in cell cultures, and the blue and the brown alleles were shown to bind non-identical subsets of ...
Define ocular transillumination. ocular transillumination synonyms, ocular transillumination pronunciation, ocular transillumination translation, English dictionary definition of ocular transillumination. n. The passing of a light through the walls of a body part or organ to facilitate medical inspection. trans′il·lu′mi·nate′ v. trans′il·lu′mi·na′tor n.
Define transillumination. transillumination synonyms, transillumination pronunciation, transillumination translation, English dictionary definition of transillumination. n. The passing of a light through the walls of a body part or organ to facilitate medical inspection. trans′il·lu′mi·nate′ v. trans′il·lu′mi·na′tor n.
Predicted to have calcium channel activity and calcium, potassium:sodium antiporter activity. Involved in negative regulation of melanin biosynthetic process. Predicted to localize to trans-Golgi network. Is expressed in brain; ear; embryo mesenchyme; and liver. Used to study ocular albinism. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in oculocutaneous albinism type VI. Orthologous to human SLC24A5 (solute carrier family 24 member 5 ...
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Hamilton on do people with blue eyes generally have worse sight than people with brown eyes: Iris color is determined by the amount of brown pigment it contains. A large amount creates brown eyes; less pigment creates a blue appearance. Eye sight is related to the shape of the eye and health of the retina (film layer) and optic nerve. Some eye conditions can lead to poor vision and blue eyes (ocular albinism), but eye color itself is usually not related to eye sight.
Our first full collection is focuses on textural whites. In several of the images youll see Sam, who is legally blind because of his ocular albinism. He reached out to us, seeking an apprenticeship in weaving. We have worked on developing products that are highly tactile, and technically simple to weave. The tailoring of that process has informed the choice to focus on the materialization of the nuances and subtleties of the single color white in wool. These works favor tactility. Through this experience Sam has become an accomplished weaver and has produced much of the collection. The learnings from this relationship have gone both ways, and weve become acutely aware of the current conditions for blind and visually impaired people. The global unemployment rate for the blind in the US alone tops out at 75%. In Germany the unemployment rate is at 72%. We see an opportunity to provide a creative pathway towards meaningful work.". ...
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The ocular manifestations in type IV oculocutaneous albinism are similar to those of other types. Nystagmus, strabismus, misrouting of neuronal axons, and foveal hypoplasia are prominent features although there is some clinical heterogeneity among patients. Nystagmus may not be present at birth but is almost always evident by 3-4 months of age. The iris may be pale blue or tan and does not generally darken with age. Poor stereopsis is common. Vision is stable after childhood and usually in the range of 20/100-20/400. ...
Webvision summarizes recent advances in knowledge and understanding of the visual system through dedicated chapters and evolving discussion to serve as a clearing house for all things related to retina and vision science.. Contact: [email protected] ...
Devices and methods for visually confirming the positioning of a distal end portion of an illuminating device placed within a patient include inserting a distal end portion of an illuminating device internally into a patient, emitting light from the distal end portion of the illuminating device, observing transillumination resulting from the light emitted from the distal end portion of the illuminating device that occurs on an external surface of the patient, and correlating the location of the observed transillumination on the external surface of the patient with an internal location of the patient that underlies the location of observed transillumination, to confirm positioning of the distal end portion of the illuminating device.
Representative low- and high-magnification transillumination of adult dog myocytes after isolation (day 0) and 1-3 days of culture (day 1, day 3). (a) shows t
These defects may be passed down (inherited) through families.. The most severe form of albinism is called oculocutaneous albinism. People with this type of albinism have white or pink hair, skin, and iris color. They also have vision problems.. Another type of albinism, called ocular albinism type 1 (OA1), affects only the eyes. The persons skin and eye color are usually in the normal range. However, an eye exam will show that there is no coloring in the back of the eye (retina).. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a form of albinism caused by a change to a single gene. It can occur with a bleeding disorder, as well as with lung, kidney, and bowel diseases. ...
Purpose : Albinism is a group of disorders characterised by a lack of pigment and abnormal retinal development. Despite being a common cause for visual impairment world-wide, there are few treatments and patients typically suffer life-long visual disability. To develop a targeted and effective treatment for albinism-linked visual impairment, the role of the pigment synthesis pathway in normal ocular development needs to be interrogated. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic differences in the retina of C57BL/6-c2J (CALB) mouse model of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) compared to normally pigmented C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Methods : Components of the dopaminergic signalling pathway in the developing retina of untreated CALB and B6 mice were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) at E11, 12, 16, 17 and W4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 16, with n=3 per group per time point. We looked at the distribution of ocular albinism 1 (OA1) and dopaminergic D2 receptors, DOPA decarboxylase (DD) and tyrosine ...
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Transillumination is a useful and inexpensive clinical tool that can be used for a range of conditions including testicular hydrocele. This paper gives a brief overview of the clinical use of transillumination in general, for testicular hydroceles and guidance for photography.
Lone Ferret (previously known under the name Lone Fox) is a francophone furry from France and one of the organisers of Franfurence. His fursona tends to be a white albino ferret. ...
The board certified ophthalmologists at Island Eye Surgicenter in Long Island share their top tips on how to protect your eyes from the summer sun.
Oculocerebral syndrome with hypopigmentation information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
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Selected genes are highlighted in orange, bookmarked genes are green. - Chemical increases gene, - Chemical decreases gene, - Chemical increases and decreases gene simultaneosly, No arrows - gene doesnt interact with the chemical. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time and the chemical does it. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time but the chemical does the opposite. ...
Ocular and oculocutaneous albinism represent a spectrum of disorders with absent or significantly diminished amount of melanin either across different body tissues - skin, hair, eye (Oculocutaneous Albinism 1 and 2), or exclusively in eye tissues only (Ocular Albinism 1) .. The functionality and the clinical findings are diverse (the phenotype), and no direct correlation has been established to the underlying mutations (genotype).. The common ocular phenotype includes iris transillumination, foveal hypoplasia, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, refractive error, photosensitivity and abnormal development of the visual pathways with characteristic abnormal routing of ganglion cell axons in the chiasma, resulting in abnormal visually evoked potentials. Current treatment options are limited to optical methods and low vision aids.. The mechanism of melanin pigment formation in the RPE cells and its role in the visual pathways and structures development is not completely understood, but a correlation ...
Sometimes the color of a persons eyes are not normal. Here are some interesting causes of this phenomenon.. Heterochromia, for example, is a condition in which the two eyes are different colors, or part of one eye is a different color. This can be caused by genetic inconsistencies, issues that occur during the development of the eye, or acquired later in life due to an injury or disease. Ocular albinism is a condition in which the eye is a very light color due to low levels of pigmentation in the iris, which is the result of a genetic mutation. It is usually accompanied by serious vision problems. Oculocutaneous albinism is a similar mutation in the bodys ability to produce and store melanin that affects skin and hair color in addition to the eyes.. Eye color can also be affected by certain medications. For example, a certain glaucoma eye drop is known to darken light irises to brown, as well as lengthen and darken eyelashes.. ...
Sometimes the color of a persons eyes are not normal. Here are some interesting causes of this phenomenon.. Heterochromia, for example, is a condition in which the two eyes are different colors, or part of one eye is a different color. This can be caused by genetic inconsistencies, issues that occur during the development of the eye, or acquired later in life due to an injury or disease. Ocular albinism is a condition in which the eye is a very light color due to low levels of pigmentation in the iris, which is the result of a genetic mutation. It is usually accompanied by serious vision problems. Oculocutaneous albinism is a similar mutation in the bodys ability to produce and store melanin that affects skin and hair color in addition to the eyes.. Eye color can also be affected by certain medications. For example, a certain glaucoma eye drop is known to darken light irises to brown, as well as lengthen and darken eyelashes.. ...
Sometimes the color of a persons eyes are not normal. Here are some interesting causes of this phenomenon.. Heterochromia, for example, is a condition in which the two eyes are different colors, or part of one eye is a different color. This can be caused by genetic inconsistencies, issues that occur during the development of the eye, or acquired later in life due to an injury or disease. Ocular albinism is a condition in which the eye is a very light color due to low levels of pigmentation in the iris, which is the result of a genetic mutation. It is usually accompanied by serious vision problems. Oculocutaneous albinism is a similar mutation in the bodys ability to produce and store melanin that affects skin and hair color in addition to the eyes.. Eye color can also be affected by certain medications. For example, a certain glaucoma eye drop is known to darken light irises to brown, as well as lengthen and darken eyelashes.. ...
Sometimes the color of a persons eyes are not normal. Here are some interesting causes of this phenomenon.. Heterochromia, for example, is a condition in which the two eyes are different colors, or part of one eye is a different color. This can be caused by genetic inconsistencies, issues that occur during the development of the eye, or acquired later in life due to an injury or disease. Ocular albinism is a condition in which the eye is a very light color due to low levels of pigmentation in the iris, which is the result of a genetic mutation. It is usually accompanied by serious vision problems. Oculocutaneous albinism is a similar mutation in the bodys ability to produce and store melanin that affects skin and hair color in addition to the eyes.. Eye color can also be affected by certain medications. For example, a certain glaucoma eye drop is known to darken light irises to brown, as well as lengthen and darken eyelashes.. ...
Sometimes the color of a persons eyes are not normal. Here are some interesting causes of this phenomenon.. Heterochromia, for example, is a condition in which the two eyes are different colors, or part of one eye is a different color. This can be caused by genetic inconsistencies, issues that occur during the development of the eye, or acquired later in life due to an injury or disease. Ocular albinism is a condition in which the eye is a very light color due to low levels of pigmentation in the iris, which is the result of a genetic mutation. It is usually accompanied by serious vision problems. Oculocutaneous albinism is a similar mutation in the bodys ability to produce and store melanin that affects skin and hair color in addition to the eyes.. Eye color can also be affected by certain medications. For example, a certain glaucoma eye drop is known to darken light irises to brown, as well as lengthen and darken eyelashes.. ...