The swimbladder is a hydrostatic organ in fish postulated as a homolog of the tetrapod lung. While lung development has been well studied, the molecular mechanism of swimbladder development is essentially uncharacterized. In the present study, swimbladder development in zebrafish was analyzed by using several molecular markers: hb9 (epithelium), fgf10a and acta2 (mesenchyme), and anxa5 (mesothelium), as well as in vivo through enhancer trap transgenic lines Et(krt4:EGFP)(sq33-2) and Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet3) that showed strong EGFP expression in the swimbladder epithelium and outer mesothelium respectively. We defined three phases of swimbladder development: epithelial budding between 36 and 48 hpf, growth with the formation of two additional mesodermal layers up to 4.5 dpf, and inflation of posterior and anterior chambers at 4.5 and 21 dpf respectively. Similar to those in early lung development, conserved expression of Hedgehog (Hh) genes, shha and ihha, in the epithelia, and Hh receptor genes, ...
This, I are, can look been with buy The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System: Evolution,. One may definitely weight about the wisdom. Or had he also agree to be a new therapy of Y for the audience, always if not not believed as the labor got by von Balthasar?
The vertical movements of a teleostean fish may be restricted by the presence of the swimbladder, which will increase or decrease in volume when the fish moves up or down in the water.. It is shown that the restriction that the swimbladder imposes to vertical movements involving a reduction in pressure will depend on physical factors such as. (1) The resistance that the bladder and body wall offer to the expansion of the bladder gas.. (2) The percentage volume of the swimbladder and the density change of the fish when it is subjected to a reduction in pressure.. (3) The pressure reduction that leads to the rupture of the bladder wall.. A distinction is made between rapid and slow movements. In the former the compensatory ability of the fish must be considered and in the latter the speed with which the fish can accommodate itself to pressure changes.. An equation is derived from which the minimum speed at which a physoclist can migrate from deep to shallow water can be calculated. To solve the ...
Swim bladder from a bony (teleost) fish How gas is pumped into the swim bladder using. Before getting to know the reasons or symptoms of this disorder, we should first
C. L. Winata, Korzh, S., Kondrychyn, I., Zheng, W., Korzh, V., and Gong, Z., Development of zebrafish swimbladder: The requirement of Hedgehog signaling in specification and organization of the three tissue layers., Dev Biol, vol. 331, no. 2, pp. 222-36, 2009. ...
This is a common problem whereby fish lose their equilibrium and are unable to maintain their position. This can result in the fish swimming awkwardly, laying upside-down either on the bottom or top of the water, or unable to maintain a horizontal position in the water. This is often attributed to swim-bladder problems and indeed this is the most common cause of loss of equilibrium. The swim-bladder is an air-filled sac laying just under the backbone at the top of the abdominal cavity. By inflating / deflating the swim-bladder, the fish can adjust its position in the water and maintain neutral buoyancy. The swim-bladder can be affected by bacterial or viral diseases. In addition the swim-bladder may malfunction, leading to over or under inflation. Clearly anything which affects the proper functioning of the swim-bladder will also affect the fishs equilibrium.. However, before diagnosing all equilibrium problems as swim-bladder disease, we should be aware that there are other conditions which ...
When birds and humans sing, it sounds completely different, but the very same physical mechanisms are at play when a bird sings and a human speaks.
The photograph was taken 3 days post inoculation. The bird was experimentally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus on 3/2/08 at Plum Island Animal Disease Center. The inoculation was performed in the caudal thoracic air sac with strain A/CK/PA/469/3-84/H5N2, using 0.25ml ...
You need to get your bird examined by the veterinarian for proper diagnosis. If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If treated early, your bird should recover from the infection.. ...
Birds suffer from lung and airway disorders, which can be caused by a variety of respiratory parasites. One such parasitic infection in birds is caused by air sac mites, which affects the entire respiratory tract.
The anatomy of the avian respiratory system is quite complex compared to that of mammals. The avian and mammalian respiratory systems consist of the lungs which expand, gas exchange occurs and the air is exhaled. In birds the respiratory system also serves for the exchange of gases but is also important in eliminating heat from the body and has several non-respiratory functions such as the detoxification of metabolic products and vocalization. As in mammals, the upper respiratory system serves to filter air to trap dust. Unlike mammalian lungs, avian lungs are relatively rigid and do not move much during breathing. Emanating from the lungs are thin-walled air sacs that fill most of the body cavity not occupied by other viscera; most birds have nine. Some air sacs penetrate the interior of the bones and even under the skin. In mammals, inspired air goes into the lung as the lung expands and is expired when the lung contracts. In birds the lungs expand very little because the air goes through them ...
In this video, I present a fish thats floating at the water surface; and how I go about treating positive buoyancy disorder - https://youtu.be/SOMjZHW_gy4 Read more from our blogs archive about swimbladder disease - https://thefishvet.com/?s=Buoyancy -- Yours sincerely, Dr Richmond Loh DipProjMgt, BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Pathology), MANZCVS (Aquatics& Pathobiology), CertAqV, NATA Signatory. PERTH | MELBOURNE |…
Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or l …
Medicine for swim bladder disease - Swim Bladder | Pet Care Article | petco.com. Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
A functioning goldfish swim bladder is critical for survival. Swim bladder disease can be cause by several ailments. Some are easier to treat than others.
Nobris re-release. Following her return to the forest, the PRM team worked their hardest to check-in on Nobri, but with her wild nature she travelled deep into the forest, completely loosing her human observers for months. It was not until May that they finally found her again. And she was not happy about it.. She immediately kiss-squeaked at the team, shaking branches in their direction. However, they knew they had to persist and check on her. As they moved closer, their worst fears started to grow; there appeared to be some swelling in her air sac. Had her air sacculitis returned? At this point, they knew that they must keep a close eye on her, despite her objections. Nobri refused to be in human presence, however, and when the team returned to her location the following day she was already long gone…. As the months passed, the team grew worried. Despite their best efforts, all searches turned up in vain. It was six months later during what they thought would be another fruitless search, ...
Trauma Care - AirTraveler Walker Stabilizing Orthosis. Extra compression via air bladders for immobilisation of the ankle joint. For ruptures and ankle injuries
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand. Although birds have lungs, theirs are fairly rigid structures that do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. Instead, the structures that act as the bellows that ventilate the lungs are the air sacs, which are distributed throughout much of the birds bodies.[37] The airsacs move air uniderectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[38][39] Although bird lungs are smaller than those of mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, whereas in mammals, the alveoli, which act as the bellows, constitute only 7% of the total body volume.[40] The walls of the air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand.. Although birds have lungs, these are fairly rigid structures, which do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. The structures that act as the bellows which ventilate the lungs, are the air sacs distributed throughout much of the birds bodies. Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.[30]. The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a set of bellows[31] which move air unidirectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[32][33]. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) ailment, is a progressive disease which makes it difficult to breathe. Long term exposure to other lung irritants like dust, chemical fumes, or air pollution also may promote COPD. At exactly the same time, carbon dioxide (a waste gas) proceeds from the capillaries into the air sacs. In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following: In the United States, the term COPD contains two principal afflictions emphysema (em-fih SE-mother) and chronic bronchitis (bron-KI-tis). This damage also can destroy the walls of the air sacs, leading to larger and fewer air sacs instead of many tiny ones. Most individuals who have COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
The LD50 values were determined for cardiovascular drugs in chick embryos at different developmental stages in order to obtain a more precise injection stage for fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens for the prediction in rodents. First, time-course changes in the weight of fertile eggs, their air sac volume, and weight of each egg component were measured after the initiation of incubation. The weight of whole eggs decreased with incubation, while air sac volume increased. The chick embryos weight increased with decreases in albumen weight. These findings suggest that decreases in whole egg weight are due to decreases in water in the eggs. When the maximum volume of physiological saline or CMC-Na solution was injected into the air sac on different days of incubation the bulk of the vehicle did not prove to be toxic to the chick embryos. Next, several cardiovascular drugs, i.e., aloprenolol, piretanide, dipyridamol, lidocaine, propranolol, canrenoate, disopyramide and reserpine were injected ...
a muscle that is attached to the swim bladder. Rapid flexure of the sonic muscle against the swim bladder produces drum-like sounds commonly associated with courtship and spawning behavior. ...
The contraction-relaxation cycle in muscle is regulated by the release of Ca2+ from, and its uptake by, the SR (Ebashi and Endo, 1968). In fish sound-producing muscles, the maximum frequency of sound produced is determined by the maximum frequency of twitch fusion, which is primarily dependent on the rate of relaxation of twitch tension, which is dependent on the rate of Ca2+ uptake by the SR (Skoglund, 1959). In accordance with this view, the fractional SR volume in the sound-producing muscle fibres, including the SBM fibres, is much larger than that in skeletal muscle fibres (Peachey and Porter, 1959; Fawcett and Revel, 1961; Revel, 1962; Franzini-Armstrong, 1972; Appelt et al., 1991; Suzuki et al., 2003).. Twitches produced by repetitive motor nerve stimulation of the SBM tend to decrease rapidly with time (Fig. 5A), as has also been reported by Hidaka and Toida (1969). This may result, at least in part, from the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration gradually decreasing during repetitive motor nerve ...
BY 124 Mock Exam #3 True/False 1. True or False: A swim bladder may have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. 2. True or False: The amniotic egg is an important evolutionary breakthrough because it allows for incubation of eggs in an aqueous environment. 3. True or False: The amniotic egg added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments. 4. True or False: During the prometamorphosis phase, growth happens quickly for the larva as it begins to differentiate into the adult form. 5. True or False: When the gill chamber floor is lowered during respiration in bony fish, the fishs mouth is closed and its operculum is open, allowing for water to be pulled in and across the gills. 6. True or False: Members of Class Actinopterygii have thin fins whereas members of Class Chondrichthyes have thick fins. 7. True or False: Reptiles were the first vertebrates to live on land. 8. True or False: Lengthening of myofibrils is what allows for the contraction of ...
air′ blad der n. 1) a vesicle or sac containing air 2) ich an air filled sac at the top of the body cavity in bony fishes, serving in most to regulate hydrostatic pressure Also called swim bladder • Etymology: 1725-35
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 111-135; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 93 - 105; Vertebrae: 62 - 66. Scales on body in regular but non-overlapping rows, some anguilloid, becoming anguilloid in pattern on belly and flanks in front of anus, top of head from interorbit to nape and sides of head with non-imbricate scales, snout, subocular area and chin and throat naked; ethmoid spine short but strong; gill chamber dark; esophagus dark and intestines and stomach pale; no pyloric caeca; males with posterior opening on swim bladder (Ref. 34024). About 10 broad dark brown bands on body. Dorsal, anal and caudal fin margins blackish. Caudal fin small, posterior margin rounded. Pelvic fins comprising two filamentous rays (Ref. 27363). ...
File no.: MI-1012-4430-LI-ZE (liked to MI-1012-5677-LI-ZE describing the generation of human neural microtissues from NECS cells) A novel precursor population that forms electrophysiologically functional neurons more quickly than protocols starting with hPSCs.
We breathe about 12 to 20 times a minute, without having to think. Inhale: and air flows through the mouth and nose, into the trachea. The bronchi stem out like a wishbone, and keep branching, dividing and dividing, and finally feeding out into the tiny air sacs of alveoli. Capillaries - blood vessels thinner than hairs - twine around each alveolus. Both the air sac and the blood vessel are tiny, delicate, one cell thick: portals where blood (the atmosphere of the body) meets air (atmosphere of the world). Oxygen passes from air to blood; carbon dioxide, from blood to air. Then, the exhale pushes that carbon dioxide back out the mouth and nose. Capillaries channel newly oxygenated blood back to the heart. That oxygen fuels the body. Thats why we breathe. Today, these basics of human respiration and metabolism feel obvious - and ventilators, the machines that breathe for sick people, do, too. We have so many medical devices, so of course wed need, and have, machines that help us to breathe. But ...
Your lungs have an arrangement of tubes that do oxygen in and as you relax.. The windpipe isolates into two tubes, the correct bronchus and left bronchus. These split into littler tubes called auxiliary bronchi. They split again to make littler tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles have little air sacs toward the end called alveoli.. Noticeable all around sacs, oxygen goes into your circulatory system from the air took in. Your circulatory system conveys oxygen to every one of the cells in your body. In the meantime carbon dioxide goes from your circulatory system into the air sacs. This waste gas is expelled from the body as you inhale out.. ...
As there are lots of conditions associated with lungs, they can be classified in several different ways. When it comes to physiologic types we can say there are three types of lung diseases. They are as follows. Obstructive Lung Disease: This type of lung disease is brought on because of the obstruction in the airways due the narrowing or congestion. Some of the diseases which can be included in this category are asthma, emphysema and bronchitis. Limited Lung Disease: This sort of lung disease is a result of the inability of the lungs to hold the air within the air sacs. Hard to stick to lung disease is actually either as a result of decline in the elasticity of the lungs or the growth of the chest walls. The last category is for the conditions which are related to the inability of the air sacs to supply air or to move it to the blood. This results in the lack of oxygen in the blood as well as in the body. List of Lung Diseases ...
Emphysema Emphysema is a condition that is typically designated by gradual destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs which ensure inhaled oxygen is transferred to the system as well as carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and air pollution tend to be said to result in emphysema. Usually, the particular alveoli are usually flexible but with emphysema their own elasticity is impaired. As a result, the alveoli are usually unable home off carbon dioxide and other impurities appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and is then then shortness of breath and prolonged coughing ...
COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It refers to two long-term lung diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema -- that often occur together. COPD makes it difficult for you to breathe. There is no cure for COPD, but you can take steps to manage the disease.. If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with COPD, you probably have many questions. Here are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about living with COPD, its symptoms, treatment, and causes.. 1. What happens to my lungs if I have COPD?. Tubes, called airways, carry air in and out of your lungs. If you have COPD, these airways may become partially blocked from swelling or mucus. This makes it more difficult to breathe.. At the end of the airways are many tiny balloon-like air sacs, which inflate and deflate when you breathe in and out. With COPD, these air sacs lose their elasticity. This can lead to the collapse of small airways and also make it more difficult for you to breathe.. 2. What causes ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF , Fibrosi Polmonare Idiopatica) is a disease characterized by progressive scarring, or fibrosis, of the lungs. It is a specific type of interstitial lung disease in which the small air sacs of the lung, known as alveoli, gradually become replaced by fibrotic (scar) tissue. The abnormal fibrosis and scar formation typically begins in the terminal areas of the pulmonary tree lining the air sacs where gas exchange occurs. Normally, this tissue is a thin layer consisting of a few, easily permeable cells. With IPF, progressive scarring causes the normally thin and pliable tissue to thicken and become stiff, making it more difficult for the lungs to expand, preventing oxygen from readily getting into the bloodstream. ...
Emphysema is a condition that is typically marked by steady destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs in which ensure inhaled oxygen will be transferred to the system and also carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the appropriate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and associated with the are usually said to result in emphysema. Usually, the actual alveoli are usually stretchy but with emphysema their own elasticity is actually impaired. As a result, the particular alveoli tend to be unable residence off carbon dioxide and other harmful particles appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and it is then followed by shortness of breath and continual coughing ...
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Before we know necrotizing pneumonia, we need to know what pneumonia is?. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one lung or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or phlegm, [READ MORE]. ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0. Head large; eyes large; snout moderately pointed, its anterolateral margin incompletely supported by bone. Head ridges rather weakly scaled, other head scales mostly without spinules; the dorsal and ventral snout surfaces mostly naked. Spines on lower jaw and pectoral girdle without spinules. Light organ large, lens-shaped black fossa between the pelvic fin bases. Swim bladder oval, with 6 to 11 short retia mirabilia and gas glands. Pyloric caeca 10 to 14. Overall color is light brown to swarthy, somewhat silvery ventrally, with heavy punctuations; mouth pale, blackish along tongue base; gill cavity blackish, paler with punctuations toward inner surfaces. ...
In the physics worldview we posit a prestated phase space within which we can conduct a calculus of possible trajectories within that space. This is the basis of Maxwells Demon - the imagination of an intelligence that can be aware of all the current bits (and their states) with the consequence that the future could then be simply foreseen as the inevitable computation of trajectories of the existing bits. Kauffman gives another example of evolution selecting a fish with a swim bladder. This process fits well with developments in the physics pre-stated space as the causal webs that shape the evolving fish-with-swim-bladder-in-environment event. However, when a micro-organism inhabits the swim-bladder turning it into a niche - this was not prestateable, it was a-causal in the swim-bladder was not selected for to be a niche. However, once existant - becoming a niche was an adjacent possible that enabled a micro-organism to actualize an affordance (as adjacent possible). Kauffman says that ...
We have reconstructed the events that led to the evolution of a key physiological innovation underpinning the large adaptive radiation of fishes, namely their unique ability to secrete molecular oxygen (O2). We show that O2 secretion into the swimbladder evolved some 100 million years after another O2-secreting system in the eye. We unravel the likely sequence in which the functional components of both systems evolved. These components include ocular and swimbladder countercurrent exchangers, the Bohr and Root effects, the buffering power and surface histidine content of hemoglobins, and red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange activity. Our synthesis reveals the dynamics of gains and losses of these multiple traits over time, accounting for part of the huge diversity of form and function in living fishes.. ...
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Before there were land animals, certain fish developed a swim bladder, which they could fill with gas, usually air. This allowed the fish to stay at a given depth without expending energy on swimming. The swim bladder probably was, in some species, also helpful for stability, and maybe also as a resonating chamber to produce or receive sound. The swim bladder evolved into the lung of the earliest lungfish - and from there into the lungs of land animals. Something that evolved for one purpose or set of purposes (buoyancy, stability, sonic resonance) was appropriated for a very different purpose (breathing air). A device for staying at a given depth in water turned into the essential step for moving onto land ...
A true fish is cold-blooded, breathes through gills on each side, and depends al-most entirely on water for life. It has a bony skeleton and a long-shaped body, narrowing at the tail. The fins at various parts of its body are used for steering, balancing, and moving it forward. An air bladder, often called swim bladder, helps it maintain bal-ance to rise, descend, and adjust to water pressure. It has a heart which has two principal chambers: the atrium and ventricle. It reproduces by laying eggs ...
Müller, Tamás and Molnár, Tamás Gergely and Szabó, András and Yamaha, E. and Szigetváriné Dr. Járási, Éva Zsuzsanna and Bercsényi, Miklós and Specziár, András and Urbányi, Béla and Romvári, Róbert (2012) In vivo tracking of maturation in male european eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) by computed tomography. ACTA BIOLOGICA HUNGARICA, 63 (2). pp. 180-188. ISSN 0236-5383 ...
Looking for online definition of anal sacculitis in the Medical Dictionary? anal sacculitis explanation free. What is anal sacculitis? Meaning of anal sacculitis medical term. What does anal sacculitis mean?
The adult nematode Anguillicola crassus is covered by a soft wrinkled outer cuticle. Males measure 20-60 mm while females measure 47-71.5 mm. The mouth has a circular opening surrounded by 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids. Males have 6 pairs of caudal papillae. Females posses a cone-shaped vuvla on the posterior end of the body and a white uterus which occupies most of the body housing copious amounts of eggs.. Symptoms: Infection from A. crassu can occur as early as the glass eel stage resulting in acute inflammatory reactions such as fibrosis and fibrotic conglomerates in the swimbladder. Scar tissue build up causes constriction of the intestine and can lead to rupture of the swimbladder. Emaciation from the swimbladder rupture can increase risk of bacterial infection resulting in increased mortality rate. Further vulnerability to secondary bacterial infection results from increased cortisol levels when infected with this nematode.. Host(s): European eel (Anguilla anguilla), American ...
Looking for online definition of airsacculitis in the Medical Dictionary? airsacculitis explanation free. What is airsacculitis? Meaning of airsacculitis medical term. What does airsacculitis mean?
幼 成鰻棲息河川 河口 潟湖3喜鑽洞潛居3以蝦 蟹 貝 海蟲維生的肉食者》每年秋季成熟的鰻魚3其眼徑變大3內臟萎縮3生殖腺肥大3體色由黃褐變銀灰色3將開始作長途的產卵洄游作準備3經常選擇一個沒有月亮的夜晚3由河川降海在到大西洋的馬尾藻海產卵3其受精卵會在春季和夏初被發現3幼體時期(柳葉鰻 Leptocephalus(則利用三年時間向歐洲遷移》有如玻璃鰻(glass eels(3歐洲鰻鱺可以到達歐洲沿岸及進入河口》進入淡水前歐洲鰻鱺變成鰻線(elvers(》她們把大半生花在淡水中》雖然近期與歐洲鰻鱺有關的日本鰻鱺(Japanese eel,Anguilla ...
The syndrome known as gastric dilation air sacculitis (GDAS) has previously been shown to affect Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in seawater (SW) aquaculture. Feed and osmoregulatory stress have been implicated as potential epidemiological co-factors. The development and physiology of GDAS was investigated in SW and freshwater (FW) adapted smolts. Diet A (low-cohesion pellets) and diet B (high-cohesion pellets) were fed to both FW- and SW-adapted fish. GDAS was induced only in the SW trial on feeding diet A. Stimulated gastro-intestinal (GI) smooth muscle contractility, and fluid transport by the pyloric caeca were different in GDAS-affected fish, which also showed osmoregulatory dysfunction. Cardiac stomach (CS) smooth muscle contractility in response to acetylcholine and potassium chloride (KCl) was significantly reduced in fish fed diet A relative to controls from weeks 3-5. In contrast, maximal pyloric sphincter (PS) circular smooth muscle contraction in response to KCl was ...
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a euryhaline species, that has adapted to cope with both, hyper- and hypo-osmotic environments. This study investigates the effect of salinity, from a morphological...
Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J., McEvoy, J. and Peters, L. D. (2003) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in European eels Anguilla anguilla from United Kingdom estuaries. The Science of The Total Environment, 301 (1-3). pp. 105-117. ISSN 0048-9697 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7015 Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J. and McCalley, D. V. (2002) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three species of fish from the Severn Estuary. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 51 (2). pp. 97-105. ISSN 0147-6513 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7012 Telli-Karakoç, F., Ruddock , P., Bird, D. J., Hewer, A., Van Schanke, A., Phillips, D. and Peters, L. (2002) Correlative changes in metabolism and DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Marine Environmental Research, 54 (3-5). pp. 511-515. ISSN 0141-1136 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7013 ...
da Silva, F FG, H Tveiten, Gersende Maugars, Anne-Gaelle Lafont, Sylvie Dufour, J G Støttrupa, E Kjørsvikd, et J Tomkiewicz. 2018. « Differential Expression Of Gonadotropin And Estrogen Receptors And Oocyte Cytology During Follicular Maturation Associated With Egg Viability In European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla) ». Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology, Part A 221: 44-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2018.03.010 ...
Churcher AM, Pujolar JMartin, Milan M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;16:28-35. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2015.07.002 ...
Churcher AM, Pujolar JMartin, Milan M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;16:28-35. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2015.07.002 ...
In fishes the membranous labyrinth is complete with three semicircular canals, and in many teleosts it is connected to the air bladder by a duct or a chain of bony Weberian ossicles.. In tetrapoda the change of en-vironment from water to land necessitated formation of structures to conduct vibrations conveyed through air, thus a middle ear or tympa-nic cavity was formed from the first gill cleft or spiracle of fishes.. A tympanic membrane covers the middle ear and small bones come to lie in it for transmitting vibrations.. All tetrapods have a middle ear with a Eustachian tube connecting it to the pharynx. In mammals an external ear or pinna is formed, though its beginnings are seen/in some reptiles and birds.. The external ear catches and directs sound waves to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.. ...
The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each breath.. The tissue around these air sacs is called the interstitium. In people with interstitial lung disease, this tissue becomes stiff or scarred, and the air sacs are not able to expand as much. As a result, not as much oxygen can get to the body.. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can occur without a known cause. This is called idiopathic ILD. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common disease of this type.. There are also dozens of known causes of ILD, including:. ...
So Im having a problem with my goldfishs swim bladder. Hes a calico goldfish, almost four years old, and lives in a clean 20 gal tank with a heater set to 72. He didnt have any swim bladder problems until recently, and hes been acting weird. He was doing some swimming upside down, so I tried some home remedies, like feeding him a pea and fasting him. Both remedies worked, but I knew neither were long-term solutions, so I went to my local Petco and asked for some advice. Hed always
A disease of turkeys characterised by respiratory and skeletal problems caused by Mycoplasma meleagridis. The organism has also been isolated from raptors, it occurs in most turkey-producing countries but is now much rarer in commercial stock. In adult birds though infection rates are high, morbidity may be minimal. Pathogenicity is quite variable. Mortality is low, though up to 25% of infected birds show lesions at slaughter ...
Each tracheal tube develops as an invagination of the ectoderm during embryonic development. To prevent its collapse under pressure, a thin, reinforcing wire of cuticle (the taenidia) winds spirally through the membranous wall. This design (similar in structure to a heater hose on an automobile or an exhaust duct on a clothes dryer) gives tracheal tubes the ability to flex and stretch without developing kinks that might restrict air flow.. The absence of taenidia in certain parts of the tracheal system allows the formation of collapsible air sacs, balloon-like structures that may store a reserve of air. In dry terrestrial environments, this temporary air supply allows an insect to conserve water by closing its spiracles during periods of high evaporative stress. Aquatic insects consume the stored air while under water or use it to regulate buoyancy. During a molt, air sacs fill and enlarge as the insect breaks free of the old exoskeleton and expands a new one. Between molts, the air sacs ...
John Ruben et al. (1997, 1999, 2003, 2004) disputed this and suggested that dinosaurs had a tidal respiratory system (in and out) powered by a crocodile-like hepatic piston mechanism - muscles attached mainly to the pubis pull the liver backwards, which makes the lungs expand to inhale; when these muscles relax, the lungs return to their previous size and shape, and the animal exhales. They also presented this as a reason for doubting that birds descended from dinosaurs.[5][6][7][8][9]Critics have claimed that, without avian air sacs, modest improvements in a few aspects of a modern reptiles circulatory and respiratory systems would enable the reptile to achieve 50% to 70% of the oxygen flow of a mammal of similar size,[10] and that lack of avian air sacs would not prevent the development of endothermy.[11] Very few formal rebuttals have been published in scientific journals of Ruben et al.s claim that dinosaurs could not have had avian-style air sacs; but one points out that the ...
pronounce: new-mo thor-axe). Say WHAT?!. Yea, thats what its called. Pneumo means air and thorax means chest. So, its air in the chest. I know what you are probably saying….isnt air SUPPOSED to be in the chest? Well….yes and no. Let me explain.. The chest obviously protects a few different organs (like the heart, esophagus and some major blood vessels), as well as the lungs. The lungs are a spongey type of tissue. They are made up of millions of little tiny air sacs. These air sacs have little tiny blood vessels in the walls. The air that we breath in, goes into the air sacs and the oxygen in the air can go into the little tiny blood vessels in the walls of the little tiny sacs. The oxygen is then carried to the rest of the bodys tissues through the blood.. So thats more or less how the lungs work….but how do they fit in this whole pneumothorax thing? Well, the lungs usually take up the entire space of the chest on the left and right where the other organs dont live. The ...
On Sat, 5/16/09, David Marjanovic ,[email protected], wrote: , From: David Marjanovic ,[email protected], , Subject: Re: Pneumaticity in Triassic pterosaurs , To: [email protected], DML ,[email protected], , Date: Saturday, May 16, 2009, 1:45 PM , ----- Original Message ----- From: David Peters , ,[email protected], , Sent: Saturday, May 16, 2009 3:54 PM , , , [1] There is no monophyletic Diapsida containing , Archos and Lepidos. [2] Did I not send you my tree? [3] Your , tree problem may be due to the assumption of monophyly in , Diapsids. , , (1) You mean the upper temporal fenestra evolved twice? Yes. (2) , Yes, four years ago, along with the character list and a , weird list that was meant to indicate where state 1 of which , character occurs. It led to a long discussion. I remember , some highlights. -- Not that long ago, you submitted that , thing for publication (after having accepted my , nomenclatural advice, but apparently not any other). I know , that because my ...
In the above cases, we used the ultrasound to observe three abnormal air patterns that should alert the clinician to an intra-abdominal pathology, namely intraperitoneal air (case#2), portal venous gas (case#1), and intramural air (case#1).. Intraperitoneal air can be seen using the liver as an acoustic window. Indeed, the liver offers a unique echogenic window. Although the hepatic flexure of the colon can sometimes be found interposed, there is generally no bowel that creates artifact in the right upper quadrant. Free air will accumulate anteriorly in the supine position and create an air artifact interfering with the normal liver texture (Fig. 1). It is of importance not to press deeply with the ultrasound probe as this can shift small amount of free air away from the US field. This phenomenon of air interposition should be considered abnormal and is similar to the lung point shadow that occurs in a pneumothorax where ultrasound reveals loss of normal lung sliding [10]. We propose the term ...
The presence of pneumaticity in theropod dinosaurs was originally thought to be something leading towards birds, as the efficient respiratory system is believed to be what allows birds to be so successful, allowing for better breathing during flight. However, the exact timing of the bird-like respiratory system has been unclear and controversial. A new study, lead by Akinobu Watanabe from the American Museum of Natural History, and published in PLOS ONE, looked at the presence of postcranial pneumaticity in Archaeornithomimus and other ornithomimosaur dinosaurs, a group of theropods not directly on the branch to modern birds. Using CT scans, they were able to show that Archaeornithomimus had pneumatic cervical (neck), dorsal (back), and caudal (tail) vertebrae, but there was no unequivocal evidence of pneumatic sacral vertebrae, although there were some possible pneumatic fossae. Watanabe et al. (2015) also looked at other ornithomimosaurs to look at the evolution of pneumaticity in this group, ...
How to aspirate a swim bladder - Oscar Fish Advice Forum :: Topic: Swollen abdomen and not able to.... Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder resulting in sound production. Here we describe the sonic mechanism for Ophidion barbatum, which …
The white-breasted cormorant has adapted to balance thermoregulation and the need to reduce buoyancy to chase fish. Although they have an oil gland, they dont appear to use it to waterproof feathers since that would retain air bubbles. They also have dense bones, low body fat and much-reduced air sacs in the respiratory system, which all decrease buoyancy. The outer vane of each feather becomes soaked; the vane around the rachis (the central shaft) is waterproof so that a thin insulating layer of air is retained when the cormorant dives, important for a bird with little body fat. The small air sacs help maintain heat too since the function of larger sacs is similar to sweating except that heat exchange takes place internally through radiation and vaporization. The small gular sac also radiates heat rapidly because capillaries are concentrated beneath its surface. The white-breasted cormorant can speed this process up by fluttering the sac. Its lack of buoyancy can be observed in its surface ...
Breathing is the first step in respiration. For respiration to happen, the body needs a constant supply of oxygen, which is done by breathing. Inhalation is the breathing in of air. To inhale, the lungs expand, decreasing the air pressure in the lungs. This is caused by two actions. The diaphragm (a sheet of muscular tissue that separates the lungs from the abdomen) is pulled downward. Also the muscles between the ribs contract to expand the chest. Both of these actions expand the lungs. To fill the enlarged lungs, air from outside at higher pressure comes rushing into the area of low pressure in the lungs.[1] Air first passes through the nose and mouth, then through the larynx (voice box), then down the trachea (windpipe), and into the lungs and comes out. The lungs are made of many tubes or branches. As air enters the lungs, it first goes through branches called the bronchi, then through smaller branches called bronchioles, and finally into the air sacs. Gas exchange occurs in the air sacs ...
What does this mean for pterosaur lung structure overall? Its well known that pterosaur skeletons and bodies were pneumatised to the same extent, if not more, than avian dinosaurs, prompting suggestions that pterosaurs also had solid avian-like lungs and similar unidirectional flow-through pulmonary mechanics (Claessens et al. 2009). Do the observations of Geist et al. (2014) refute this? Well, not really, but they dont support them, either. As Geist et al. point out: we really dont know anything concrete about pterosaur lung structure, and its actually pretty hard to tell anything about them from bones alone. A bird-like lung may have been present in pterosaurs and would certainly be consistent with extensive skeletal pneumaticity. However, we need to be careful about exclusively linking extensive pneumaticity with bird-like respiratory organs: flying fish, which of course have no lungs at all, also have pneumatised skeletons thanks to outgrowths of their swim bladders (Geist et al. 2014). ...
Asthma -A disease in which the air passages of the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis -Inflammation of the air passages of the lungs. Chronic -Refers to a disease or condition that progresses slowly but persists or recurs over time. Cough suppressant -A medication that stops or prevents coughing. Emphysema -A chronic respiratory disease that involves the destruction of air sac walls to form abnormally large air sacs that have reduced gas exchange ability and that tend to retain air within the lungs. Symptoms include labored breathing, the inability to forcefully blow air out of the lungs, and an increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. Emphysema is usually caused by smoking. Mucus -The thick fluid produced by the mucous membranes that line many body cavities and structures. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and shed cells, and it serve to lubricate body parts and to trap particles of ...
Certain songbirds can contract their vocal muscles 100 times faster than humans can blink an eye - placing the birds with a handful of animals that have evolved superfast muscles, University of Utah researchers found.
Harrison and Socha first noticed a problem while they were doing synchrotron X-rays of grasshoppers to study their air sacs, which are a bit like lungs. The results didnt seem to make sense. We thought we had made a mistake, Socha said.. Then they realized that they hadnt been paying attention to whether the grasshopper was head up or head down in the container that held it.. Grasshoppers, like other insects, get oxygen through tubes, or trachea that are open to the outside air and branch into smaller and smaller tubes in the insects body. All insects have these, and some have air sacs, to store and pump air, as grasshoppers do.. It turned out that the tubes were more compressed at the bottom of the animal, because gravity was causing the grasshopper equivalent of blood to sink to the bottom half of the animal.. This is similar to what happens when humans stand up quickly and become lightheaded, or the way blood goes to the head during a headstand. Humans have valves in the circulatory ...
Its called acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS. That means the lungs are filled with fluid. And its notable for the way the X-ray looks: The entire lung is basically whited out from fluid. Patients with ARDS are extremely difficult to oxygenate. It has a really high mortality rate, about 40%. The way to manage it is to put a patient on a ventilator. The additional pressure helps the oxygen go into the bloodstream.. Normally, ARDS is something that happens over time as the lungs get more and more inflamed. But with this virus, it seems like it happens overnight. When youre healthy, your lung is made up of little balloons. Like a tree is made out of a bunch of little leaves, the lung is made of little air sacs that are called the alveoli. When you breathe in, all of those little air sacs inflate, and they have capillaries in the walls, little blood vessels. The oxygen gets from the air in the lung into the blood so it can be carried around the body.. Typically with ARDS, the lungs ...
nce blood travels through the pulmonic valve, it enters your lungs. This is called the pulmonary circulation. From your pulmonic valve, blood travels to the pulmonary artery to tiny capillary vessels in the lungs. Here, oxygen travels from the tiny air sacs in the lungs, through the walls of the capillaries, into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, passes from the blood into the air sacs. Carbon dioxide leaves the body when you exhale. Once the blood is purified and oxygenated, it travels back to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. ...
Oxygen in high concentrations is a toxic gas, and, as may be expected, the lung is the predominant target. The direct action of oxygen and the resultant pulmonary signs and symptoms are related to structural damage in the lung. Pulmonary cells are not equally susceptible to hyperoxia; a distinctive pattern of injury has been established,, a differential susceptibility resembling that observed after irradiation. Continuous inhalation of 90% oxygen by mice results, within a few days, in interstitial edema which appears to be related directly to injury to pulmonary vascular endothelium. With continued exposure for 5 to 7 days, 80-90% of the animals die; the lungs of these animals are solid and airless and the alveolar ducts and air sacs are lined with fibrin-containing hyaline membranes. This catastrophic event is a consequence of disintegration of the type 1 epithelium that lines the air sacs. Type 2 cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar cells are much less sensitive to hyperoxia, and necrosis of
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The anti-angiogenic effects of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined by the mouse dorsal air sac assay. PSK suppressed the mouse hepatoma MH134-induced angiogenesis when assessed by morphological and biochemical examinations. This finding suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of PSK is attributed to the suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis.[...]
In periods of reduced visibility or whenever a vessel operator needs to signal his or her intentions or position, a sound-producing device is essential. The navigation rules for meeting head-on, crossing, and overtaking situations are examples of when sound signals are required.. The following requirements apply to vessels operating on state or federally controlled waters.. ...
Matt Wedel, a sauropod palaeontologist, does a lot of work on the pneumaticity in sauropod vertebrae and realised that there was no way of quantifying pneumaticity within a single bone. He proposed using the Air Space Proportion (ASP), a ratio of the cross-sectional area of the air-filled section compared to the total cross-sectional area [2]. From 0-1, an ASP closer to 1 indicates a bone that is mainly full of air, vs. closer to 0, which is mainly bone. He started doing this on sauropod vertebrae and comparing the ASP between different sauropods and different vertebrae. While Matt came up with the idea of ASP, several people in the past of used the K value (the ratio of the internal to outer diameter) to compare the bone thickness of different bird and pterosaur bones. In a tubular bone, ASP is roughly equal to K^2 ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Wilker Aziz, Ruslan Mitkov, and Lucia Specia. s e sac Systems via Post-Editing. network theorists in Computer Science, thermal; 418, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.
Various states in India presently have their own systems for classifying goods for tax rate determination. However, with the coming Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime, theres a desire for more uniform classification - not just on the national level but internationally. Hence the move to the Harmonised System of Nomenclature (HSN) for goods and the Service Accounting Code (SAC) system for services. In this whitepaper, well focus on HSN codes as they relate to GST.
Ive been reading a lot about the trends in health and fitness for 2016. Since were already almost 3 weeks into the year, you might have seen some of those already!. A few key points have caught my eye:. First of all, fat is back. Were not talking about pile-driving a box of doughnuts, though. Instead, low-fat products with artificial ingredients are being kicked to the curb. This means we can embrace salmon, but we dont have to sauté it in a stick of butter. Naturally-occurring fats (eaten in moderation) are okay again, while artificial fillers, sweeteners and fat substitutes are not okay.. That leads right into the new diet trend: mindfulness. Weighing your food and counting your calories are out, while eating consciously is in. Sure, eat the cookie but savor it, which promotes the mind-body connection of eating just one, instead of mindlessly snacking on the whole package. Do you want the cookie? Be mindful that you might have to give something else up to keep balance.. Biodynamic is ...
And yes, its true - a straight run through the album is likely to leave most listeners breathless, slack-jawed, drooling, your eyes rolled back in your head with only the sclera showing.. The music is fast - really damned fast - and almost overpowering in its destructive force, a furious mix of deliberately monstrous and tyrannical mass execution and utterly deranged frenzies of violence. But theres more going on here than rampant obliteration - which Ill come to in a minute.. The main through-line of the album is as I said - a blinding hurricane of speed and power, composed of hyper-accelerated double-bass roaring and equally furious snare eruptions; layers of blizzard-like riffing segmented by blink-of-an-eye stop-starts, huge groaning chords, bursts of merciless, pile-driving hammer blows, and spidery fretboard skittering, leaping, pulsating, and squealing. Even when the drum rhythms slow to a pace you could imagine a normal human being executing, the guitarists and bassist are usually ...
Sean McDermott is sticking with Tyrod Taylor as the Bills starter so long as the quarterbacks bruised left knee holds up.. And Buffalos coach had nothing more to say Monday about Patriots tight end Rob Gronkowski pile-driving into the back of cornerback TreDavious Whites head.. Look, weve moved on, McDermott said a day after Taylor and White were hurt in a 23-3 loss to New England .. Tests revealed Taylor sustained a bruised patellar tendon, while White is being evaluated for a concussion.. WHEC: Read More. ...
The AB line is currently maintained by a Round Robin mating technique: Approximately 60-66 males and 30 females from several different generations are used to make each new generation. Sperm from the males is collected into 6 tubes. An individuals sperm is in only one tube. Eggs are obtained from each of the 30 females. Each clutch is divided and fertilized with sperm from several different tubes. The divided clutches are kept separate from each other. The 15 best looking embryos from each clutch are kept and scored for how many fish survive and produce swim bladders. To be selected for propagating the AB line, 13/15 (86.66%) of the fish must develop swim bladders ...
Dorsal soft rays (total): 31-42; Anal soft rays: 45 - 57; Vertebrae: 119 - 126. Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; maxilla free and movable; cardiform teeth present; branchiostegal membranes partly or completely united; swim bladder with thin terminal membrane or bulb; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone (Ref. 34024). Pectoral fins small, less than 29% head length; body thick, robust and highly pigmented (Ref. 34024). ...
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As far as I recall from my vet anatomy days, air passes into the lungs first and then on to the air sacs. When the bird breathes out, some air passes straight from sacs to trachea but most travels from sacs to lungs and then out. Birds have no diaphragm, and both inspiration and expiration are active processes that the bird performs by lifting and lowering its sternum. Hence gentle handling is necessary - as any sustained pressure on the breastbone will suffocate the bird ...
Inhabit coral rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Occur in small groups. Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Relatively unknown to American and European aquarists because this species has only been rarely imported. ...