The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as criteria air pollutants) are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
Meteorological parameters play a significant role in affecting ambient air quality of an urban environment. As Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is one of the air pollution hotspot among the megacities in the world, however the potential meteorological influences on criteria air pollutants for this megacity are remained less studied. The objectives of this research were to examine the relationships between meteorological parameters such as daily mean temperature (o C), relative humidity (%) and rainfall (mm) and, the concentration of criteria air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx, O3, PM2.5 and PM10) from January, 2013 to December, 2017. This study also focused on the trend analysis of the air pollutants concentration over the period. Spearman correlation was applied to illustrate the relationships between air pollutants concentration and temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Multiple linear and non-linear regressions were compared to explore potential role of meteorological parameters on air
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify new at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
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Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using volunteers in western New York for a period of three ...
This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for stationary combustion turbines. We have identified stationary combustion turbines as major sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emissions such as formaldehyde, toluene, benzene, and acetaldehyde. The NESHAP will implement section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) by requiring all major sources to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) for combustion.. ...
Toxic air pollutants, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants, are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease. They can be found in gaseous, aerosol, or particulate forms. Some toxic air pollutants (e.g., mercury) are persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which means they are stored indefinitely in the body and increase over time. These toxics can deposit onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants and are ingested by animals, with concentrations increasing as the toxics move up through the food chain to humans. Toxic air pollutants include, among others, formaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; naphthalene; arsenic and metals, such as cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead. Sources of hazardous air pollutants include stationary sources, such as power plants, factories, dry cleaners, and hospitals, as well as mobile sources such as cars, ...
Detailed information about the health effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is available in separate fact sheets, for nearly every HAP specified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. These substances include certain volatile organic chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, and radionuclides that present tangible hazard, based on scientific studies of exposure to humans and other mammals. There is uncertainty in the precise degree of hazard, and readers are cautioned that the fact sheets may be revised as additional data become available. The available fact sheets are listed below, alphabetically by chemical name, along with the Chemical Abstract Service Number (CAS No.), where available. ...
In this paper, it is shown that there are great differences in seasonal variations of concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants in various parts of a large urban territory. The city of Krasnoyarsk is used as an example. For this, an observation method proposed by the authors is used. The detected differences in seasonal variations are a consequence of the microclimatic inhomogeneities of the city territory. They show the effects of breeze and orographic-type circulations on the space-time distribution of atmospheric pollutants. The investigation of the seasonal variability of concentrations of atmospheric pollutants in various parts of the city has made it possible to obtain some useful characteristics for the estimation of population exposure. ...
Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency price comparison. Find great prices for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The state hazardous air pollutant rules at A.A.C. R18-2-1701 to R18-2-1709 are unenforceable as a result of the final judgment of the Maricopa County Superior Court in Oak Canyon Manufacturing, et al. v. Arizona State Department of Environmental Quality, CV 2006-018439. The rules apply solely to emissions of federally listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that exceed the de minimis amounts specified in the rule. The superior court, however, held that ADEQ does not have the authority to adopt de minimis amounts for federal HAPs.. ADEQ retains the statutory authority to designate state HAPs under A.R.S. § 49-426.04 ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); NESHAP; NESHAPS; Emission Stand
Current Affairs, GK & News related notes on Hazardous air pollutants topic for UPSC, Civil Services, Banking and other Competitive Examinations of India. Best current affairs & GK article on Hazardous air pollutants
WEDNESDAY, May 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) - Among children and adolescents, short- and long-term exposure to some ambient air pollutants may increase blood pressure, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published online May 4 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.. Miao Huang, M.D., from the Third Xiangya Hospital in Changsha, China, and colleagues examined the association between short- and long-term ambient air pollutant exposure and BP values among children and adolescents in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen articles were included in the meta-analysis.. The researchers observed a significant association between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter ⠤10 µm and elevated systolic BP values (à = 0.267). Long-term exposure to PM with diameter ⠤2.5 µm, PM with diameter ⠤10 µm, and nitrogen dioxide was associated with systolic BP values (à = 1.809, 0.526, and 0.754, respectively); long-term exposure to PM with ...
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied backwards to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies used to estimate the emissions for a specific time period will continue ...
A mothers exposure to urban air pollutants known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can adversely affect a childs intelligence quotient or IQ, a study reports.
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health impacts that may result from breathing it ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.. EPA estimates that the final rule will reduce mercury emissions by 1,460 pounds per year (down to about 1,200 pounds per year), or about a 77 percent reduction from 2007 levels.. Gold ore processing and production facilities extract gold from mined ore. ...
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative. ...
Boiler Tune up Guide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources Industrial Commercial and Institutional Boilers CFR Part Subpart JJJJJJ Wh at is a boiler tune up boil PowerPoint Presentation - In this Guide the term boiler tune up specifically refers to the activity to meet the requirements in the Boiler Area Source Rule 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart JJJJJJ The tune up activity is the act of reestablishing the air fuel mixture for the operating ID: 4591 Download Pdf
This presentation highlights several technologies used for emissions testing that deliver part per trillion level detection limits for a variety of hazardous air pollutants. These technologies have been incorporated into mobile vans so we can offer real-time results using MAX™, StarBoost™ and PTR. Download this presentation to see the overview of these technologies and the pros and cons of each.. ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
Local communities facing exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants. Its a key ongoing political issue that all companies emitting VOCs must tackle
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant levels than cyclists traveling in the same streets. ...
The overall objective of this dissertation was to examine the utility of incorporating source-meteorological interaction information from two commonly employed atmospheric dispersion models into the land use regression technique for predicting ambient NO2 and PM2.5. Ultimately, we are interested in obtaining highly resolved spatiotemporal pollutant estimates to examine the attenuation of health effect estimate bias that may result from exposure model misspecification. A multi-pollutant sampling campaign was conducted across six successive weekly sampling sessions in the summer and winter seasons of 2011-2013 in Pittsburgh, PA. As a preliminary investigation, predictions from a roadway dispersion model (Caline3) were included as an independent predictor in pre-constructed winter season LUR models for NO2. Caline3 output improved out-of-sample model fitness and added an additional portion of unexplained variation (3-10% by leave-one-out cross-validated R2) in NO2 observations compared to the ...
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
A new study found dramatic variation in air pollutions health effects among neighborhoods in the Bay Area. California Bay Areas air pollution.
Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution in a spatio-temporal ecological study requires representative concentrations of air pollutants to be constructed for each geographical unit and time period. Averaging concentrations in space and time is commonly carried out, but little is known about how robust the estimated health effects are to different aggregation functions. A second under researched question is what impact air pollution is likely to have in the future. We conducted a study for England between 2007 and 2011, investigating the relationship between respiratory hospital admissions and different pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2); ozone (O3); particulate matter, the latter including particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and less than 10 micrometers (PM10); and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Bayesian Poisson regression models accounting for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of pollution on disease
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. But when matter is transformed from one state to another, in the process of production, the earth is not capable of absorbing and assimilating many waste that are dumped on it. This results in pollution. Furthermore, an increase in the level of pollution over time may create problems for sustainable economic development. Therefore, the society has to find ways and means to resolve the conflict, between the increase in production on the one hand and the preservation of the environment on the other, when considering the inter-generational equity with respect to environmental quality.. This paper deals with industrial air pollutant which is a fund pollutant. Fund pollutants are pollutants for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Therefore the aim of pollution control, when dealing with air pollutants, is to keep the level of pollutants below the absorptive capacity of the environment. The paper deals with the various policy instruments, ...
This website was created to stimulate a dialogue on issues of concern to all of us in the form of a symposion. You are invited to contribute your thesis and anti-thesis to initiatives presented, and to include your proposal for best alternatives, based on regional and national conditions. Different perspectives will generate beneficial debate.. ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
Background & Aims: There is on-going and growing concern regarding acute and chronic human health effects associated with exposure to combustion-related air pollutants. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of novel methods for assessing exposure to combustion-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM),black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] in indoor and outdoor environments.Methods: The methods that were developed and evaluated included: mass and darkness/colour analysis of airborne particle samples; passive samplers; portable real time monitors; and GC-MS analysis of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs). These methods were used to measure PM, BC and NO₂ in indoor offices and outdoor streets in Glasgow city centre, and an industrial hydraulic fracturing test site in Poland.Results: Detailed evaluation and calibration of novel methods for darkness measurement of low mass particulate material specimens collected on filters were completed to ...
Introduction. The direct and indirect adverse effects caused by atmospheric pollution on the environment and human health necessitate the measurement and reporting of air quality on local, regional and global scales. The measurement and improvement of air quality in developed countries are considered a priority. In developing countries less emphasis is placed on environmental issues, because resources are mostly utilised for economic growth. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with elements of a developed country. Globally, southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollutants, for example a prominent NO2 hotspot is seen on global maps of NO2 satellite retrievals over the South African Highveld; based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect.1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised4 and are now ...
Laurent Alleman, associate professor, IMT Lille Douai, discusses how French scientists ranked the beauty contest of worst air pollutants. In its report published on June 28, 2018, the French Agency for Health Safety (ANSES) presented a list of 13 new priority air pollutants to monitor. Several air pollutants that are harmful…
HEUSCHNUPFEN + POLLENALLERGIE (PATHOLOGIE); STAUB (LUFTVERUNREINIGUNG); WIRKUNG VON UNGEWÖHNLICHER LUFTZUSAMMENSETZUNG UND LUFTFREMDSTOFFEN AUF DAS ATMUNGSSYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGIE); HAY FEVER + POLLEN ALLERGY (PATHOLOGY); DUST (AIR POLLUTION); EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL AIR COMPOSITION AND AIR POLLUTANTS ON RESPIRATION AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGY ...
In the metropolitan area of Barcelona, as well as in other Spanish cities, air quality is getting worse by the year. At the same time, projections of temperature and rainfall alert us to future increases in both parameters.1 In this context, studies assessing the influence of climate and air pollution in children, particularly in relation to respiratory diseases, are necessary. A recent systematic review confirmed the association between exposure to air pollutants (particulate matter with diameters ,2.5μm [PM2.5] and ,10μm [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulfur dioxide [SO2]) and the risk of hospital admission due to bronchiolitis.2 A study conducted in primary health care centres in Madrid concluded that NO2 levels (particularly those exceeding 40μg/m3) were associated with increases in paediatric respiratory disease.3 To our knowledge, no similar studies have been done in Barcelona.. As a pilot study, we analysed data for 391 patients from the metropolitan area of Barcelona admitted with ...
These Regulations implement Community legislation on ambient air quality assessment and management, air pollution and air quality standards. They require the attainment of air quality standards in respect of the concentration of various pollutants in ambient air and designate the National Assembly of Wales as the competent authority for purposes of ambient air quality assessment and management. They define functions of the National Assembly in relation to the attainment of standards and make pro
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
Increased use of active transportation can make direct and indirect contributions toward addressing both the health concerns arising from sedentary lifestyles and other societal transportation issues including congestion, environmental, and equity problems. However, in the process of cycling for transportation, cyclists themselves are exposed to multiple pollutants that could adversely impact their health. Although it has been found that the health benefits of cycling on an individual basis outweigh air pollution and safety impacts, pollutant exposure during a typical trip can be almost double depending on the mode of transport and specific route. The goal of this study is to better understand local cyclist exposure to air pollutants, specifically PM₂.₅. This mapping of pollutant exposure along cyclist routes at different times of day and with varying traffic volumes, can allow better planning of cyclist infrastructure and routing of cyclists in trip planners to minimize pollutant exposure ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. T2 - Milestone 2: Setting-up domains and approaches for the four target domains Trbovlje, Celje, Murska Sobota and Ljubljana. AU - Uhrner, Ulrich. AU - Jost, Silvia. AU - Reifeltshammer, Raphael Jakob. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. M3 - Bericht für Auftraggeber. BT - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. ER - ...
Topic : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition. Presented by : Dr. Pandurangappa C, C M Suresha, Lakshminarayanachari K, M Siddalinga Prasad. Other Details : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition International journal of engineering, sciences and Technology Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35-143.. Category : ...
Throughout the world, urban and agricultural communities have become more spatially intertwined resulting in blurred land use boundaries. Thousands of persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from primary and secondary sources.
Lung health is directly impacted by the air we breathe; learn about air pollutant health risks and the Clean Air Act from the Firm today.
This webinar showcases data disclosed by subnational governments on short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) action from the Europe region to CDP, and is the first in series of webinars providing feedback from 3 regions around the world. Information will also be shared on how cities, states and regions can join the BreatheLife campaign to raise awareness of the health and climate benefits from reducing SLCPs and other air pollutants.. CDP is the official reporting platform for C40 Cities, supporting almost 90% of C40 cities in annual reporting. In addition, CDP also serves as an official reporting platform for the Compact of Mayors and the Under2 Coalition.. The reporting of actions taken by states and regions to reduce short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) emissions directly supports the implementation of the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, country action plans (including Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs) and sectoral plans to effectively tackle climate change and air ...
This polygon shapefile identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5) and have been designated nonattainment. This category of particle pollution measurement monitors fine particles, such as those found in smoke and haze, that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller. These particles can be directly emitted from sources such as forest fires, or they can form when gases emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles react in the air. The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called criteria pollutants. Under provisions of the Clean Air Act, which is intended to improve the quality of the air we breathe, EPA sets limits on how much of a pollutant can be in the air anywhere in the United States. This ensures that all Americans have the same basic health and ...
Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Risk and Exposure Assessments for Secondary (Welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Integrated Science Assessment for Secondary (Welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensitivity of hazardous air pollutant emissions to the combustion of blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel. AU - Magara- Gomez, Kento T.. AU - Olson, Michael R.. AU - Okuda, Tomoaki. AU - Walz, Kenneth A.. AU - Schauer, James J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Emission rates and composition of known hazardous air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a commercial agriculture tractor, burning a range of biodiesel blends operating at two different load conditions were investigated to better understand the emission characteristics of biodiesel fuel. Ultra-Low Sulfur Petroleum Diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean oil and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 50% (B50) and 100% (B100) soybean oil based biodiesel, and 50% (B50T) and 100% (B100T) beef tallow biodiesel. Samples were collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Particulate matter and ...
Indoor Air Pollutants. An indoor air pollutant is a substance that is present inside buildings that has a harmful health effect on the occupants of the building. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental hazard.. Indoor air pollutants have become a serious problem in recent years due to efforts by builders to make homes and other buildings more energy efficient. Modern buildings are built to restrict the flow of air from the inside out and vice versa. These new building practices work well to save energy. However, reduced airflow in a building can cause air quality problems in three ways.. ...
Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for the Perth Metropolitan area in order ... read more to estimate air pollutant concentrations across Perth. The most important predictor for PM10 was green spaces. Heavy vehicle traffic load was found to be the strongest predictor for PM2.5Abs. Traffic variables were observed to be the important contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 elements in Perth, except for PM2.5??V which had distance to coast as the predominant predictor. Open green spaces explained more of the variability in the PM10 elements than for PM2.5 elements, and population density was more important for PM2.5 elements than for PM10 elements. The PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs LUR models explained 67% and 82% of the variance, respectively, but the PM10 ...
and HCHO/NO2 indicate VOC-limited chemistry in major urban areas throughout the year and in other non-urban areas in winter, but NOX-limited chemistry in most areas in summer.. 1. Introduction. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics are the pollutants known to cause serious effects on human health, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and other organ system problems and adverse environmental issues. 188 air toxics are identified and regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act. HAPs are emitted from a variety of sources, including large manufacturing facilities, combustion facilities, small commercial, and both onroad and nonroad mobile sources [1]. In contrast with criteria air pollutants CAPs such as O3 and PM2.5, HAPs are normally controlled by state or local air toxics monitoring programs rather than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) [2]. In recent years, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has launched several programs (e.g., National Air Toxics Assessment), in ...
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Re: Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2015-0072. Dear Dr. Jenkins,. The Clean Air Act (CAA) and its Amendments (CAAA) mandate the use of the latest science in establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and other so-called criteria pollutants. That science has been the foundation of 50 years of EPA policies to clean and protect the air we breathe.. The Administrators proposal, submitted on April 14, 2020, refuses to improve the NAAQS for PM and does not follow in the tradition of the NAAQS review and decision process as required under the CAA. The normal review process typically takes years to complete, but the Administrators deeply flawed process was done in a matter of months. This is insufficient time to consider the full body of diverse scientific evidence. Historically, the agency assembles a panel of expert scientists to help review the recent ...
The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These gu
Based on air pollution levels at 5 a.m on Sept. 4, a Stage 1 Air Pollution Health Advisory has been issued for Mono County communities by the local air pollution control district. Due to elevated particulate pollution levels, children, the elderly, people with heart or lung problems, or people with current illnesses such as the flu, are advised to stay indoors and avoid strenuous outdoor activities in the impacted areas.. Smoke conditions may change quickly. Both Mono County and Owens Valley communities may have impacts throughout the holiday weekend. If you have any questions please visit http://www.gbuapcd.org/ or call the Great Basin Air Pollution Control District office in Bishop at 760-872-8211.. Health advisories on the web: http://www.gbuapcd.org/healthadvisory. Rough Fire air impacts: http://www.gbuapcd.org/Roughfire.htm. Rough Fire Air Quality Report: http://gbuapcd.org/20150904_RoughFireARAReport.pdf. US Forest Service BlueSky smoke forecast: ...
Castle Hayne 2005 SO2 Monitoring Data (Sorted by Date) 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/11/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.83 23 96 04 5 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/12/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 4.35 23 96 09 21 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/13/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.87 23 96 14 7 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/14/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.00 23 96 20 8 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/15/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 0.60 20 83 03 2 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/16/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 4.83 23 96 12 20 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/17/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.13 23 96 10 4 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/18/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 1.83 23 96 10 9 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/19/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 1.57 23 96 11 4 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/20/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 3.96 23 96 12 19 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/21/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.91 23 96 08 13 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/22/2005 1 HOUR ...
The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 (Pub.L. 84-159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322) was the first Clean Air Act (United States) enacted by Congress to address the national environmental problem of air pollution on July 14, 1955. This was an act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control. The act left states principally in charge of prevention and control of air pollution at the source. The act declared that air pollution was a danger to public health and welfare, but preserved the primary responsibilities and rights of the states and local government in controlling air pollution. The act put the federal government in a purely informational role, authorizing the United States Surgeon General to conduct research, investigate, and pass out information relating to air pollution and the prevention and abatement thereof. Therefore, The Air Pollution Control Act contained no provisions for the federal government to actively combat air pollution by punishing ...
The human health effects of exposure to tropospheric outdoor air pollutants, which include both particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, have gained prominence as a global public health concern. Indeed, the most recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report lists outdoor air pollution as a leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years, accounting for an estimated ,3 million premature deaths per year globally [1, 2], as well as similarly large numbers of deaths associated with indoor air pollution exposures (e.g. biomass and coal burning smoke). However, outdoor air pollution exposures and trends are quite disparate in different parts of the globe: the principal community air pollutants monitored for regulatory purposes, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and ozone, have generally (but not universally) shown declining concentrations in the developed nations in recent years, while in the low- and middle-income countries ...
The Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) of EPA recently made available a draft report, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September 21,...
BACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohns disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment. Air pollution data were obtained from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. Residential exposure was assessed with land-use regression models for particulate matter with diameters of |10 μm (PM10), |2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Although air pollution was not significantly
Kathmandu Valley is one of the largest and most polluted metropolitan regions in the Himalayan foothills. Rapidly expanding urban sprawl and a growing fleet of vehicles, and industrial facilities such as brick factories across the valley have led to conditions where ambient concentrations of key gaseous air pollutants are expected to exceed Nepals National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. In order to understand the spatial variation of the trace gases in the Kathmandu Valley, passive samples of SO2, NOx, NO2, NH3, and O3 were collected simultaneously from fifteen locations between March and May 2013. A follow-up study during two separate campaigns in 2014 sampled these gases, except ammonia, one site at a time from thirteen urban, suburban and rural stationary sites. In 2013, urban sites were observed to have higher weekly averaged NO2 and SO2 (22.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3 and 14.5 ± 11.1 μg m-3, respectively) than sub-urban sites (9.2 ± 3.9 μg ...
Research Report 196, Developing Multipollutant Exposure Indicators of Traffic Pollution: The Dorm Room Inhalation to Vehicle Emissions (DRIVE) Study, describes a study by Dr. Jeremy A. Sarnat that evaluated single- and multipollutant metrics of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near and farther away from a major highway in Atlanta, as well as biological markers in a
Traffic-related air pollution is a main contributor to unhealthy ambient air quality, particularly in urban areas with high traffic volume. Within urban areas, traffic is a major source of local variability in air pollution levels, with the highest concentrations and risk of exposure occurring near roads. Motor vehicle emissions represent a complex mixture of criteria air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM), as well as hydrocarbons that react with NOx and sunlight to form ground-level ozone. Individually, each of these pollutants is a known or suspected cause of adverse health effects (1-4). Taking into consideration the entire body of evidence on primary traffic emissions, a recent review determined that there is sufficient evidence of a causal association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and asthma exacerbation and suggestive evidence of a causal association for onset of childhood asthma, nonasthma respiratory ...
The aim of this thesis is to enhance the knowledge on exposure to size fractions of airborne particulate matter and their components and to find more intensive information on sources of indoor and outdoor size fractionated particles. In the first part of the study, the physical and chemical characteristics of indoor, outdoor, and personal quasi-ultrafine ...
If youre planning to exercise, which is really important, maybe take into account what the air quality alert is for that day, and if its going to be a high pollution day, dont exercise outside, she says. Exercise inside or rearrange your schedule to exercise at the time of day when air pollution is lower or in a park thats not close to a busy roadway. If youre at home and its a hot day out, rather than opening the windows, turn on the air conditioning to keep pollution out ...
The 1970 Clean Air Act required states to develop State Implementation Plans for how they would meet new national ambient air quality standards by 1977[52]. Although the 1990 Clean Air Act is a federal law covering the entire country, the states do much of the work to carry out the Act. The EPA has allowed the individual states to elect responsibility for compliance with and regulation of the CAA within their own borders in exchange for funding. For example, a state air pollution agency holds a hearing on a permit application by a power or chemical plant or fines a company for violating air pollution limits. However, election is not mandatory and in some cases states have chosen to not accept responsibility for enforcement of the act and force the EPA to assume those duties. In order to take over compliance with the CAA the states must write and submit a state implementation plan (SIP) to the EPA for approval. A state implementation plan is a collection of the regulations a state will use to ...
This may not come as a surprise to many people, but the closer you are to a major road, the higher your exposure to air contaminants. In fact, according to a new report from the Metro Vancouver Regional District multiple traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) have been identified with adverse health effects. Living and spending time near a major roadway has been identified as a risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular problems.. Approximately half the population of Metro Vancouver lives near a major roadway.. Major roadways have more than 15,000 vehicles per day using them. In Langley, examples include 200th Street, 208th Street, the Langley Bypass, and Fraser Highway.. ...
Footnote: Ground-level ozone is formed from pollutants emitted from cars, power plants, and other sources. The national ambient air quality standard for ozone is 0.070 parts per million (ppm); concentrations above 0.070 ppm are considered unhealthy, especially for sensitive groups such as children, asthmatics, and the elderly. Ozone concentrations are measured and averaged over 8-hour testing periods; then, the number of days per year exceeding the standard is calculated. For counties with more than one monitoring site, data are reported for sites recording the most days above 0.070 ppm. Data are limited because (i) monitoring stations are usually in urban areas, and (ii) ozone samples are taken every three days or during times of the year when air pollution is very high. In addition, not all counties are monitored, and data are only provided for counties with monitors that meet completeness criteria. State-level data are averaged from county-level data and should be treated with caution. N/A ...
While there are various types and degrees of Air Pollution, only those communities formally classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as Nonattainment or Maintenance Areas, or those communities / areas that regularly exceed or are near violating the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are listed on this web page.. The two main EPA criteria pollutants (pollutants that have EPA standards) impacting Alaska are Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter.. ...
Hoboken may not be a polluted city to live in, but your house here very well could be. Most homeowners dont realize that their indoor air is being contaminated by certain pollutants which lead to a list of allergies and other health issues. It is because of this ignorance that indoor air pollutants continue to cause harm in homes across the globe.. We often take the quality of indoor air lightly because we believe that bad air only exists outside. However, it takes some steps to create a healthy home environment for you and your family to live. The first step is to identify indoor air pollutant before taking steps to tackle and keep them at bay. ...
Air pollutants can cause adverse health effects worldwide (14, 91-94). Outdoor air pollution frequently occurs as a mixture of natural pollutants (e.g., from wildfires, volcanoes, biological decay, dust storms) and human-made pollutants (e.g., from motor vehicles, biomass burning, power plants, industrial facilities, waste incinerators, pesticides) (Figure 2 and refs. 9, 91, 95). Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) are typical outdoor air pollutants from fuel combustion or motor vehicle emissions.. Concern is increasing over indoor air pollution since some societies spend up to 90% of time inside exposed to pollutants from tobacco smoke, solid fuels, stoves, construction materials, ambient PM, and biological materials (mold spores, viruses and bacteria, animal dander, and HDMs) (91, 96). Indoor air pollution is determined partly by outdoor air quality depending on ventilation systems and cleaning practices. Additional environmental chemical ...
Maintaining indoor air quality has become a complicated challenge in todays world. In fact, in most cases we are our own worst enemy because many of the products we use are actually introducing toxins into the air we breathe! Every year, more people reporting lung disease, heart disease and other serious diseases due to exposure to airborne carcinogens.. In past decades, you might have thought you could get away from the toxins by going inside and shutting the door. But recent reports indicate our indoor air is now up to five times more toxic than our outdoor air.. This means the real fight to purify your air is going to take place indoors. One of the best ways to maintain good indoor air quality is to install the latest technology AC units such as ducted air conditioning Sydney.. In this post, meet nine of the most concerning airborne toxins and learn how to remove them from your indoor air supply. Some of the indoor air pollutants are discussed below:. ...
Illinois Hazardous Air Pollutants federal, national and state compliance resources - regulations, laws, and state-specific analysis for employers and environmental professionals
India cannot afford to ignore the ominous evidences any more. There is enough evidence for us to act urgently to reduce the public health risks to children, elderly, poor and all of us. India will have to take action now to reverse the trend of short term effects as well as the long term toxic effects. Stringency and pace of action should be guided by the health risks consideration. The ongoing preparation for the 12th five year plan, expansion of the air quality monitoring programme, city initiatives on clean air action plans, framing of the post-2010 emissions regulations for vehicles are the opportunities to integrate health criteria to make air quality management more relevant to public health. Set targets to meet air quality standards in cities: Enforce National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The quantum of central assistance to states for implementation of the city action plan for clean air should be linked with the progress in implementation of pollution control measures. For this ...
Cycling and other forms of active transportation provide health benefits via increased physical activity. However, direct evidence of the extent to which these benefits may be offset by exposure and intake of traffic-related air pollution is limited. The purpose of this study is to measure changes in endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, and lung function in healthy participants before and after cycling along a high- and low- traffic route. Participants (n = 38) bicycled for 1 h along a Downtown and a Residential designated bicycle route in a randomized crossover trial. Heart rate, power output, particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and particle number concentration (PNC) were measured. Lung function, endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were assessed within one hour pre- and post-trial. Geometric mean PNC exposures and intakes were higher along the Downtown (exposure =
Article Common Indoor Air Pollutants. Is the indoor air you breathe healthy? According to the World Health Organization, 40% of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollutio...
In consideration of the adverse health effects of diesel exhaust, Civic Exchange submitted a document to the Subcommittee on Air Pollution Control (Air Pollutant Emission) (Controlled Vehicles) Regulation, urging the members of the Councils to pass the Regulation without delay, in order to protect the health of people in Hong Kong.. ...
Public concern regarding air pollution has increased rapidly in recent years. Because air pollution may present special problems in the pediatric age group, available information on the effects of various air pollutants on children has been reviewed with the purpose of: (1) defining the potential ill effects of air pollution in this age group, (2) making information regarding these effects readily accessible to pediatricians, and (3) delineating further areas of study which may be necessary to safeguard child health from this environmental hazard.. Three general conclusions became apparent to the Committee after reviewing more than 100 publications from the world literature dealing specifically with the health effects of air pollution on children * The first is that children as a group may serve to delineate more clearly the effect of air pollution on health. They (1) spend most of their lives and attend school in limited geographical areas where air quality and meteorological effects can be ...
Chapter 1 Air Pollution 1] Background 49 2] Diagnosis: Air Quality 52 3] Causes: Air Pollutant Emissions 60 4] Actions: Air Pollution Control chapter 1 air pollution Air Quality PM2.5 Maximum Permissible
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organized lymphatic tissue (BALT) in lungs of rhesus monkeys after air pollutant exposure. AU - Pabst, Reinhard. AU - Miller, Lisa A.. AU - Schelegle, Edward. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The presence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and its size in humans largely depends upon age. It is detected in 35% of children less than 2 years of age, but absent in the healthy adult lung. Environmental gases or allergens may have an effect on the number of BALT. Lungs of rhesus macaque monkeys were screened by histology for the presence, size, and location of BALT after exposure to filtered air for 2, 6, 12, or 36 months or 12 and 36 months to ozone or 2, 12, or 36 months of house dust mite or a combination of ozone and house dust mite for 12 months. In the lungs of monkeys housed in filtered air for 2 months, no BALT was identified. After 6, 12, or 36 months, the number of BALT showed a significantly increased correlation with age in monkeys housed in ...
With an increased awareness of health and economic costs associated with air pollution exposures - from direct health impacts (e.g. 3.1 million deaths per year worldwide), to repercussions on workforce productivity (e.g. projected 82 million lost workdays in Europe in 2025), and difficulties in attracting qualified workforce and tourists in highly polluted cities - there is a real need to tackle air pollution problems in cities more efficiently.. The AirMAP method combines big data from mobile phones and vehicle fleet GPS tracking with air pollution maps to estimate exposures to air pollution in the population. With the proposed approach, we are thus able to assess exposures accounting for peoples movement in space and time, rather than with the usual static approach whereby people are assumed to spend their whole lives at home. This novel approach can enable policy makers to target much more efficiently and cost-effectively air pollution reductions efforts to protect people from air ...
The mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter collected in 17 towns of Italy in 1990 was assessed using the Ames test. The mutagenicity of crude extract correlated with amount of lead, suggesting the direct contribution of gasoline car exhausts. Mo
Famously, the use of caged birds to alert miners to the invisible dangers of gases such as carbon monoxide gave rise to the cautionary metaphor canary in a coal mine.
In order to assess the seasonal variations, potential sources, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter (PM2.5), PM2.5 samples (n = 96) were collected between March 2015 and February 2016 in Ningbo, China. Twelve heavy metals (Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Tl, Al, Be, and Hg) found in the PM2.5 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We used enrichment factors and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) to determine the sources of these heavy metals, and models from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to adults and children. Results showed that the average annual mass concentration of the PM2.5 was 62.7 µg m-3, which exceeded the limit specified in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The average annual concentrations of the Pb, Cd, and As were 57.2 ng m-3, 1.5 ng m-3, and 4.7 ng m-3, respectively, which were below
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Unless more stringent policies are adopted, findings point to a significant increase in global emissions and concentrations of air pollutants, with severe impacts on human health and the environment. The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to significant economic costs, which are illustrated at the regional and sectoral levels, and to substantial annual global welfare costs.
Free Books | Nonfiction | Politics | General | Research Priorities For Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities And A Long-range Research Portfolio
The Independent Particulate Matter Review Panel has released their consensus recommendations to the EPA administrator on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter. The group of 20 independent experts, that were disbanded by Administrator Wheeler last October and reconvened last week, hosted by Union of Concerned Scientists
ESPLUGUES, Ana et al. Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development: Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project). Gac Sanit [online]. 2007, vol.21, n.2, pp.162-171. ISSN 0213-9111.. Introduction: The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. Methods: The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological ...