The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as "criteria air pollutants") are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify "new" at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using volunteers in western New York for a period of three ...
In this paper, it is shown that there are great differences in seasonal variations of concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants in various parts of a large urban territory. The city of Krasnoyarsk is used as an example. For this, an observation method proposed by the authors is used. The detected differences in seasonal variations are a consequence of the microclimatic inhomogeneities of the city territory. They show the effects of breeze and orographic-type circulations on the space-time distribution of atmospheric pollutants. The investigation of the seasonal variability of concentrations of atmospheric pollutants in various parts of the city has made it possible to obtain some useful characteristics for the estimation of population exposure. ...
Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency price comparison. Find great prices for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
... ; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); NESHAP; NESHAPS; Emission Stand
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied backwards to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies used to estimate the emissions for a specific time period will continue ...
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health impacts that may result from breathing it ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative. ...
This presentation highlights several technologies used for emissions testing that deliver part per trillion level detection limits for a variety of hazardous air pollutants. These technologies have been incorporated into mobile vans so we can offer real-time results using MAX™, StarBoost™ and PTR. Download this presentation to see the overview of these technologies and the pros and cons of each.. ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant levels than cyclists traveling in the same streets. ...
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution in a spatio-temporal ecological study requires representative concentrations of air pollutants to be constructed for each geographical unit and time period. Averaging concentrations in space and time is commonly carried out, but little is known about how robust the estimated health effects are to different aggregation functions. A second under researched question is what impact air pollution is likely to have in the future. We conducted a study for England between 2007 and 2011, investigating the relationship between respiratory hospital admissions and different pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2); ozone (O3); particulate matter, the latter including particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and less than 10 micrometers (PM10); and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Bayesian Poisson regression models accounting for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of pollution on disease
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
Background & Aims: There is on-going and growing concern regarding acute and chronic human health effects associated with exposure to combustion-related air pollutants. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of novel methods for assessing exposure to combustion-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM),black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] in indoor and outdoor environments.Methods: The methods that were developed and evaluated included: mass and darkness/colour analysis of airborne particle samples; passive samplers; portable real time monitors; and GC-MS analysis of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs). These methods were used to measure PM, BC and NO₂ in indoor offices and outdoor streets in Glasgow city centre, and an industrial hydraulic fracturing test site in Poland.Results: Detailed evaluation and calibration of novel methods for darkness measurement of low mass particulate material specimens collected on filters were completed to ...
Introduction. The direct and indirect adverse effects caused by atmospheric pollution on the environment and human health necessitate the measurement and reporting of air quality on local, regional and global scales. The measurement and improvement of air quality in developed countries are considered a priority. In developing countries less emphasis is placed on environmental issues, because resources are mostly utilised for economic growth. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with elements of a developed country. Globally, southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollutants, for example a prominent NO2 hotspot is seen on global maps of NO2 satellite retrievals over the South African Highveld; based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect.1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised4 and are now ...
HEUSCHNUPFEN + POLLENALLERGIE (PATHOLOGIE); STAUB (LUFTVERUNREINIGUNG); WIRKUNG VON UNGEWÖHNLICHER LUFTZUSAMMENSETZUNG UND LUFTFREMDSTOFFEN AUF DAS ATMUNGSSYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGIE); HAY FEVER + POLLEN ALLERGY (PATHOLOGY); DUST (AIR POLLUTION); EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL AIR COMPOSITION AND AIR POLLUTANTS ON RESPIRATION AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGY ...
In the metropolitan area of Barcelona, as well as in other Spanish cities, air quality is getting worse by the year. At the same time, projections of temperature and rainfall alert us to future increases in both parameters.1 In this context, studies assessing the influence of climate and air pollution in children, particularly in relation to respiratory diseases, are necessary. A recent systematic review confirmed the association between exposure to air pollutants (particulate matter with diameters ,2.5μm [PM2.5] and ,10μm [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulfur dioxide [SO2]) and the risk of hospital admission due to bronchiolitis.2 A study conducted in primary health care centres in Madrid concluded that NO2 levels (particularly those exceeding 40μg/m3) were associated with increases in paediatric respiratory disease.3 To our knowledge, no similar studies have been done in Barcelona.. As a pilot study, we analysed data for 391 patients from the metropolitan area of Barcelona admitted with ...
On June 12, 2008, EPA issued final national air toxics standards for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the plating and polishing industry. The requirements of this final rule apply to existing and new area sources in the plating and polishing industry. The final rule will affect an estimated 2,900 existing plating and polishing facilities and applies to plating and polishing tanks, dry mechanical polishing operations, and thermal spraying operations that use or emit compounds of one or more of the following metal toxic air pollutants: cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. The final rule includes management practices such as the use of wetting agent/fume suppressants. It requires equipment standards such as the use of tank covers or control devices, and the capture and control of emissions from thermal spraying and dry mechanical polishing. EPA amended this final rule in September 2011 to clarify certain aspects of the 2008 rule.. ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. T2 - Milestone 2: Setting-up domains and approaches for the four target domains Trbovlje, Celje, Murska Sobota and Ljubljana. AU - Uhrner, Ulrich. AU - Jost, Silvia. AU - Reifeltshammer, Raphael Jakob. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. M3 - Bericht für Auftraggeber. BT - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. ER - ...
Topic : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition. Presented by : Dr. Pandurangappa C, C M Suresha, Lakshminarayanachari K, M Siddalinga Prasad. Other Details : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition International journal of engineering, sciences and Technology Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35-143.. Category : ...
Throughout the world, urban and agricultural communities have become more spatially intertwined resulting in blurred land use boundaries. Thousands of persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from primary and secondary sources.
Lung health is directly impacted by the air we breathe; learn about air pollutant health risks and the Clean Air Act from the Firm today.
This webinar showcases data disclosed by subnational governments on short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) action from the Europe region to CDP, and is the first in series of webinars providing feedback from 3 regions around the world. Information will also be shared on how cities, states and regions can join the BreatheLife campaign to raise awareness of the health and climate benefits from reducing SLCPs and other air pollutants.. CDP is the official reporting platform for C40 Cities, supporting almost 90% of C40 cities in annual reporting. In addition, CDP also serves as an official reporting platform for the Compact of Mayors and the Under2 Coalition.. The reporting of actions taken by states and regions to reduce short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) emissions directly supports the implementation of the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, country action plans (including Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs) and sectoral plans to effectively tackle climate change and air ...
Dr Lena Weissert from University of Auckland explains her research to better measure our exposure to air pollutants as we go about our daily lives.
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
Toxic Air Pollutants Sources Abstract: There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or sectors.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" by people in this website by year, and whether "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Air pollution now ranks as the worlds fourth leading cause of death. About 5.5 million deaths in 2013 trace to just one type, called particulates.
This thesis focuses on some of the limitations and difficulties that exist when it comes to quantifying the human health effects that arise as a result of air pollution exposure. The following four issues are particularly analysed and discussed: 1) The measurement techniques used for carbonaceous particles and their lack of consistency; 2) Do the health risks associated with exposure to PM10 depend on the content of elemental carbon in the aerosol?; 3) Trends in air pollutants and the health effects that arise as a result of changed exposure to the measured pollutants; 4) The associations between the measured concentrations of different air pollutants in Stockholm and the daily number deaths; 5) Air quality indicators and health outcomes as basis for an air quality health index (AQHI).. The method that has been used is largely based on empirical data analysis, where further statistical processing has been used in order to clarify the scientific issues. The overall conclusions are the following: ...
Geosyntec aids clients in determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques designed to reduce or eliminate their emissions of...
Methods for estimating cumulative ambient air pollution concentrations for individuals enrolled in an epidemiological cohort study are described and studied. Monthly interpolations from fixed-site monitoring stations in California to zip code centroids were used. The precision of the interpolation methods for total suspended particulates and...
Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants accelerates the development of emphysema and age-related decline in lung function, new research shows. The 18-year study involving 5780 adults across several centres in the US found a statistically significant association between baseline ambient concentrations of ambient ozone (O3; 0.13 per 3 parts per billion), fine particulate matter (PM2.5; .... ...
This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for existing and new facilities that apply surface coatings to large appliances. These final standards implement section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) which requires the Administrator to regulate...
Since implementation of the Clear Air Act of 1970 people across the country breathe healthier air because of much lower concentrations of carbon monoxide, acidic gases of sulfur and nitrogen, lead, particulates, and ozone. Furthermore, ecosystems in the eastern United States are recovering from the effects of acidic precipitation. Why was it so successful?
The provisions of Part 61, Chapter 1, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations in effect October 12, 1983, are hereby adopted by reference and made a part of these rules and regulations. For the purpose of this rule, the word Administrator as used in these national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants shall mean the Control Officer of the District. Category types subject to NESHAPS are as follows:. ...
Establishing an optimal indicator to communicate health risks of multiple air pollutants to public is much important. The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been developed in many countries as a communication tool of multiple air pollutants related health risks. However, the current AQHI is based on the sum of the excess health risks which are typically derived from the single-pollutant statistical models. Such a strategy may overestimate the joint effect of multiple pollutants. We proposed an improved strategy to construct the AQHI based on a Bayesian multipollutant weighted model. Using this strategy, two improved indices - Bayesian multipollutant AQHI (BMP-AQHI) and Bayesian multipollutant AQHI with seasonal specificity (SBMP-AQHI) were calculated to present the multiple pollutants related health risks to the cardiovascular system based on data collected in Chengdu, China during 2013 to 2018. The two improved indices were compared to current Air Quality Index (AQI) and AQHI to evaluate the ...
On October 8, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins (APR). Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for reconsideration of the final rule. The EPA is reconsidering and requesting public comment on issues related to the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards for continuous process vents (CPVs) at existing affected sources. The EPA is proposing to revise the MACT standard for back-end CPVs at existing affected sources based on hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions test data for back-end CPVs at existing sources for this source category submitted by petitioners. The EPA is also soliciting comments regarding the need to revise the standard for front-end CPVs at existing sources, and to extend the compliance date for the proposed revised emission limit for back-end CPVs at existing sources. Additionally, the EPA is proposing ...
We continue to work on ways to make this report better for the users and to provide more explanations as to how the data are collected, limitations, caveats, etc. Please provide any comments or suggestions to EIUG Reports [email protected] Thank you ...
We continue to work on ways to make this report better for the users and to provide more explanations as to how the data are collected, limitations, caveats, etc. Please provide any comments or suggestions to EIUG Reports [email protected] Thank you ...
This report is the first revision of CONCAWE Report 3/07, which itself replaced Report No. 9/05R Air Pollutant Emission Estimation Methods for EPER and PRTR Reporting by Refineries. It provides algorithms to permit emission estimates to be made by refineries to meet the reporting requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) regarding pollutant emissions to air. ...
Free Online Library: Influence of urbanicity and county characteristics on the association between ozone and asthma emergency department visits in North Carolina.(Research, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Air pollution Health aspects Air pollution research Air quality Asthma Environmental aspects Hospital emergency services Hospitals Emergency service Rural areas Sparsely populated areas Urban ecology
Methane is just one harmful air pollutant from the oil and gas industry.. Clean Air Task Forces new report, Fossil Fumes: A public health analysis of toxic air pollution from the oil and gas industry sheds light on the health impacts pollutants that are often emitted from oil and gas sites alongside methane, including benzene, formaldehyde, and ethylbenzene.. Fossil Fumes estimates cancer risk and respiratory health risk to residents of every county in the United States that can be traced back to air toxics from the oil and gas industry. It is based on EPAs most recent National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) analysis updated to reflect the latest emissions data from EPAs National Emissions Inventory.. ...