Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
On 2 February the European Commission launched the first phase of the modernization and simplification of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the opening of a three-month public consultation. The contributions received will support the Commissions work to define the agricultural policy priorities for the future. A modernized and simplified Common Agricultural Policy would address the key challenges that agriculture and rural areas are facing while at the same time contributing to the Commissions policy priorities (notably jobs and growth), to sustainable development, a budget focused on results, simplification and subsidiarity.. Announcing the consultation process, EU Agriculture and Rural Development Commissioner Phil Hogan said: Today we are taking the next steps towards modernizing and simplifying the Common Agricultural Policy for the 21st Century. By launching this public consultation, we are asking all stakeholders and those interested in the future of food and farming in Europe ...
The Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, or ADMARC, was formed in Malawi in 1971 as a Government-owned corporation or parastatal to promote the Malawian economy by increasing the volume and quality of agricultural exports, to develop new foreign markets for the consumption of Malawian agricultural produce and to supporting Malawis farmers. It was the successor of a number of marketing boards of the colonial-era and early post-colonial times, whose functions were as much about controlling African smallholders and generating government revenues as in promoting agricultural development. At its foundation, ADMARC was given the power to finance the economic development of any public or private organization. In its first decade of operation, ADMARC was considered to be more business-like and less bureaucratic than similar African parastatal bodies, but from its formation it was involved in the diversion of resources from smallholder farming to tobacco estates, often owned by members of ...
Synonyms for Agricultural sector in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural sector. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural sector?
Agricultural Development Economics - The focal point for FAOs economic research and policy analysis for food security and sustainable development.
We present extensions to the agent-based agricultural policy simulator (AgriPoliS) model that make it possible to simulate the consequences of agricultural policy reform on farmers land use...
The end of the century had been characterized by a process of liberalisation of trade and market for food and other products, increasing privatization of resources and services, reorientation of economic policies under structural adjustment programmes and increased commercialization of agriculture. Clearly these trends have an impact on farmers, both women and men, and information on how these factors influence their livelihoods is an important tool in agricultural policy planning. Democracy calls for more participation, better-informed citizens, good governance and accountability. These are conditions that we are requesting from our decision-makers.. Development agencies are increasingly using more participatory methods, born from the technical developments of the new information and communciation era. The availability of information and the speed at which it circulates are influencing the mechanisms of social control and regulation. To ensure agricultural policy and planning that will meet the ...
This Review of Agricultural Policies: Costa Rica is one of a series of reviews of national agricultural policies undertaken by the OECD’s Committee for A
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
CGIAR: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Local: Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) • Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP) • Akwa Ibom State University • Benue State Agricultural Development Programme (BNARDA) • Cassava Growers Association of Nigeria • Commission (JDPC) - Ilorin • Damisa Gurus • Development Dynamics • Dominican Centre for Training and Development • ENVOY Agricultural Services • Federal College of Agriculture - Akure • Federal Ministries of: Agriculture, Education, and Health • Forward Africa • Human Empowerment and Development Project (HEMADEP) • Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (IMOADP) • Institute of Agricultural Research & Training (IAR&T) • Justice Development and Peace • Justice Development and Peace Commission (JDPC) • Justice Development and Peace ...
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Buy Agricultural Development in the World Periphery for $354.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Pre-order for NZ release day delivery. This book brings together analysis on the conditions of agricultural sectors in countries and regions of the worlds peripheries, from a wide variety ...
This working paper examines how civil society organisations (CSOs) -- particularly those representing poor and marginalised rural people -- can inform and influence the processes of agricultural policy formulation and implementation. We summarise the role of different interest groups in shaping pro-poor agricultural development and explain how poor people can gain voice to express their views and shape policy processes in a meaningful way.
Shri Singh inaugurates two-day National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign-2017. The National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign - 2017 is being organised on 25th and 26th April, 2017 at New Delhi. The Conference was inaugurated by Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and also addressed by Shri Parshottam Rupala and Shri Sudarshan Bhagat, Ministers of State for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. The Conference was attended by Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, besides Agriculture Production Commissioners / Principal Secretaries / Secretaries / Directors of the State Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture and Agriculture Marketing, Senior Scientists from ICAR and other officials from relevant Ministries and agencies.. In his inaugural address, Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare applauded efforts of the Central and State Governments in attaining an estimated record production of about ...
Synonyms for Agricultural industry in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural industry. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural industry?
Historically, most rural development programs look to increase local production of market crops. These have often been coupled with infrastructure products meant to connect rural parts of poor countries to big market centers and trade arteries.. But people are starting to realize that connecting people to markets is not a guarantee that they will be able to make a living from their crops, and may actually lead to mono-crop dependency (mono-cropping itself is also associated with soil depletion and the concentration of land holdings into fewer hands). Thus, sustainable subsistence has become more important as a goal in agricultural development work.. ...
Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development. China Agricultural Economic Review (CAER) is a newly launched journal published by Emerald Group Publishing in association with China Agricultural University and the Chinese Association of Agricultural Economics (CAAE). CAER is delighted to announce its first annual conference, which is being organised by the CAER editorial office and supported by the Center for Rural Development Policy (CRDP), the College of Economics and Management at the China Agricultural University, the CAAE, and Emerald. The theme of the 2009 conference is Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development.. ...
The National Agricultural Development Company Fundamental Company Report provides a complete overview of the companys affairs. All available data is
This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology. Countries covered represent about 80% of the global value added in agriculture. The report includes a general discussion on developments in agricultural policies and specific chapters for each country covered.. ...
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AbstractThe use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector leads to increase of nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater. The present study determined the vast impacts of agriculture in Ardabil Plain in the northwest of Iran. The study surveyed and measured the amount of nitrate concentration in groundwater sources of 46 wells in the region. Arc GIS software was used to zoning of the area by ordinary kriging function. To match the changes of nitrate concentrations with the land use patterns, images of Landsat Satellite ETM+ in June of 2012 was applied. To determine the relationship of agricultural land use with nitrate distribution in the area SPSS 16 software was used. According to the regression results, the use of agricultural land use and the amount of chemical fertilizer in the region are highly related with nitrate distribution with 95% accuracy. The results showed that the source of nitrate input to the region is the use of artificial nitrate fertilizer in agricultural activities.
Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the medias incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 67 countries, spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets, to test these predictions. We find that, in line with theoretical hypotheses, public support to agriculture is strongly affected by the mass media. In particular, an increase in the share of informed voters, and a greater role of the private televisions in society is associated with policies which benefit the majority more: it reduces taxation of agriculture in poor countries and reduces subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The evidence is also consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to
Niger, owing to its climatic, institutional, livelihood, economic, and environmental context, is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world. Poverty is pervasive in Niger and it ranks low on almost all the human development indicators. Agriculture is the most important sector of Nigers economy and accounts for over 40 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and is the principle source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the countrys population. The performance of the agricultural sector, however, due to its high exposure to risks, is very volatile. Niger has experienced multiple shocks, largely induced by agricultural risks over the past 30 years, which impose high welfare cost in terms of food availability, food affordability, and malnutrition. It also adversely affects household incomes, performance of the agricultural sector, the governments fiscal balance, and the growth rate of Nigers economy. Niger is a case of living perpetually with risk, thus more emphasis on ...
Anonymous, 1995: 1995 annual conference in Grangeneuve: evaluation of agricultural policy measures from the example of the new income and environment policy motivated direct payments
Multifunctional Agricultural Policies Conference scheduled on October 29-30, 2020 in October 2020 in Paris is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
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Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
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2014, European Association for Potato Research. Precision agriculture (PA) involves more precise seeding, fertilizer application, irrigation, and pesticide use in order to optimize crop production for the purpose of increasing grower revenue and protecting the environment. High-value crops, like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), are recognized as good candidates for the adoption of PA because of the high cost of inputs. In addition, the sensitivity of potato yield and quality to crop management and environmental conditions makes precision management economically important. The spatial and temporal variability of soil conditions and crop growth are well documented. The PA uses geospatial information and technologies to manage this variability more precisely. Intensive soil sampling techniques, yield monitors, and soil and plant sensors can be used to identify where, when, and how much variability is present in a field. The agronomists role is to analyze the within-field variability in order to ...
Some terms defy definition. Sustainable agriculture has become one of them. In such a quickly changing world, can anything be sustainable? What do we want to sustain? How can we implement such a nebulous goal? Is it too late? With the contradictions and questions have come a hard look at our present food production system and thoughtful evaluations of its future. If nothing else, the term sustainable agriculture has provided talking points, a sense of direction, and an urgency, that has sparked much excitement and innovative thinking in the agricultural world.. The word sustain, from the Latin sustinere (sus-, from below and tenere, to hold), to keep in existence or maintain, implies long-term support or permanence. As it pertains to agriculture, sustainable describes farming systems that are capable of maintaining their productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely. Such systems... must be resource-conserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive, and environmentally ...
APS - Agricultural Production System. Looking for abbreviations of APS? It is Agricultural Production System. Agricultural Production System listed as APS
Agricultural ecosystems (agro-ecosystems) were created by humans during the invention of agriculture approximately 12 000 years ago to generate a reliable food supply that could be easily stored (e.g. cereal grains), enabling the creation of cities and the rise of civilizations. Since their origin in the Fertile Crescent, agro-ecosystems have spread globally to cover approximately 40% of the land surface, with most of this expansion occurring during the past 300 years to feed the rapidly growing human population [1]. One consequence of this expansion was an enormous reduction in plant and animal diversity globally as species-rich natural ecosystems were converted to species-poor agro-ecosystems [2,3]. To illustrate the temporal and spatial scales involved, in only 300 years agro-ecosystems expanded such that approximately 540 million ha are now planted annually to only three crop species, maize, rice and wheat (FAO Statistics), compared with the approximately 600 million ha of tropical ...
Business activities have ranged from agricultural policy assessment to applied research on issues of soil and water quality, manure/biosolids management, management of horticultural water and environmental growing conditions, environmental microbiology, and beneficial management practices (BMPs). Notable policy issues addressed include greenhouse gas emission studies and associated protocol development for the agricultural sector and an evaluation of provincial nutrient management standards and regulations. Recent applied research investigations have evaluated issues related to beneficial management practices in the horticulture and crop production sectors, agricultural watershed water quality (nutrients, pathogens, herbicides), manure and biosolids management, and environmental indicators. Land resource services provided are related to nutrient management planning, resource monitoring during construction practices and a range of land evaluation issues. Experience in conducting soil surveys and ...
In order to assess the agricultural potential of regions and to evaluate the risk of environmental degradation due to agriculture, we define a marginality index for agricultural land use which is based on available global data sets and takes into account various environmental conditions. Influencing factors taken into consideration are the general climatic conditions for plant growth, the soil fertility, the soil moisture availability, the precipitation uncertainty and the erosion risk due to the steepness of slopes. Comparison of our marginality index with present global assessments of agricultural land use shows that about 30% of agricultural land currently in use can be identified as marginal, in other words as having a disposition towards overuse and potential environmental degradation. The validity of our approach is strengthened by the fact that agriculturally used areas identified as marginal are described as vulnerable in the literature. The risk of degradation with a further ...
The concept of precision agriculture first emerged in the United States in the early 1980s. In 1985, researchers at the University of Minnesota varied lime inputs in crop fields. It was also at this time that the practice of grid sampling appeared (applying a fixed grid of one sample per hectare). Towards the end of the 1980s, this technique was used to derive the first input recommendation maps for fertilizers and pH corrections. The use of yield sensors developed from new technologies, combined with the advent of GPS receivers, has been gaining ground ever since. Today, such systems cover several million hectares. In the American Midwest (US), it is associated not with sustainable agriculture but with mainstream farmers who are trying to maximize profits by spending money only in areas that require fertilizer. This practice allows the farmer to vary the rate of fertilizer across the field according to the need identified by GPS guided Grid or Zone Sampling. Fertilizer that would have been ...
Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use
Regarding the production of vegetables and annual plants, the output of maize reached 5.13 million tons, down 114.6 thousand tons against 2016 due to the decrease of 52.9 thousand hectares of the cultivated area (maize productivity increased by 110 kilograms per hectare). The output of sweet potato gained 1.35 million tons, up 81.9 thousand tons (the cultivated area raised by 1.6 thousand hectares); sugar-cane production achieved 18.32 million tons, up 1.11 million tons (the cultivated area went up by 12.8 thousand hectares); the yield of cassava gained 10.34 million tons, down 569.1 thousand tons (the cultivated area fell by 34.4 thousand hectares); the yield of peanut reached 461.5 thousand tons, down 2.1 thousand tons (the area went down by 4.1 thousand hectares); soya production attained 102.3 thousand tons, down 22 thousand tons (a decrease of 16.1 thousand hectares of cultivated area); vegetables of all kinds achieved 16.49 million tons, up 562.8 thousand tons (the area increased by 29.5 ...
Perhaps the most direct way to measure the exposure of banks to agricultural production is the percentage of their loan portfolios made to farmers. The table on this page provides such a breakdown. It may be useful to know that regulators, under a commonly used rule of thumb, consider any bank with at least 25 percent of its loans extended to the agricultural sector to be an agriculturally focused lending institution (an agricultural bank). By this standard, the table indicates that over half of all banks in the Ninth District are agriculturally focused. Only one other Federal Reserve District, Kansas City, has a similar concentration. Agricultural banks are a particularly large part of the bank population in the Dakotas, where they make up about 80 percent of all banks. A significant number of banks in the district are even more agriculturally dependent than the agricultural bank standard: One-third of all banks in the district have over half of their total loans extended to agricultural ...
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Read Strategy of statistical model selection for precision farming on-farm experiments, Precision Agriculture on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application data set of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients applied to croplands. The national-level nitrogen fertilizer application rates for crops are from the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) Fertilizer Use by Crop 2002 statistics database that is available by request from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The number of crop-specific fertilizer application rates reported for each country ranged from 2 crops (Guinea) to over 50 crops (United States), and the years for which the data are reported range from 1994 to 2001. Spatially explicit fertilizer inputs of Nitrogen (N) were computed by fusing national-level statistics on fertilizer use with global maps of harvested area for 175 crops. The data were compiled by Potter et al. (2010) and are distributed by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN ...
The principal objective of the study is to assess the extent to which agricultural productivity and climate change impact affect smallholder farmers entrepreneurship in Western and Central Regions of Liberia. The specific objectives are: to determine the impact of agricultural inputs on production of major food crops:rice, cassava and vegetables (pepper, egg plants and bitter balls); to investigate the level of climate change impact on agricultural productivity for major food crops (rice, cassava, and vegetables); to determine agricultural produce, income and business activities of smallholder farmers (during and after harvest); to determine as to whether other competing sectors such as mining, informal business activities, rural-urban migration are hindering the growth of and affecting the progress of the farming population; and to analyze access to credit and the availability of modern post-harvest technology. In order to achieve the research objectives, the researcher worked with Government ...
Workshop on Moving Beyond Strategy to Improve Information and Knowledge Management for Agricultural Development in the Pacific Islands Countries and Territories ...
Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of
Data and research on development including official development assistance (ODA), aid architecture and effectiveness, conflict, fragility, evaluation, gender, governance and poverty., This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sectors performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
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This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the
A cross-cultural analysis of mortality patterns is of interest to biological anthropologists and genetic epidemiologists. In this paper, we examine four agricultural populations from Costa Rica, Hungary, and the United States in order to determine if they suffered from a cyclical distribution of epidemics. When possible, we look at the mortality time series of adults and children separately. Of the12 series, only 2 show significant epidemic cycles. Both are in the Hungarian groups and both affect subadults. Otherwise, the Costa Rica, U.S., and adult series of the Hungarian groups do not show any periodicity of mortality peaks. Our results indicate that epidemic cycles are not as ubiquitous in small agricultural groups as the literature would suggest.
Order Code RL31945 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues in the 108th Congress Updated October 15, 2003 name redacted Specialist in Agricultural Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues in the 108th Congress Summary Animal agriculture accounts for a significant segment of U.S. agriculture: in 2002, for example, U.S. farmers and ranchers received $94 billion from the sale of animal products, or about half of all U.S. farm cash receipts. Various issues important to animal agriculture have generated interest among lawmakers in the first session of the 108th Congress. For example, under the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) many food stores in 2004 must provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) on ground and fresh cuts of beef, pork, and lamb. The Housepassed USDA appropriation for FY2004 (H.R. 2673) would block funding to implement COOL for meats. The ...
Economic impact of Climate Change on the Cypriot agricultural sector Working Paper Markou Marinos, Stylianou Andreas Agricultural Research Institute Adriana Bruggeman*, Christos Zoumides+, Stelios Pashiardis,
The Andean region of Ecuador is characterized by extreme poverty caused by low agricultural productivity, limited off-farm opportunities, and lack of access to markets. Poverty is related to degradation of natural resources as lagging agricultural productivity leads to incursions into fragile areas and use of erosive farming techniques on steeply sloped hillsides. Food production in fragile areas degrades soil and water resources, contributes to deforestation and loss of biodiversity, and reduces productive potential over time. This article discusses an agricultural development project designed to reduce the long-term downward development spiral in a watershed in Bolivar, Ecuador. The applied research program began with analysis of the state of soil resources, water, and biodiversity in the Chimbo sub-watershed. This information was used to design a plan with the input of local stakeholders to introduce environmentally friendly farming practices, soil and water conservation techniques, and various
1. INTRODUCTION. Sustainable development and poverty eradication form the core objectives of the United Nations Millennium development goals and New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) strategies (NEPAD, 2004). To achieve these goals, NEPAD established the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), the fourth pillar of which encompasses among others, land and water management; increasing food supply to reducing hunger; and strengthening agricultural research and technology development, dissemination and adoption, as well as improving access to affordable farm inputs, particularly fertilizers and seeds (NEPAD, 2005). For the enhancement of agricultural development in Southern African countries, Southern African Development Community (SADC)s Seed Security Network secretariat had been tasked to inter alia ensure that farmers gain increased access to different types and varieties of seeds (SADC Seed Security Network, 2005:3). Hybrid seed technology is an integral part ...
Read Soil attributes and leaf nitrogen estimating sugar cane quality parameters: Brix, pol and fibre, Precision Agriculture on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Agriculture. Industry and Science. Sustainable Agriculture - Includes formal assessment package Distance Learning in Warwickshire. Sustainable Agriculture - Includes formal assessment package Distance Learning. IntroductionSoilsWater Land care Financial Sustainability Broad Management Strategies Enterprise Selection & Management: Plants Enterprise Selection
In today's globalizing world and liberalization of EU agricultural policy, as well as in the light of the increasing globalization of the operations of enterprises, risk management, and in particular management of price risk in agriculture gains on importance. The study analyses the problem of risks in agriculture, as well as identification of risk management methods available in Polish agricultural sector. Also the role is discussed of commodity futures as instruments constituting a separate and independent element of business activity of a farm, which influences the level of income level of farms present on the competitive market. The conclusion states also that in Polish agriculture price risk management is limited to physical methods such as diversification of types of production as well as - to a much smaller extent - vertical integration of entities. Financial methods of risk management cover mainly disaster insurance. It was also established that the use of foreign futures market as ...
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May 7, 2020. Industrial hemp and alfalfa have been added to the annual crop health survey funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program (NNYADP). Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) regional fields crops specialists scouted fields on 30 regional farms in 2019 for early detection of disease in corn, soybean, alfalfa, and hemp crops.. The results of NNYADP-funded crop surveys from 2013 through 2019 are posted on this Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at https://www.nnyagdev.org/index.php/field-crops/research.. This regional survey is a proactive and systematic way to alert growers to respond quickly to limit emerging and re-emerging plant diseases, to document trends, and to develop strategies to reduce the threat to crop health, sustainability, and the profit margin that is so narrow for growers, says project leader and CCE Regional Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.. This NNYADP-funded field crops survey, restarted in 2013, has ...
This project is aimed at better understanding how children living in agricultural environments are exposed to pesticides, and how such exposures can be prevented or reduced. Since 1991 our group has investigated pesticide expsoures among children of agricultural families in Washington state, focusing on exposure to organophosphate insecticides. We have demonstrated in these studies that the residential environments of agricultural families have higher pesticide residues than do other homes in this region. We have also found that children living in these residential environments have elevated levels of pesticide metabolites in their urine. We need to better understand how these children are being exposed in order to develop recomendations for exposure prevention or reduction. The current project will characterize pesticide exposure pathways for children of farmworkers. A complementary project is also underway by the UW-Child Health Center to develop and implement a community-wide intervention to ...
Agriculture has long been a major source of income for many people living in the Danube River Basin. But today agriculture is also a major source of pollutants including fertilisers and pesticides, as well as effluent from huge pig farms and agro-industrial units. Animal breeding and manuare disposal are important agricultural point sources of agriculture pollution. Inappropriate agricultural practices in some areas have polluted rivers and groundwater, and led to soil erosion. Many wetlands have been converted into farmland, drained, contaminated or otherwise degraded. Fertile topsoils have also been eroded in many agricultural regions. These changes have affected the structure and biodiversity of ecosystems. Unsustainable agricultural practices also reduce the standard of living for farmers and rural communities in the long term.. The modernisation and intensification of agriculture in the new EU countries is expected to bring about an increase in the loads of agricultural pollutants affecting ...
In developing countries, youth plays an important role in facing the challenges on availability, accessibility and use of food around the globe with increasing population, rapid urbanization and climate change. Youth serve in the field of food systems through many ways: some are directly working on farms producing food for the world, some are carrying out research in order to
Description. Agricultural systems in the Netherlands are influenced by changing policies and markets at global, EU and country level. Globally, climate change became an important issue during last decades. In many regions in the world one can already observe effects of the changes and variations in climatic conditions on crop productivity, farmers income and land use. Also for the future of Dutch agriculture the importance of climate change cannot be ignored; effects of weather extremes seem particularly important.. In order to cope with the effects of climate change farmers in the Netherlands have to develop adaptation strategies. These strategies can include changes in management within the current farming system (size, intensity, specialization) and/or a shift to alternative farming systems. Adaptation strategies can also include alternative functions that the agricultural sector can provide to the society, such as sustainable energy production, nature conservation, care farming, etc. The ...
The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become unavoidable in order to increase agricultural production so that the food, clothing and other needs of the burgeoning population are met the rapidly growing food demand of our country has compelled the farmers to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides for increasing crop productivity. These two inputs are playing vital role in the agricultural development of the crops of the country.. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to combat insects and pests to reproduce germination power of land by removing deficiency of salts or and to enhance productivity. If pesticides are not used, according to an estimate nearly 35 to 40% of crop loss annually would occur. Not only this, if fertilizers are not used, soil productivity will come down to almost one-third.. Fertilizers are materials, either natural or manufactured, containing nutrients essential for the normal growth and development of plants. Fertilizers are used in order to supplement ...
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Background: We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Methods: Farmworkers behaviors were assessed via self-report, and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using
This report is available in Microsoft Excel and Acrobat PDF formats at the Wisconsin Corn Agronomy website: http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu. The most current version of Wisconsin Corn Hybrid Performance Trials (A3653) is also available to download as a PDF or purchase as a printed booklet at the UW Extension Learning Store: http://learningstore.uwex.edu. For more information on the Wisconsin Crop Improvement Association, visit: http://wcia.wisc.edu. Copyright © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System doing business as the division of Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin-Extension. All rights reserved. Send copyright inquiries to: Cooperative Extension Publishing, 432 N. Lake St., Rm. 227, Madison, WI 53706, [email protected] Authors: Joe Lauer is professor of agronomy, Kent Kohn is corn program manager in agronomy, and Thierno Diallo is research specialist in agronomy, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Lauer also ...
Tim Reeves has worked for over 50 years in agricultural research, development and extension, focussed on sustainable agriculture in Australia and overseas. He was a pioneer of no-till/conservation agriculture research when based at the Rutherglen Research Institute in NE Victoria. His professional career includes: Foundation Professor of Sustainable Agricultural Production, Adelaide University (1992-95) and Director General of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) based in Mexico (1995-2002). His other international roles have included: Member, United Nations Millennium Project Task Force on Hunger; and Member, European Commission Expert Group for Evaluation of Framework and H2020 Projects. He has also been a Senior Expert with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) working on Save and Grow - sustainable intensification of smallholder agriculture - and in 2016 lead a FAO consultation in Cuba, on the development and adoption of Conservation ...
We estimated weekly pesticide exposure scores for applicators from organic, sustainable and conventional smallholder farms in Costa Rica, using an adapted questionnaire-based exposure algorithm. Compared with previously used algorithms,3 7 our modified algorithm had a stronger focus on PPE use in order to better fit the context of pesticide application in LMICs. In our study, we found high within-worker and between-worker variability of weekly pesticide exposure intensity scores. This variability was mainly driven by differences in pesticide application hours between study visits. The hours of pesticide application may have varied throughout the 4 months of our study fieldwork due to differences in pests, weather conditions (eg, rain, wind) and farming practices (eg, pesticides should not be sprayed within a certain time window before harvest).18 26 Nevertheless, correlation of PPE use between study visits was moderate, which could be due to differences in pesticides used, availability of PPE or ...
The Age of Discoverys agricultural legacy. Scientific and geographical discoveries of the 1500s, 1600s and 1700s had great impact on agriculture and on the use of natural resources worldwide. Significant changes included: accelerated globalization of plant and animal species; unprecedented advances in scientific knowledge and research techniques; access to new markets and trading partners; and social revolutions that redefined labor and land ownership.. For the Europeans, undeveloped continents seemed to offer a never-ending supply of arable land and cheap labor. This had special significance for the Americas. The felling of the first tree by colonists in the New World, though never mentioned by historians, was an act of great significance. It marked the beginning of the era of the most rapid rate of wasteful land use in the history of the world. Early American Soil Conservationists, by Angus McDonald. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1941.. ...
BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND, April 10, 2019-Three scientists have earned a place in the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Hall of Fame for their pioneering and impactful research in agriculture sustainability, swine disease and control, and fungi of major significance to agricultural production, food safety and public health. The men and women who have been inducted into the
The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilization without lodging. We now need a Second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertilizer, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the Second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal root gravitropism, adventitious root formation, and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance ...
Jacobson, M.Z. The effects of agriculture on climate and air pollution in California (pdf) The effects of agriculture and snow impurities on climate and air pollution in California (CEC-500-2007-022) (pdf). ...
Regulation (EU) 2017/2393 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2017 amending Regulations (EU) No 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), (EU) No 1306/2013 on the financing, management and monitoring of the common agricultural policy, (EU) No 1307/2013 establishing rules for direct payments to farmers under support schemes within the framework of the common agricultural policy, (EU) No 1308/2013 establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products and (EU) No 652/2014 laying down provisions for the management of expenditure relating to the food chain, animal health and animal welfare, and relating to plant health and plant reproductive ...
Get this from a library! Improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. [Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Renu Tuteja;] -- An up-to-date overview of current progress in improving crop quality and quantity using modern methods. With a particular emphasis on genetic engineering, this text focusses on crop improvement under ...
The US Midwest has experienced significant changes in agricultural cropping patterns (i.e., area and rotation pattern changes) since 2005. Ongoing agricultural land use change is likely to be partly due to rising corn prices and subsidies implemented by the US government to encourage corn ethanol production. The US Department of Agricultures (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Services (NASS) reported that corn acreage is often related to the decrease of other agriculture crops (i.e., soybean and winter wheat) and pasture land (Westcott, 2007); Keeney and Hertel, 2009). Remove sensing-base crop rotation study indicated that traditional crop rotation (i.e., corn-soybean) is being replaced by continuous corn plantings (Stern et al., 2008; Lunetta et al., 2010; Secchi et al., 2011) across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Shifts toward more intensive corn production may cause a number of negative environmental consequences with respect to water quality, soil fertility, biodiversity, and overall ...
In the agricultural sector, very high speed connectivity enriches the possibilities of automation, allowing even the global supervision of farms, in that it allows the connection of all farm tools. Such a deployment also requires sufficiently low latencies to ensure the remote management of equipment, which, if one can imagine it, could be implemented once 5G is installed. The Arcep, in a recent note in 2020 on connected agriculture, adds that very high speeds would offer better responsiveness in farmers decision-making. The combination of real-time analysis of parameters and contextual information accessible on open databases (weather, soil mapping, etc.) can enable immediate action on a farm when agricultural equipment is installed. Real-time processing of high-definition images could then be envisaged in order to develop expert systems that update their decisions based on contextual data. More generally, higher throughputs would make it possible to envisage the systematic use of large ...
By Communications and Marketing. Charles Rice, university distinguished professor of soil microbiology, has been selected to serve on the Scientific Advisory Committee for Supporters of Agricultural Research, or SoAR, Foundation. The committee is an eight-member panel with the mission to strengthen agricultural research and raise its profile within the broader science community.. The Science Advisory Committee will focus on several goals: increasing the participation of the nations leading research institutions in Agriculture and Food Research Initiative and in the field of agricultural research; identifying additional opportunities for collaboration and cross-disciplinary work between agricultural research programs and other federally funded science programs; and providing advice and recommendations for advancing agricultural research as a whole.. The green revolution of the 1950s and 1960s set the bar for a fruitful era of scientific progress, said William Danforth, chancellor emeritus of ...
USTRs Office of Agricultural Affairs has overall responsibility for U.S. government trade negotiations and policy development and coordination regarding agriculture. Staff works with the Chief Agricultural Negotiator and other USTR officials, and U.S. government agencies, particularly USDA, as appropriate.. Specific responsibilities include negotiation and implementation of the agricultural provisions of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Development Agenda, operation of the WTO Committees on Agriculture and Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures, agricultural regulatory issues (e.g., biotechnology, cloning, BSE, nanotechnology, other bilateral food safety, animal and plant health issues, and customs issues affecting agriculture), monitoring and enforcement of existing WTO and FTA commitments for agriculture and SPS issues, and WTO accession negotiations on agriculture market access, domestic support, export competition, and SPS matters.. The office ...
Aich, S., C. W. McVoy, T. W. Dreschel, and F. Santamaria. 2013. Estimating Soil Subsidence and Carbon Loss in the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida Using Geospatial Techniques. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 171: 124-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.03.017. Bhadha, J. H., R. Khatiwada, S. Galindo, N. Xu, and J. Capasso. 2018. Evidence of Soil Health Benefits of Flooded Rice Compared to Fallow Practice. Sustainable Agriculture Research. 7: 31-41. https://doi.org/10.5539/sar.v7n4p31. Bhadha, J. H., L. Trotta, and M. VanWeelden. 2016. Trends in Rice Production and Varieties in the Everglades Agricultural Area. SL439. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss653. Cherry, R. 2014. Wireworms in Florida Sugarcane. ENY665. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc013. Cherry, R., M. Tootoonchi, J. H. Bhadha, T. A. Lang, M. Krounos, and S. Daroub. ...