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According to Beyond Pesticides' recent report on state pesticide use on cannabis, California was one of six states silent on pesticide use on marijuana. Until now, the only discussion of the issue came from a 2012 report from the California Research Bureau, commissioned by CA Assembly member Linda Halderman, M.D. The report indicated that because no pesticide products were registered for use on cannabis by EPA, and given that applying a pesticide for an unregistered use is illegal under federal pesticide law, the state could confiscate any medical marijuana crop treated with a pesticide. However, it was noted that this conflicts with the state's Compassionate Use Act, which guarantees ill Californians access to medical marijuana. Thus it was determined that growers could simply not spray pesticides in order to avoid potential confiscation. But because the state had not formulated any laws or regulations governing pesticide use on cannabis, the issue remained in a grey area.. The State Water ...
Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
Introduction: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a global health problem and responsible for many deaths worldwide every year. It acts by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causing cholinergic crises that lead to muscarinic, nicotinic and central manifestations. One of the most serious complications of organophosphate exposure is cardiac toxicity including electrocardiogram changes.This study aimed to evaluate corrected QT interval as predictor of major outcome events which included mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, number of atropine and toxogonine ampoules and duration of hospital stay in acute organophosphate toxicity. Methods: The study recruited 98 patients suffering from acute OP poisoning, who were admitted to Tanta University Poison Control Unit. QTc interval length and the different outcomes of the patients were recorded. Results: Fifty five patients (56.1 %) showed a prolonged QTc interval. Significant statistical association was recorded between QTc interval and delay time,
Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is an illness resulting from dermal exposure to dissolved nicotine from wet tobacco leaves; it is characterized by nausea, vomiting, weakness, and dizziness and sometimes fluctuations in blood pressure or heart rate (1-3). On September 14, 1992, the Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities (OHNAC) project of Kentucky * received reports of 27 cases of GTS. The cases occurred among tobacco harvesters who had sought treatment in several hospital emergency departments in south-central Kentucky during the preceding 2 weeks. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation of these cases. On September 15, OHNAC staff initiated a review of inpatient and emergency department medical records from May 1 through October 2 at five hospitals in the Bowling Green and Elizabethtown areas. The review identified 55 persons in whom GTS, nicotine poisoning, or other illnesses compatible with GTS symptomatology had been diagnosed. On September 25, industrial ...
Researchers used data collected by the USDA, Consumers Union (CU), and California's Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) to compare the amount of pesticide residue on organic versus conventional foods.. Organic samples. 23 percent contained at least one pesticide residue.. 27 percent had at least one pesticide residue.. Less likely than conventional samples to contain pesticide residue.. Conventional samples. 73 percent had at least one pesticide residue. Six times as likely as organic samples to contain multiple pesticides.. 79 percent had at least one pesticide residue. Ten times as likely as organic samples to contain multiple pesticides.. Five times as likely as organic samples to contain residues.. Conventional produce with the most pesticide residue ...
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Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a
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The Community indicative occupational exposure limit values are established as implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC.Member States shall establish national occupational exposure limit values for the chemical agents listed in the Annex, taking into account the Community values.
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Agricultural Health Study Cohort data (Alavanja et al., 2003; 2004); Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (De Roos et al., 2005); Depression and pesticide exposures among private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (Beseler et al., 2008); Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and exposure to organochlorine pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984 (Cox et al., 2007); Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (Slager et al., 2009); Pesticide exposure and timing of menopause (Farr et al., 2006); Health impacts of pesticide exposure in a cohort of outdoor workers (Beard et al., 2003); additional sources cited in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers. T2 - VII: Occupational exposures. AU - Kennedy, Kathleen J.. AU - Esmen, Nurtan A.. AU - Hancock, Roger P.. AU - Lacey, Steven E.. AU - Marsh, Gary M.. AU - Buchanich, Jeanine M.. AU - Youk, Ada O.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Objective: To reconstruct agent-specific occupational exposures for a cohort of jet engine manufacturing workers for use in an epidemiological mortality study. Methods: Potential chemical and physical exposures at eight jet engine manufacturing and overhaul/repair plants were evaluated for the period 1952 to 2001. Eleven agents were selected for detailed examination, and a jobexposure matrix was constructed. Results: Quantitative exposure estimates were generated for metalworking fluids, nickel, cobalt, chromium, solvents, and incomplete combustion aerosol from metalworking fluids. Qualitative exposure estimates were assigned for ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, ...
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Profenofos resistance was found in field strains of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) collected at late season of 2013 from four Governorates in Egypt. Resistance was high in regions where profenofos were frequently used. Resistance ranged between 31.31 and 59.60% in the tested strains. Profenofos resistance was the highest in the individuals collected from Gharbia Governorate as compared with the other field strains; whereas the lowest resistance percentage was noticed in individuals collected from Kafrel-Sheikh Governorate. Studies carried out through estimation of the detoxification enzymes activity indicated that enhanced acetylcholinesterase, alkaline & acid phosphatases and α & β nonspecific esterases as well as total protein contents were probably important mechanisms for profenofos resistance in field strains. Colorimetric assays showed a significant positive correlation between increased resistance to profenofos in strains of P. gossypiella examined and the hydrolytic
Objectives: Since its registration in 1994, acetochlor, an herbicide licensed for use on corn, has been one of the most commonly used pesticides in the US. We evaluated use of acetochlor and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators. Method: During a telephone interview administered from 1999-2005, participants provided information on
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border. AU - Oren, E.. AU - Fiero, M. H.. AU - Barrett, E.. AU - Anderson, B.. AU - Nuñez, M.. AU - Gonzalez-Salazar, F.. PY - 2016/11/3. Y1 - 2016/11/3. N2 - Background: Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity. Methods: Participants were recruited using mobile clinics on the San Luis US-Mexico border and ...
Fact Sheet. February --11, 2014. BY ELECTRONIC MAIL. The Honorable David Michaels, PhD, MPH. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor. 200 Constitution Avenue, NW. Washington, DC 20210. Electronic Address: http://www.regulations.gov. Re: Comments on OHSA's Proposed Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Rule (RIN 1218-AB70; Docket No. OSHA-2010-0034). Dear Assistant Secretary Michaels:. The U.S. Small Business Administration's Office of Advocacy (Advocacy) submits the following comments on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Proposed Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Rule.[1] OSHA's proposed rule would establish a new permissible exposure limit (PEL) and action level for respirable crystalline silica and impose a host of ancillary requirements, such as exposure assessments, medical monitoring, engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, respiratory protection ...
ABSTRACT Human food chain toxicity, soil fertility and agricultural output have been shown to be influenced by application of various types of fertilizers. This research studied the influence of multiple fertilizer application on soil quality and plant heavy metal accumulation, proximate and phytochemical compositions. The different fertilizer samples used were NlSPlSKlS (CFI), N20PIOKIO (CF2), N27P13PI3 (CF3), pig manure (AMI) and chicken manure (AM2). Plant species used were Telfairia occidental is and Talinum triangulare. The experiment had four treatments and each treatment had 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0glkg soil. The seeds of the vegetables were planted and allowed to grow for a period of 12 weeks. The first sets of the experimental pots were left for a latent period of 12 weeks after the first harvest for second fertilizer application. The heavy metal composition of the different fertilizers and control soil as well as the plant species were studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). ...
a) The unshaded area on this page Lists PELs from OSHA Table Z-3 in 29 CFR 1910.1000. The shaded area of this page lists other occupational exposure limits (OELs) from Cal/OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH®.. (b) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELS) from 29 CFR 1910.1000. Z-3 Table; [58 FR 35340, June 30, 1993; 58 FR 40191, July 27, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 56831, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997; 62 FR 42018, Aug. 4,1997]. [OSHA entries for respirable crystalline silica from 81 FR 16285, March 25, 2016] PELs are 8-hour time weighted averages (TWAs) unless otherwise indicated. OSHA enforces these limits under section 5(a)(2) of the OSH Act.. (c) California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) from Table AC-1 last viewed October 2, 2019, viewable at http://www.dir.ca.gov/title8/5155table_ac1.html. Cal/OSHA enforces its PELs in workplaces under its jurisdiction. Cal/OSHA has established ...
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers. A panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan ...
ABSTRACT. The study reports supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of pesticides in sediment samples from the Okavango Delta, the headwaters of which originate from Angola and traverse through Namibia into Botswana. An acetone modifier and fractional extraction by pressure ramping gave recoveries ranging from 55 to 86% for the 15 pesticides studied. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin and 4, 4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4, 4'-DDT) were identified at concentration ranges of 1.1 to 30.3, 0.5 to 15.2 and 1.4 to 55.4 µg/g, respectively by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and were unequivocally confirmed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF-MS). The study indicated an increase of pesticide concentrations in the direction of water flow from the Panhandle (point of entry) to the lower delta. The results show that there are ramifications associated with activities either upstream or downstream; hence close monitoring is required for the long-term ...
The presence of eight acid-extractable phenols and sixteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Laguna Lake water was determined. The acid-extractable phenols which were analyzed included: phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The OCPs were as follows: α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC (lindane), δ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 4,4'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan II, 4,4-DDD, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulfate, and 4,4-DDT.Water samples trom five different sites in Laguna Lake were collected in October and November 1996, and February and May 1997. The phenols and OCPs were extracted separately by liquid-liquid extraction. Identification and quantification were done by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). None of the sixteen OCPs was detected in any of the water samples. On the other hand, phenol and 4-nitrophenol were detected in some samples collected in
Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.. An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.. Comparison of chemical profiles of the ...
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of mortality among U.S. Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. Since Hispanics/Latinos, in general, are twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to have elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a biomarker of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is vital to understand the CVD risk factor-ALT relationship in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study investigated the elevated ALT status in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers and the relationships between ALT and CVD risk markers.Methods: In 210 Hispanic/Latino farmworkers (48% female; aged 35.2 ± 9.2 years), fasting blood samples were measured for serum ALT, and elevated ALT was defined by | 43 U/L. CVD risk markers were measured with standard methods and defined according to the definitions of metabolic syndrome.Results: The overall prevalence for elevated ALT was 12.4%. Significant linear upward trends across tertiles of serum ALT were observed for body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose
Potential exposure to dimethoate may occur through the diet, when handling and applying the product, or when entering or contacting treated sites. 1993;31(3):177-82. Dimethoate / Cypermethrin is used for insecticide and other conditions. Of the twelve incident reports, 10 were possible, one was probable and one was highly probable. Omethoate is a toxic organophosphate insecticide. To protect pollinators, dimethoate cannot be applied to blooming crops when bees are foraging. In short-term feeding studies, laboratory animals showed reduced cholinesterase activity in red blood cells, plasma, and the brain despite a lack of clinical signs of toxicity (IPCS, 2003). Get dimethoate insecticide at best price with product specifications. General population exposure to dimethoate or omethoate can occur by eating foods treated with dimethoate or by drinking water. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. It is used to control a broad range of insects and mites on ...
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal is a dynamic journal for publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, etc. The goal of the open access journalsis to publish articles on new and emerging fields and concepts for providing future directions to promote agricultural research globally. It is a unique open access journal covering all the disciplines of crop sciences, animal sciences, fishery sciences, forestry sciences and natural resources management sciences, to stimulate interest in inter-disciplinary research. This open access journal will catalyze policy development on issues impacting rational agricultural growth and development globally. It also publishes open access books.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has maintained that "there is no 'safe' level of asbestos exposure for any type of asbestos fiber," but despite these warnings, asbestos is still legal and still used in the United States. Different government agencies have their own rules and regulations for asbestos control to maintain exposure levels in the workplace and the environment. Those who work directly with asbestos consistently have a higher chance of contracting an asbestos-related disease than those who do not. Regulations and guidelines have been installed to keep the level of asbestos exposure at a minimum and are necessary among those who are in danger of being exposed in the work place.. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) ...
June 13, 2014) US government action can curb the risks climate change poses to global food security, says a new report (PDF) released by The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.. Building on the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change report and National Climate Assessment, The Chicago Council's study explains how higher temperatures, changes in rainfall and natural disasters caused by climate change could undermine food production and put food supplies at risk. In total, climate change could reduce food production growth by 2 percent each decade for the rest of this century.. The report calls on the US government to integrate climate change adaptation into its global food security strategy. Recommendations include:. -Passing legislation for a long-term global food and nutrition security strategy.. -Increasing funding for agricultural research on climate change adaptation. Research priorities should include improving crop and livestock tolerance to higher temperatures and volatile ...
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Evidence pertaining to the carcinogenicity of chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide is reviewed and evaluated. The report covers studies completed before 1985. Case reports and epidemiologic studies of pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers are reviewed, but because of methodologic limitations, these studies establish neither a positive nor a negative association between cancer and chlordane or heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide exposure. A number of independent studies of laboratory animals, however, demonstrates that chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide cause liver cancer in mice and rats. Based on the accumulated evidence, chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide are classified as probable human carcinogens, Group B2 using EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. The carcinogenic potency of chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide is estimated by fitting mathematical models to the laboratory animal data. These estimates indicate that chlordane and ...
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), a kind of important agricultural production material, have been playing an important role in pest control and food production increase. But more and more attention has been paid on the serious environmental problems because of the excess use of OPs. The quick and accurate detection of residues, especially the multi-residues of OPs is always a research focus. In recent years, a great deal of research and exploration has been made on the multi-analyte immunoassay of pesticides based on the spe-cific recognition between antigen and antibody. This article reviewed the recent advances on the mul-ti-residue determination of organophosphorus insecticides, including the progresses of mixed antibodies, antibodies against multi-antigenic determinants, antibodies against common moiety and single chain fragment variable (ScFv) antibodies, and discussed the existed problems and future research.
Background: Cytokine gene polymorphism could predispose to different susceptibility to occupational dust exposure.. Aim:We aimed to assess cytokine gene polymorphism contribution to occupational lung diseases development and management.. Materials and methods: Study included 240 patients (pts) with occupational lung diseases (pneumoconiosis, occupational chronic bronchitis, occupational COPD), mean age 569 years old. 60 comparable healthy volunteers with occupational hazards were enrolled. The participants of the study were genotyped on the candidate genes (TNF-α, EPHX1, CAT, IL-1, IL-6) by real time PCR technique.. Results: Allele A of TNF-α gene in G(-308)A position: incidence in pts with occupational lung diseases 44,8% (number of heterozygotes prevailed), incidence in control group 24,5% (wild GG type was more frequent)(χ=6,49; p=0,011).Heterozygotes in G (-308)A position are the risk group of the occupational lung diseases development (sensitivity of the marker 89%, specificity -53%, ...
In vivo effects of two sublethal doses of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl were studied in Procambarus clarkii after 2 and 7 days of exposure, and after pesticide removal. Chlorpyrifos inhibited carboxylesterase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, but acetylcholinesterase was less sensitive. Compared with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl had a less marked effect on esterase activity. The effects of selected pesticides on biotransformation or oxidative stress biomarkers were contradictory. Chlorpyrifos lowered ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), catalase and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels but raised glutathione-S-transferase activity, while carbaryl raised EROD, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, but lowered glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The effects on protein expression patterns depending on pesticide type and the tissue used for analysis were studied in parallel by 2-DE. In gill and nervous tissue about 2000 spots (pI 4-7) were resolved, with quite different ...
Nested Case-control Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure and Breast and Esophagus Cancer Risk among Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in Jiangsu of China Nested case-control study;occupational radiation;medical diagnostic X ray workers;cancer risk; Medical diagnostic X-ray workers are one occupational group that expose to the long-term low-dose external radiation over their working lifetime, and they may under risk of different cancers. This study aims to determine the relationship between the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk among these workers in Jiangsu, China. We conducted Nested case-control study to investigate the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire, which includes but not limits to demographic data, personal behaviors and family history of cancer. Retrospective dose reconstruction was conducted to estimate the cumulative doses of the x-ray workers. Inferential statistics, t-test and 2 tests
A rapid, sensitive and enzyme-based optical biosensor was applied for the determination of seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), including the oxo forms (malaoxon, paraoxon, dibrom, and dichlorvos), the thio forms (malathion and parathion) and the mixed form (demeton) in Panax ginseng. The principal of the proposed method is that the fluorescence quenching effect of quantum dots (QDs) can be observed by enzyme-generated H2O2. The active centers of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) could be inhibited in the presence of pesticides, which caused decrease of the generated H2O2. Then, the inhibition efficiency of pesticide to AChE activity could be evaluated by measuring the fluorescence changes. Different from biosensors based on immobilized enzyme or self-assembling technique, the proposed biosensor demonstrated a good selectivity for the detection of oxo forms of OPPs. In the present study, the important experimental conditions of the proposed biosensor were investigated. Under the optimized conditions
An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (n = 88) and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17). Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM) of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR) gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and
Global piperonyl butoxide market is segmented on the basis of type, application, end user and geography.Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is an organic compound used as a component of pesticide formulations. It is a waxy white solid. It is a synergist. That is, despite having no pesticidal activity of its own, it enhances the potency of certain pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroids, pyrethrins and rotenone.. The market for piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is rather consolidated and is primarily driven by the ever increasing demand for food. The rapid increase in the global population has raised food security concerns and several underdeveloped and developing countries still lack proper infrastructure for the storage and distribution of food grains.A significant rise in yield is possible through the usage of crop protection chemicals such as insecticides. This has resulted in the high demand for piperonyl butoxide.. Full Research Report On Global Piperonyl Butoxide Market Analysis available at: ...
New derivatives of cyclodextrins were prepared in order to determine the relative importance of the structural key elements involved in the degradation of organophosphorus nerve agents. To avoid a competitive inclusion between the organophosphorus substrate and the iodosobenzoate group, responsible for its degradation, the latter group had to be covalently bound to the cyclodextrin scaffold. Although the presence of the α nucleophile iodosobenzoate was a determinant in the hydrolysis process, an imidazole group was added to get a synergistic effect towards the degradation of the agents. The degradation efficiency was found to be dependent on the relative position of the heterocycle towards the reactive group as well as on the nature of the organophosphorus derivative.
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The need for rapid and accurate detection systems is expanding and the utilization of cross-reactive sensor arrays to detect chemical warfare agents in conjunction with novel computational techniques may prove to be a potential solution to this challenge. We have investigated the detection, prediction, and classification of various organophosphate (OP) nerve agent simulants using sensor arrays with a novel learning scheme known as support vector machines (SVMs). The OPs tested include parathion, malathion, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, paraoxon, and diazinon. A new data reduction software program was written in MATLAB V. 6.1 to extract steady-state and kinetic data from the sensor arrays. The program also creates training sets by mixing and randomly sorting any combination of data categories into both positive and negative cases. The resulting signals were fed into SVM software for 'pairwise' and 'one' vs all classification. Experimental results for this new paradigm show a significant increase in
Beyond Pesticides, January 8, 2018) With a long-documented history of children's exposure to pesticides that drift from agricultural fields to school yards, California's new regulations establishing no-spray buffers took effort January 1, as labor and public health groups acknowledged the progress and inadequacy of the measure. The new rule, DPR 16-004 Pesticide Use Near Schoolsites, adopted by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), prohibits many pesticide applications within a quarter mile of public K-12 schools and licensed child day-care facilities during school hours, Monday through Friday between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. This includes all applications by aircraft, sprinklers, air-blast sprayers, and all fumigant applications. In addition, most dust and powder pesticide applications, such as sulfur, will also be prohibited during this time. The new rule was announced in November, 2017. Advocates say the new rules fail to address persistent low-level exposures associated with the ...
The role of irrigation water in disseminating Erwinia amylovora is not fully recognized, and the survival of the bacterium in natural water has not been carefully investigated. This risk has been underestimated, since it is generally considered that E. amylovora survives only for a short period in water and its isolation from natural water samples has not been reported. The main goal of this study has been to clarify whether E. amylovora could survive under nutrient starvation conditions usually found in aquatic environments and if it is nonculturable on solid media when recovered from sterile natural water. Infectivity of E. amylovora cells in water was evaluated by using immature pear fruits. Total and viable cell counts were monitored by the Live/Dead viability kit, and culturability by plate counts on King's B medium. E. amylovora was able to survive in water from different sources showing a long persistence in irrigation water and maintaining its infectivity for green pears. However, a ...
Aryldialkylphosphatase (EC 3.1.8.1) (more commonly known as phosphotriesterase, and also organophosphate hydrolase, parathion hydrolase, paraoxonase, and parathion aryl esterase) is a metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes the triester linkage found in organophosphate insecticides. an aryl dialkyl phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dialkyl phosphate + an aryl alcohol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are aryldialkylphosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are dialkylphosphate and aryl alcohol. The gene (opd, for organophosphate-degrading) that codes for the enzyme is found in a large plasmid (pSC1, 51Kb) endogenous to Pseudomonas diminuta, although the gene has also been found in many other bacterial species such as Flavobacterium sp. (ATCC27551), where it is also encoded in an extrachromosomal element (pSM55, 43Kb). Organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. They can be found as part of insecticides, ...
Australian farmers and their workers are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are a widely used class of pesticide used for animal husbandry practices (Naphthalophos for sheep dipping, jetting and drench), crop production for pest control (Dimethoate) and in public health (Maldison for head lice). Acute poisonings with this class of insecticide are reported among agricultural workers and children around the globe, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Less is known about chronic exposures. Regular monitoring of erythrocyte AChE will enable farmers to identify potential exposure to organophosphate insecticides and take action to reduce exposures and improve their health and safety practices. This study aims to assess and improve the integration of AChE monitoring into routine point of care health clinics, and provide farming and non-farming people with a link between their AChE activity and their household chemical and agrichemical use. The research
A replicated, controlled study in summer 1989-1990 in eight sites on one arable farm near Bonn, Germany (Henze & Şengonca 1993) found that a 50% reduction in pesticide application could control an aphid (Aphidoidea) outbreak as efficiently as the normal application. In farming systems with no insecticide use at all, natural predators reduced aphid populations to the same low levels (,5 aphids/plant), but the population decline occurred one week later than in the systems with pesticide use. Predatory arthropod populations also declined after pesticide treatment. Predator levels remained rather low in the normal pesticide system, however in the 50% reduced pesticide system they recovered in three weeks after pesticide application. Four farming systems were compared with two replicates each: conventional farming (normal pesticide use), integrated farming (50% reduction in pesticide use), 'minimum' farming (no insecticides, strongly reduced herbicide use) and 'no pesticide' farming (no pesticide ...
Beyond Pesticides, November 13, 2008) The Canadian Cancer Society is holding a conference to look at the possibility of advocating for stricter farm pesticide laws. The Cancer Society has been a vocal advocate for the cosmetic pesticide restrictions that have passed in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec as well as many municipalities, but it has not yet taken a stance on the much larger use of agricultural pesticides. Health Canada, the Canadian entity responsible for pesticide regulation insists, as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency does in the U.S., that registered pesticides do not pose a substantive health risk when used as directed, but mounting scientific evidence shows otherwise. Many of the same chemicals that Canadian provinces have banned for cosmetic use, such as the herbicide 2,4-D, are used in much higher volumes in agriculture than on lawns. Since the Cancer Society is a strong voice in favor of the cosmetic pesticide bans because of the dangers of pesticides, it is logical ...