CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR: Phosmet FACT SHEET NUMBER: 101 DATE ISSUED: OCTOBER 1, 1986 1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL - Generic Name: N-(mercaptomethyl) phthalimide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithiote) - Common Name: Phosmet - Trade Names: Phthalofos, PMP, Appa, Imidan, Kemplate, Prolate, R-1504 - EPA Shaughnessy Code: 059201 - Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number: 732-11-6 - Year of Initial Registration: 1966 - Pesticide Type: Insecticide-acaricide - Chemical family: Organophosphate - U.S. Producer: Stauffer Chemical Company 2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS - Application sites: Terrestrial food crops (field, vegetable and orchard crops such as alfalfa, apples, almonds, apricots, blueberries, citrus, corn, cotton, grapes, nectarines, pears, peaches, pecans, plums, and potatoes). Terrestrial non-food crops (nursery and ornamental crops) domestic outdoor and indoor. - Types of formulations: Dust (1% and 5% active ingredient (A.I.), wettable powders (7.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 50%, and 70% A.I.): impregnated ...
This report is a review of the Nordic countries systems regarding fatal occupational accidents, i.e. the reporting process, the investigation process, the registration process, the registries, and the legal statutes. The report shows that during the time period 2003-2008 the total number of fatal occupational accidents in the Nordic countries was 1243, i.e. between 1.51 to 2.49 fatal occupational accidents per 100,000 workers per year varying between countries. The report also shows that more than 93 % of these fatal accidents involved males, which reflects the predominance of men in the most dangerous branches, i.e. agriculture, construction, transport, and communication. The report concludes that in order to make data on occupational accidents more comparable among the Nordic countries and improve our common ability to identify prevention strategies, a closer collaboration in the field of occupational accident investigation and registration is needed.. ...
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According to Beyond Pesticides recent report on state pesticide use on cannabis, California was one of six states silent on pesticide use on marijuana. Until now, the only discussion of the issue came from a 2012 report from the California Research Bureau, commissioned by CA Assembly member Linda Halderman, M.D. The report indicated that because no pesticide products were registered for use on cannabis by EPA, and given that applying a pesticide for an unregistered use is illegal under federal pesticide law, the state could confiscate any medical marijuana crop treated with a pesticide. However, it was noted that this conflicts with the states Compassionate Use Act, which guarantees ill Californians access to medical marijuana. Thus it was determined that growers could simply not spray pesticides in order to avoid potential confiscation. But because the state had not formulated any laws or regulations governing pesticide use on cannabis, the issue remained in a grey area.. The State Water ...
Journalism in South and Central America is a great way to kick-start your career as a journalist! Not only will you have the chance to take in the sights and sounds of the country, but youll be working with a local newspaper on a journalism internship during your gap year in South and Central America. International journalism is a fantastic way to learn about and experience the world of journalism and all that it involves. Journalism is notorious for requiring hard-work and dedication, and our journalism projects in South and Central America are ideal for you if you want to start on the road to your dream job.. Our journalism projects in South and Central America are suited for gap years, career breaks, or volunteering abroad and allow you the chance to immerse yourself in the exotic culture of your host country. Whichever form of journalism you want to go into, begin your dream career whilst soaking up a whole new culture when you volunteer in South and Central America. Give journalism a go ...
Teaching in South and Central America on your gap year, career break or volunteering abroad experience is a great opportunity to gain relevant and invaluable teaching experience, while making a contribution to the disadvantaged communities with whom you will be living during your gap year in South and Central America. Theres no need for prior experience to teach as you travel in South and Central America with Frontier, as our teaching projects are designed for people who are teaching for the first time. Our volunteer in South and Central America opportunities give you the chance to earn your TEFL certificate for free or you can gain our new and exclusive, internationally recognised BTEC Advanced Certificate in Teaching English as Foreign Language. Travel South and Central America and experience something completely new. ...
Migration is an important process of change for rural populations in developing countries. Migration is a primary cause of behaviour change - by their very act of migrating, migrants are different from those who do not migrate. The focus of the current study is male rural-urban migration in Tanzania and its interaction with sexual behaviour. The analysis presents results from a comparison with individual-level analyses of two populations, one (composed of recent rural-urban migrants) in an urban area and one in a rural area. Detailed migration histories (n=96 rural-urban migrants) and in-depth interviews (n=96 rural-urban migrants, n=51 rural residents) form the basis of the study. Three key research questions are addressed: How does the sexual behaviour of migrants differ from that of rural residents? How do HIV knowledge levels vary between rural-urban migrants and rural residents? What factors are associated with either intentions of behaviour change or reported behaviour? The results are ...
Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
Introduction: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a global health problem and responsible for many deaths worldwide every year. It acts by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causing cholinergic crises that lead to muscarinic, nicotinic and central manifestations. One of the most serious complications of organophosphate exposure is cardiac toxicity including electrocardiogram changes.This study aimed to evaluate corrected QT interval as predictor of major outcome events which included mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, number of atropine and toxogonine ampoules and duration of hospital stay in acute organophosphate toxicity. Methods: The study recruited 98 patients suffering from acute OP poisoning, who were admitted to Tanta University Poison Control Unit. QTc interval length and the different outcomes of the patients were recorded. Results: Fifty five patients (56.1 %) showed a prolonged QTc interval. Significant statistical association was recorded between QTc interval and delay time,
Lung function is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, and the chronic nature of lung function decline allows for preventive initiatives. Proinflammatory constituents of organic dust are considered a possible cause of compromised respiratory health. The aim of this systematic review was to reveal the impact of organic dust exposure on long-term change in lung function. The literature search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Predefined criteria concerned study design: longitudinal, ≥1 year follow-up, ≥50 exposed; exposure measures: organic dust, measured or estimated, in different occupational settings; and outcome measures: change in lung function measured by spirometry. Based on these criteria, 1580 potentially relevant publications were narrowed down to 20 included publications. Quality was evaluated and discussed based on six objectively defined criteria. Overall, 14 studies found some type of association ...
Approximately 1500 to 2000 case of metal fume fever are reported yearly in the United States. There are probably a lot more cases than that. Some sources estimate that as many as 40 percent of welders over the age of 30 have suffered from metal fume fever at some point during their careers. An occupational disease caused by inhalation of particles and fumes of metallic oxides and characterized by malarialike symptoms.. However, incidences have been decreasing over the last fifty years, mostly due to awareness of the importance of proper ventilation.. ...
Researchers used data collected by the USDA, Consumers Union (CU), and Californias Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) to compare the amount of pesticide residue on organic versus conventional foods.. Organic samples. 23 percent contained at least one pesticide residue.. 27 percent had at least one pesticide residue.. Less likely than conventional samples to contain pesticide residue.. Conventional samples. 73 percent had at least one pesticide residue. Six times as likely as organic samples to contain multiple pesticides.. 79 percent had at least one pesticide residue. Ten times as likely as organic samples to contain multiple pesticides.. Five times as likely as organic samples to contain residues.. Conventional produce with the most pesticide residue ...
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Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a
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Tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) can generate a large amount of inexpensive biomass more efficiently. The current research is focused on using green tobacco as a feedstock for ethanol production. Acid pretreatment of green tobacco leaves increases efficiency of saccharification by releasing high amount of sugar monomers from complex polymer. It is easiest way to produce bio-ethanol from green tobacco leaves by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as there is no need of any additional supporting media.. ...
Pesticides are poisons in nature and have harmful effects on human health. They are used for suicide, homicide and for other bad intentions. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the residues of some pesticides in fruits collected from various markets of Lahore. Material & Methods: Eight fruits samples apple, banana, guava, melon, orange, papaya, pomegranate and strawberry from various sale points of the market were collected. Extraction, clean up and analysis were then processed. Concentration of five pesticides including Bifenthrin, Lambda Cyhalothrin, Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos and Cypermethrin were determined in fruits samples using high performance thin layer chromatography. Spot diameter of pesticide residue of sample was compared with that of standards to determine pesticide concentration. One way ANOVA was applied to determine the significance of difference. Results & Cnoclusion: Significant difference of pesticide presence was identified in some selected fruits ( ...
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1]A fungus is devastating coffee growers in Guatemala.. The Central American nations president declared a state of emergency over the Coffee Rust infection, reports the Associated Press[2]. President Otto Molina Perez says that more than 70% of Guatemalas coffee is harmed by the fungus.. Guatemala is the third Central American country to enact emergency measures to deal with the blight. It also has been seen in El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico and Honduras. The fungus damages the coffee plant, first with the leaves, then the plant itself is affected. It then ceases producing coffee beans and dies.. More than 100,000 workers in Guatemala already have lost their jobs. With more than 1.2 million jobs in the coffee industry, Guatemala is freeing up $14 million to help coffee growers to purchase pesticides and to provide education to planters about how to avoid and treat the fungus when it appears on their crops.. Officials from El Salvador, Panama, Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica are ...
Since 2002, approximately 15,000 migrants have landed by boat on the tiny European island nation of Malta, arriving in the country without permission, or "irregularly." Human Rights Watchs report documents how Malta has detained virtually all of these migrants without regard to age. Asylum seekers who arrive by boat are detained for up to 12 months, and migrants who do not apply for asylum (or who are rejected) can be detained for up to 18 months. Even the most vulnerable migrants - such as families with children, elderly people, and people with mental or physical disabilities - are taken to detention.. The report documents Maltas routine detention of unaccompanied migrant children - who are often fleeing violence or conflict in countries such as Somalia and Eritrea - pending the outcome of a lengthy age determination procedure. Unaccompanied migrant children are children traveling without parents or other guardians; typically they travel in dangerous conditions for many months before reaching ...
Contemporary Fiction from Central America At times unsettling, absurd, suspenseful, tragic, exhilarating, and revelatory, the stories in this collection bring together the widely divergent styles and subject matter of writers from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. An arresting, luminous collection - Publishers Weekly
The Community indicative occupational exposure limit values are established as implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC.Member States shall establish national occupational exposure limit values for the chemical agents listed in the Annex, taking into account the Community values.
A vacuum cleaner, also known as a sweeper or hoover, is a device that uses an air pump (a centrifugal fan in all but some of the very oldest models), to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors, and from other surfaces such as upholstery and draperies. The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for later disposal. Vacuum cleaners, which are used in homes as well as in industry, exist in a variety of sizes and models-small battery-powered hand-held devices, wheeled canister models for home use, domestic central vacuum cleaners, huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied, and self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. Specialized shop vacuums can be used to suck up both dust and liquids. Although vacuum cleaner and the short form vacuum are neutral names, in some countries (UK, Ireland) hoover is used instead as a genericized trademark, and as a ...
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Five physicians radiological assessments of coalworkers simple pneumoconiosis (CWP) in 2600 coalminers at 10 British collieries have been studied in relation to the individuals estimated lifetime (mean 33 years) exposure to respirable coalmine dust. Estimates of exposure were based on 20 years of observations at each colliery. Radiographic classifications were clearly associated with the measures of dust exposure. Important unexplained differences between some of the collieries were disclosed. Among men with similar cumulative dust exposures those with longer exposure time had higher prevalence of CWP. In general there was no evidence that the quartz concentrations experienced (average 5% of mixed dust) affected the probability of developing coalworkers simple pneumoconiosis. Some men reacted unfavourably (two or more steps of change on the 12-point radiological scale) over a 10-year period to coalmine dust with a relatively high quartz content.. ...
Agricultural Health Study Cohort data (Alavanja et al., 2003; 2004); Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (De Roos et al., 2005); Depression and pesticide exposures among private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (Beseler et al., 2008); Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and exposure to organochlorine pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984 (Cox et al., 2007); Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (Slager et al., 2009); Pesticide exposure and timing of menopause (Farr et al., 2006); Health impacts of pesticide exposure in a cohort of outdoor workers (Beard et al., 2003); additional sources cited in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers. T2 - VII: Occupational exposures. AU - Kennedy, Kathleen J.. AU - Esmen, Nurtan A.. AU - Hancock, Roger P.. AU - Lacey, Steven E.. AU - Marsh, Gary M.. AU - Buchanich, Jeanine M.. AU - Youk, Ada O.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Objective: To reconstruct agent-specific occupational exposures for a cohort of jet engine manufacturing workers for use in an epidemiological mortality study. Methods: Potential chemical and physical exposures at eight jet engine manufacturing and overhaul/repair plants were evaluated for the period 1952 to 2001. Eleven agents were selected for detailed examination, and a jobexposure matrix was constructed. Results: Quantitative exposure estimates were generated for metalworking fluids, nickel, cobalt, chromium, solvents, and incomplete combustion aerosol from metalworking fluids. Qualitative exposure estimates were assigned for ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, ...
Over the past 50 years, the discovery of oil has catalyzed considerable infrastructure development in the six GCC countries of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE. The consequent need for expansion in the workforce has led to an influx of migrant workers over the past three decades.2 For example, in the 1960s, Qatar had a small, homogenous Arab population of 100,000.This population has increased more than twentyfold to over 2 million, primarily through immigration.3 "Foreigners" now make up 70% of Qatars population and an estimated 94% of its workforce. In neighboring Saudi Arabia, migrant workers constitute around one-third of the population.4 Similarly, migrants make up more than half the population in Bahrain.5 In the UAE, migrants account for more than 80% of the population.6 This immigration has helped GCC countries accelerate development, and the resulting remittance flows have undoubtedly had a positive effect on the economic prosperity of certain economically ...
Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods.: This paper presents the application of a Bayesian framework for retrospective exposure assessment of
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Profenofos resistance was found in field strains of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) collected at late season of 2013 from four Governorates in Egypt. Resistance was high in regions where profenofos were frequently used. Resistance ranged between 31.31 and 59.60% in the tested strains. Profenofos resistance was the highest in the individuals collected from Gharbia Governorate as compared with the other field strains; whereas the lowest resistance percentage was noticed in individuals collected from Kafrel-Sheikh Governorate. Studies carried out through estimation of the detoxification enzymes activity indicated that enhanced acetylcholinesterase, alkaline & acid phosphatases and α & β nonspecific esterases as well as total protein contents were probably important mechanisms for profenofos resistance in field strains. Colorimetric assays showed a significant positive correlation between increased resistance to profenofos in strains of P. gossypiella examined and the hydrolytic
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) on wool fabric. Millions of dust mites inhabit the home, feeding on dead human skin that are common in house dust. The mites body is in three parts: the gnathosoma (head region) adapted for feeding on dead skin, the propodosma (carrying the 1st and 2nd pair of walking legs) and the hysterosoma (locating the 3rd and 4th pairs of legs). Dust mites produce 10-20 waste particles per day. The dead bodies and faecal pellets can trigger allergic responses. The whole life cycle from egg to adult takes approximately one month to complete, mature female mites can lay from 1-2 eggs per day. Adult mites can live up to two months. The most important house dust mites worldwide are Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Magnification: mites x25, fabric x44 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/1517
From 2001 to 2010, 5,376 square kilometers (2,076 sq mi) of forest were lost in the region. In 2010 Belize had 63% of remaining forest cover, Costa Rica 46%, Panama 45%, Honduras 41%, Guatemala 37%, Nicaragua 29%, and El Salvador 21%. Most of the loss occurred in the moist forest biome, with 12,201 square kilometers (4,711 sq mi). Woody vegetation loss was partially set off by a gain in the coniferous forest biome with 4,730 square kilometers (1,830 sq mi), and a gain in the dry forest biome at 2,054 square kilometers (793 sq mi). Mangroves and deserts contributed only 1% to the loss in forest vegetation. The bulk of the deforestation was located at the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua with a loss of 8,574 square kilometers (3,310 sq mi) of forest in the period from 2001 to 2010. The most significant regrowth of 3,050 square kilometers (1,180 sq mi) of forest was seen in the coniferous woody vegetation of Honduras.[27]. The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border. AU - Oren, E.. AU - Fiero, M. H.. AU - Barrett, E.. AU - Anderson, B.. AU - Nuñez, M.. AU - Gonzalez-Salazar, F.. PY - 2016/11/3. Y1 - 2016/11/3. N2 - Background: Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity. Methods: Participants were recruited using mobile clinics on the San Luis US-Mexico border and ...
Fact Sheet. February --11, 2014. BY ELECTRONIC MAIL. The Honorable David Michaels, PhD, MPH. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor. 200 Constitution Avenue, NW. Washington, DC 20210. Electronic Address: http://www.regulations.gov. Re: Comments on OHSAs Proposed Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Rule (RIN 1218-AB70; Docket No. OSHA-2010-0034). Dear Assistant Secretary Michaels:. The U.S. Small Business Administrations Office of Advocacy (Advocacy) submits the following comments on the Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHAs) Proposed Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Rule.[1] OSHAs proposed rule would establish a new permissible exposure limit (PEL) and action level for respirable crystalline silica and impose a host of ancillary requirements, such as exposure assessments, medical monitoring, engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, respiratory protection ...
All material found on the BC Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) website is provided for informational purposes only. It is not meant to replace the expert advice of a healthcare professional such as a physician, pharmacist, nurse or qualified poison specialist. Use of this site is governed and restricted by specific terms of use. Please review the full terms and conditions below prior to using the DPIC website. In the event of a poisoning emergency, call your local poison control centre immediately. Portions of this web site are intended for healthcare professionals. Interpretation and application of information may require more detailed explanation than contained herein, particularly regarding any clinical information that is found in or linked to this site. Patients are advised to consult their health care provider regarding diagnosis and treatment, and for assistance in interpreting these materials and applying them in individual cases. ...
ABSTRACT Human food chain toxicity, soil fertility and agricultural output have been shown to be influenced by application of various types of fertilizers. This research studied the influence of multiple fertilizer application on soil quality and plant heavy metal accumulation, proximate and phytochemical compositions. The different fertilizer samples used were NlSPlSKlS (CFI), N20PIOKIO (CF2), N27P13PI3 (CF3), pig manure (AMI) and chicken manure (AM2). Plant species used were Telfairia occidental is and Talinum triangulare. The experiment had four treatments and each treatment had 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0glkg soil. The seeds of the vegetables were planted and allowed to grow for a period of 12 weeks. The first sets of the experimental pots were left for a latent period of 12 weeks after the first harvest for second fertilizer application. The heavy metal composition of the different fertilizers and control soil as well as the plant species were studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). ...
Instructions for use: Mix one sachet with water or a milk of your choice, or add to a smoothie Enjoy once a day first thing in the morning 12 x 3g/ 0.11oz. Ingredients: Spirit Dust: Organic Goji, Organic Astragalus, Organic Reishi, Longan, Salvia, Organic Stevia; Beauty Dust: Organic Goji, Rehmannia, Organic Schisandra, Pearl, Organic Stevia; Sex Dust: Ho Shou Wu, Organic Cacao, Shilajit, Maca, Organic Schisandra, Cistanche, Epimedium, Organic Stevia Power Dust: Organic Astragalus, Ginseng, Organic Eleuthero, Organic Schisandra, Rhodiola, Organic Stevia; Brain Dust: Organic Astragalus, Shilajit, Maca, Lions Mane, Rhodiola, Ginkgo, Organic Stevia; Dream Dust: Zizyphus, Organic Schisandra, Organic Chamomile, Polygala, Organic Stevia
Category: Geography of Canada Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Global view centred on North America North America is the third largest continent (1990 est. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... This article describes the geography of Antigua and Barbuda. ... Political map of Costa Rica. ... a beach in the Barahona province This article details the geography of the Dominican Republic. ... Map of El Salvador Shaded relief map of El Salvador Satellite image of El Salvador in April 2002 Economic activity of El Salvador, 1980 Vegetation and land use, 1980 The geography of El Salvador is unique among the nations of Central America. ... Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 261 km² (Saint Kitts 168 km²; Nevis 93 ...
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers. A panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan ...
ABSTRACT. The study reports supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of pesticides in sediment samples from the Okavango Delta, the headwaters of which originate from Angola and traverse through Namibia into Botswana. An acetone modifier and fractional extraction by pressure ramping gave recoveries ranging from 55 to 86% for the 15 pesticides studied. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin and 4, 4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4, 4-DDT) were identified at concentration ranges of 1.1 to 30.3, 0.5 to 15.2 and 1.4 to 55.4 µg/g, respectively by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and were unequivocally confirmed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-ToF-MS). The study indicated an increase of pesticide concentrations in the direction of water flow from the Panhandle (point of entry) to the lower delta. The results show that there are ramifications associated with activities either upstream or downstream; hence close monitoring is required for the long-term ...
PubMed journal article Are house dust mite allergen levels influenced by cold winter weather? were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.. An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.. Comparison of chemical profiles of the ...
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of mortality among U.S. Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. Since Hispanics/Latinos, in general, are twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to have elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a biomarker of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is vital to understand the CVD risk factor-ALT relationship in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study investigated the elevated ALT status in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers and the relationships between ALT and CVD risk markers.Methods: In 210 Hispanic/Latino farmworkers (48% female; aged 35.2 ± 9.2 years), fasting blood samples were measured for serum ALT, and elevated ALT was defined by | 43 U/L. CVD risk markers were measured with standard methods and defined according to the definitions of metabolic syndrome.Results: The overall prevalence for elevated ALT was 12.4%. Significant linear upward trends across tertiles of serum ALT were observed for body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among men in developed countries; however, little is known about modifiable risk factors. Some studies have implicated organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides as risk factors (particularly the organodithioate class) and risk of clinically significant PCa subtypes. However, few studies have evaluated other pesticides. We used data from the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa, to extend our previous work and evaluate 39 additional pesticides and aggressive PCa. We used Cox proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ever use of individual pesticides and 883 cases of aggressive PCa (distant stage, poorly differentiated grade, Gleason score ≥ 7, or fatal prostate cancer) diagnosed between 1993 and 2015. All models adjusted for birth year, state, family
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The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has maintained that "there is no safe level of asbestos exposure for any type of asbestos fiber," but despite these warnings, asbestos is still legal and still used in the United States. Different government agencies have their own rules and regulations for asbestos control to maintain exposure levels in the workplace and the environment. Those who work directly with asbestos consistently have a higher chance of contracting an asbestos-related disease than those who do not. Regulations and guidelines have been installed to keep the level of asbestos exposure at a minimum and are necessary among those who are in danger of being exposed in the work place.. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) ...
The Process of Apple Cider Vinegar Production. Episode 3: Summer in the Organic Apple Orchard. In this video, CoralTree founder Kim Baker takes us around one of the local organic apple orchards on the Kapiti Coast that supply CoralTree delicious apples for their Apple Cider Vinegar. Kim discusses the local environment of the orchard, its close relationship to the Tararua mountain ranges, the Otaki river and Kapiti Island, an area rich in biodiversity from the nature reserves. He also explains the diversity in nature found throughout the orchard, from complex weeds, supporting beneficial insects and a rich layer of humus and biological activity in the soil. The apples come to their height of development over the longest day of the year (summer solstice), and now move into ripening up in flavor and sweetness in the coming months. If you would like to find out more information about what Kim is up to, or questions related to the video, please comment below. In the next few videos well be showing ...
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as high level noise. Permissible exposure limits are established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Most of OSHAs PELs were issued shortly after adoption of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act in 1970.[1] For chemicals, the chemical regulation is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Units of measure for physical agents such as noise are specific to the agent. A PEL is usually given as a time-weighted average (TWA), although some are short-term exposure limits (STEL) or ceiling limits. A TWA is the average exposure over a specified period, usually a nominal eight hours. This means that, for limited periods, a worker may be exposed to concentration excursions higher than the PEL, so long as the TWA is not exceeded and any applicable excursion ...
Hungarian authorities have reported about significant increase of the number of migrants illegally crossing the border with Serbia. This year, tensions in the countrys southern border have significantly increased, says the report.. This month about 1,500 migrants tried to cross the border from Serbia illegally, and only 500 during the past weekend. It is important to note that we are not talking about the Syrians, but about the so-called "economic migrants" from Morocco, Iran, Palestine and other Middle Eastern states.. Balkan States, which are the first on the way of refugees to Europe, are still unable to agree on self-defense measures. In particular, Slovenia which today passes only those who are planning to move to Europe in transit, has offered to stop migrants in Greece and Macedonia. Those limits, according to the Slovenian authorities, are required in connection with the terrorist threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of migrants.. ...
June 13, 2014) US government action can curb the risks climate change poses to global food security, says a new report (PDF) released by The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.. Building on the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change report and National Climate Assessment, The Chicago Councils study explains how higher temperatures, changes in rainfall and natural disasters caused by climate change could undermine food production and put food supplies at risk. In total, climate change could reduce food production growth by 2 percent each decade for the rest of this century.. The report calls on the US government to integrate climate change adaptation into its global food security strategy. Recommendations include:. -Passing legislation for a long-term global food and nutrition security strategy.. -Increasing funding for agricultural research on climate change adaptation. Research priorities should include improving crop and livestock tolerance to higher temperatures and volatile ...
Hatfull, G.F. and Sarkis, G.J. (1993). DNA sequence, structure and gene expression of mycobacteriophage L5: a phage system for mycobacterial genetics. Mol. Microbiol., 7, 395-405.. Hatfull, G.F., Cresawn, S.G. and Hendrix, R.W. (2008). Comparative genomics of the mycobacteriophages: insights into bacteriophage evolution Res. Microbiol., 159, 332-339.. Lubbers, M.W., Waterfield, N.R., Beresford, T.P.J., Le Page, R.W.F. and Jarvis, A.W. (1995). Sequencing and analysis of the prolate-headed lactococcal bacteriophage c2 genome and identification of the structural genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 4348-4356.. Ravin, V., Ravin, N., Casjens, S., Ford, M., Hatfull, G. and Hendrix, R. (2000). Genomic sequence and analysis of the atypical temperate bacteriophage N15. J. Mol. Biol., 299, 53-73.. Robert, M.D., Martin, N.L. and Kropinski, A.M. (2004). The genome and proteome of coliphage T1. Virology, 318, 245-266.. Schouler, C., Ehrlich, S.D. and Chopin, M.-C. (1994). Sequence and organization of the ...
Immune response is modulated by different substances that are present in the environment. Nevertheless, some of these may cause an immunotoxic effect. In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems) on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper develops and tests hypotheses concerning the effect of migrant status and ethnicity on propensity to engage in entrepreneurship (defined as new business activity) at the individual level in the UK. The hypotheses are tested using bivariate analysis (Pearson tests of independence) and multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression). Bivariate analysis suggests that new business activity varies with migrant status and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis suggests that migration increases the odds of engaging in new business activity, that the independent effect of ethnicity is marginal, and that being a recent ethnic minority migrant decreases the odds, after controlling for other individual level factors. At the regional level, a preliminary analysis suggests that gross migration flow has a higher correlation with new business activity than other commonly used regional demographic or economic development measures. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subjects who have a clinical history of perennial rhinitis symptoms associated with dust exposure or not associated with other perennial allergens, will have a positive challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Subjects will be ppt negative and intradermal skin test positive to Dust p Challenges will be performed with placebo or Dp extract three times daily each for 2 weeks.. Primary endpoint after nasal challenge with Dust p Mean Symptom score increase by greater than or equal to 2 from baseline. Secondary Outcomes Mean decrease in PNIF by greater than 15percent from baseline. Mean increase in nasal lavage PGD2 and ECP by greater than 15percent from baseline levels.. Correlation between the orthogonol diameter of the wheal and flare of the intradermal skin test and the degree of symptom worsening during the nasal challenge.. These results will provide evidence for the continued use of the intradermal skin test in evaluating allergic rhinitis. ...
Moscow) - Migrant construction workers in Russia face widespread abuse both in and outside of the workplace, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. In a climate of rising hate-motivated violence against migrants, exacerbated by the global financial crisis, the Russian government is failing to protect these workers from abusive employers, employment agencies, and police. The 130-page report, "Are you Happy to Cheat Us? Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in Russia," documents widespread withholding of wages, failure to provide required contracts, and unsafe working conditions by employers at construction sites across Russia. It also details cases in which workers were unwittingly trafficked into forced labor by employment agencies that promised construction jobs in Russia, but then delivered workers to employers who confiscated their passports and forced them to work without wages. In some cases, these workers were confined and beaten. "Migrant construction workers come to ...
Leopard Shark are seasonally abundant in bays and estuaries (such as Elkhorn Slough, Humboldt Bay, Tomales Bay, Bodega Bay, and San Francisco Bay) during the spring and summer, then during the winter they often move out of the bays to coastal waters as salinity and temperature decrease (Hopkins and Cech 2003, Carlisle and Starr 2009). In San Francisco Bay the population is mainly resident but about 10% move out of the bay in fall and winter (Smith and Abramson 1990). Leopard shark movements in bays and estuaries are strongly influenced by the tidal cycle. Leopard sharks will swim with tidal currents to reduce energetic costs associated with swimming as well as to facilitate foraging over a larger area (Ackerman et al. 2000, Carlisle et al. 2010). During incoming tides they move into shallow mudflats to forage and retreat to deeper water as the tide goes out (Ackerman et al. 2000, Carlisle and Starr 2009, Carlisle and Starr 2010). In exposed coastlines, tides have been shown to drive leopard ...
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Evidence pertaining to the carcinogenicity of chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide is reviewed and evaluated. The report covers studies completed before 1985. Case reports and epidemiologic studies of pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers are reviewed, but because of methodologic limitations, these studies establish neither a positive nor a negative association between cancer and chlordane or heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide exposure. A number of independent studies of laboratory animals, however, demonstrates that chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide cause liver cancer in mice and rats. Based on the accumulated evidence, chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide are classified as probable human carcinogens, Group B2 using EPAs Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. The carcinogenic potency of chlordane and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide is estimated by fitting mathematical models to the laboratory animal data. These estimates indicate that chlordane and ...
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), a kind of important agricultural production material, have been playing an important role in pest control and food production increase. But more and more attention has been paid on the serious environmental problems because of the excess use of OPs. The quick and accurate detection of residues, especially the multi-residues of OPs is always a research focus. In recent years, a great deal of research and exploration has been made on the multi-analyte immunoassay of pesticides based on the spe-cific recognition between antigen and antibody. This article reviewed the recent advances on the mul-ti-residue determination of organophosphorus insecticides, including the progresses of mixed antibodies, antibodies against multi-antigenic determinants, antibodies against common moiety and single chain fragment variable (ScFv) antibodies, and discussed the existed problems and future research.
Appeldoorn, R.S. and J.J. Oprandy. 1980. Tumors in soft-shell clams and the role played by a virus. Maritimes 24(3): 4-6.. Auffret, M. and M. Poder. 1986. Sarcomatous lesions in the cockle Cerastoderma edule. II. Electron microscopical study. Aquaculture 58: 9-15.. Barber, B.J. 2004. Neoplastic diseases of commercially important marine bivalves. Aquatic Living Resources 17: 449-466.. Barker, C.M., R.J. Calvert, C.W. Walker and C.L. Reinisch. 1997. Detection of mutant p53 in clam leukemia cells. Experimental Cell Research 232: 240-245.. Brand, D.G. and J.A.J. Thompson. 1997. Toxicological studies of fish and invertebrates in the Fraser River estuary. In: J. Luternaur and B. Groulx (eds.). The Fraser River Delta. Geological Survey of Canada and American Association for the Advancement in Science, p. In press.. Brousseau, D.J. 1987. Seasonal aspects of sarcomatous neoplasia in Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) from Long Island Sound. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 50: 269-276.. Brousseau, D.J. and ...
Background: Cytokine gene polymorphism could predispose to different susceptibility to occupational dust exposure.. Aim:We aimed to assess cytokine gene polymorphism contribution to occupational lung diseases development and management.. Materials and methods: Study included 240 patients (pts) with occupational lung diseases (pneumoconiosis, occupational chronic bronchitis, occupational COPD), mean age 569 years old. 60 comparable healthy volunteers with occupational hazards were enrolled. The participants of the study were genotyped on the candidate genes (TNF-α, EPHX1, CAT, IL-1, IL-6) by real time PCR technique.. Results: Allele A of TNF-α gene in G(-308)A position: incidence in pts with occupational lung diseases 44,8% (number of heterozygotes prevailed), incidence in control group 24,5% (wild GG type was more frequent)(χ=6,49; p=0,011).Heterozygotes in G (-308)A position are the risk group of the occupational lung diseases development (sensitivity of the marker 89%, specificity -53%, ...
List of Tables and Figures Figure Global Food Service Market Size (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2013-2018) Table Global Food Service Revenue (Million USD) Comparison by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Global Food Service Market Share by Regions (2013-2018) Figure United States Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Europe Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure China Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Japan Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure Southeast Asia Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Figure India Food Service Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate by Regions (2013-2018) Table Global Food Service Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (%) Comparison by Product (2013-2018) Figure Global Food Service Revenue Market Share by Type in 2017 Figure Conventional ...
Nested Case-control Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure and Breast and Esophagus Cancer Risk among Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in Jiangsu of China Nested case-control study;occupational radiation;medical diagnostic X ray workers;cancer risk; Medical diagnostic X-ray workers are one occupational group that expose to the long-term low-dose external radiation over their working lifetime, and they may under risk of different cancers. This study aims to determine the relationship between the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk among these workers in Jiangsu, China. We conducted Nested case-control study to investigate the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire, which includes but not limits to demographic data, personal behaviors and family history of cancer. Retrospective dose reconstruction was conducted to estimate the cumulative doses of the x-ray workers. Inferential statistics, t-test and 2 tests
Bagheri MH, Hosseini SK, Mostafavi SH, Alavi SA. Highresolution CT in chronic pulmonary changes after mustard gas exposure. Acta Radiol 2003; 44:241-5. Willems, J. L. Clinical management of mustard gas csualties. Ann Med Mil Belg 1989; 3:1-61. Cox BM. Torald Sollmanns studies of mustard gas. Mol Interv 2007; 7:124-8. Kehe, K. and Szinicz, L. Medical aspects of sulphur mustard poisoning. Toxicol 2005; 214, 198-209. Shulman LN. The biology of alkylating-agent cellular injury. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1993; 72:325-35. Afshinniaz F, Ghanei M. Relationship of the chronic respiratory symptoms with spirometric and laboratory parameters. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996. Dissertation. Steinritz D, Emmler J, Hintz M, Worek F, Kreppel H, Szinicz L, Kehe K. Apoptosis in sulfur mustard treated A549 cell cultures. Life Sci 2007; 80:2199-201. Emad A, Rezaian GR. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy ...
In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of
Dengvaxia has been approved by Mexico, the Philippines and Brazil in Dec. 2015.. The vaccine is approved for the prevention of disease caused by four dengue serotypes in individuals aged 9-45 years old living in endemic areas.. "The adoption of much-needed dengue vaccine is welcome news for our country, "said Dr. Maria Lourdes Duenas, infectious disease specialist at Childrens Hospital Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador.. "The burden of dengue in El Salvador has grown every year in the last decade. Access to this vaccine is essential to boost our prevention efforts dengue in the country and reduce the burden of disease ". El Salvador reported more than 50,000 dengue fever cases in 2015, according to the Pan American Health Organization. Dengue serotype 1,2 and 3 were reported circulating in El Salvador last year.. "This latest approval of the vaccine against dengue in El Salvador shows the speed that we are moving to a preventable disease dengue vaccine in countries where the disease burden is the ...
A rapid, sensitive and enzyme-based optical biosensor was applied for the determination of seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), including the oxo forms (malaoxon, paraoxon, dibrom, and dichlorvos), the thio forms (malathion and parathion) and the mixed form (demeton) in Panax ginseng. The principal of the proposed method is that the fluorescence quenching effect of quantum dots (QDs) can be observed by enzyme-generated H2O2. The active centers of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) could be inhibited in the presence of pesticides, which caused decrease of the generated H2O2. Then, the inhibition efficiency of pesticide to AChE activity could be evaluated by measuring the fluorescence changes. Different from biosensors based on immobilized enzyme or self-assembling technique, the proposed biosensor demonstrated a good selectivity for the detection of oxo forms of OPPs. In the present study, the important experimental conditions of the proposed biosensor were investigated. Under the optimized conditions
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Discussion. Amisulpride is an antipsychotic that has been available on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia since 2003. A benzamide derivative, it is well tolerated, with relatively few side effects and minimal behavioural toxicity in doses with antipsychotic effect.2 Amisulpride overdoses were first reported to Australian poisons information centres in early 2004, and about 60 telephone calls about amisulpride overdose were made from hospitals to the New South Wales and Western Australian Poisons Information Centres between July 2004 and June 2005, including the four cases reported here.. A review of clinical trials of amisulpride reported that it had no effect on the ECG in therapeutic doses and did not produce arrhythmias.3 There are no published data on animal toxicity. It was therefore surprising that such severe effects were seen in overdose. There were a few published reports of overdose in the literature before its introduction in Australia,4,5 and a reference to QT ...
An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (n = 88) and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17). Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM) of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR) gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and
Global piperonyl butoxide market is segmented on the basis of type, application, end user and geography.Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is an organic compound used as a component of pesticide formulations. It is a waxy white solid. It is a synergist. That is, despite having no pesticidal activity of its own, it enhances the potency of certain pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroids, pyrethrins and rotenone.. The market for piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is rather consolidated and is primarily driven by the ever increasing demand for food. The rapid increase in the global population has raised food security concerns and several underdeveloped and developing countries still lack proper infrastructure for the storage and distribution of food grains.A significant rise in yield is possible through the usage of crop protection chemicals such as insecticides. This has resulted in the high demand for piperonyl butoxide.. Full Research Report On Global Piperonyl Butoxide Market Analysis available at: ...
Four organophosphorus pesticides (azinphos-methyl, diazinone, dimethoate, and pirimiphos-methyl), and one carbamate (benomyl) were tested for cytotoxicity, reverse mutation and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, with and without the S9 metabolic system. Furthermore, two mixtures of the above compounds, namely benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl (6/1 ratio) and dimethoate + diazinone + azinphos-methyl (10/4/6 ratio) were tested in the same experimental model. Azinphos-methyl, benomyl, and pirimiphos-methyl alone did not induce any genotoxic effect, whereas azinphos-methyl and diazinone were active in inducing reversion and gene conversion. The benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl mixture did not show any genotoxic activity. The dimethoate + diazinone + azimphos-methyl mixture was genotoxic, although an antagonistic effect between the components was observed. The addition of S9 post-mitochondrial liver fraction decreased the activity of both single and mixed genotoxic agents.. ...
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Downloadable! In the neighbourhood effects literature, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how educational commitments are influenced by neighbourhood characteristics. We investigate this process for migrant youth, a group that lags behind in educational attainment compared to native youth, and might therefore be particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood effects. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N=4179), combined with fixed-effects models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic
Abortion in Belize is restricted by criminal law, but permitted under certain conditions. As of 2017, the most recent statistics available regarding abortion in Belize are from 1996. During that year, 2603 abortions were reported, along with 6678 live births. 5% of hospitalizations were due to abortion during that year, making it the 4th highest cause of hospitalization. Due to legal restrictions against abortion, as well as its significant financial cost, illegal abortions are common in Belize, especially for low-income women. In 1998, an estimated one in seven maternal deaths in Belize were due to unsafe, illegal abortions. Abortion in Belize is governed by sections 108-110 of the Criminal Code (enacted December 1980). Abortion is considered a criminal offense except when performed by a registered medical practitioner under certain conditions. The sentence for performing an illegal abortion in Belize is life imprisonment. Abortion is permitted under the following circumstances: To protect the ...
The need for rapid and accurate detection systems is expanding and the utilization of cross-reactive sensor arrays to detect chemical warfare agents in conjunction with novel computational techniques may prove to be a potential solution to this challenge. We have investigated the detection, prediction, and classification of various organophosphate (OP) nerve agent simulants using sensor arrays with a novel learning scheme known as support vector machines (SVMs). The OPs tested include parathion, malathion, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, paraoxon, and diazinon. A new data reduction software program was written in MATLAB V. 6.1 to extract steady-state and kinetic data from the sensor arrays. The program also creates training sets by mixing and randomly sorting any combination of data categories into both positive and negative cases. The resulting signals were fed into SVM software for pairwise and one vs all classification. Experimental results for this new paradigm show a significant increase in
Many people wonder if they are, or have been, subject to the risks of asbestos exposure. Health hazards from asbestos dust have been recognized in workers exposed in shipyards, power generating stations, oil refineries, steel mills, paper mills, foundries, asbestos mining and milling, manufacturing of asbestos textiles and other asbestos products, insulation work in the construction and building trades, auto mechanics, and a variety of other trades. Demolition workers, drywallers, plumbers, electricians, carpenters, sprinkler fitters, ironworkers, and firefighters also may be exposed to asbestos dust. People whose work brings them into contact with asbestos workers who renovate buildings with asbestos in them, for example may inhale fibers that are in the air: this is called occupational exposure. Workers families may inhale asbestos fibers released by clothes that have been in contact with ACM: this is called paraoccupational exposure. People who live or work near asbestos-related operations ...
Abstract Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Guatemala and Belize in Central America. To help identify the vector(s) of this parasite in Guatemala, phlebotomine sand flies that were aspirated from the clothing of collectors at Tikal National Park in the Department of the Peten were examined for flagellates. Lutzomyia ovallesi was found infected with flagellates that were identified as L. braziliensis by isoenzyme electrophoresis. The isoenzyme profile of this isolate matched those from humans from the same area.
Beyond Pesticides, January 8, 2018) With a long-documented history of childrens exposure to pesticides that drift from agricultural fields to school yards, Californias new regulations establishing no-spray buffers took effort January 1, as labor and public health groups acknowledged the progress and inadequacy of the measure. The new rule, DPR 16-004 Pesticide Use Near Schoolsites, adopted by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), prohibits many pesticide applications within a quarter mile of public K-12 schools and licensed child day-care facilities during school hours, Monday through Friday between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. This includes all applications by aircraft, sprinklers, air-blast sprayers, and all fumigant applications. In addition, most dust and powder pesticide applications, such as sulfur, will also be prohibited during this time. The new rule was announced in November, 2017. Advocates say the new rules fail to address persistent low-level exposures associated with the ...
The role of irrigation water in disseminating Erwinia amylovora is not fully recognized, and the survival of the bacterium in natural water has not been carefully investigated. This risk has been underestimated, since it is generally considered that E. amylovora survives only for a short period in water and its isolation from natural water samples has not been reported. The main goal of this study has been to clarify whether E. amylovora could survive under nutrient starvation conditions usually found in aquatic environments and if it is nonculturable on solid media when recovered from sterile natural water. Infectivity of E. amylovora cells in water was evaluated by using immature pear fruits. Total and viable cell counts were monitored by the Live/Dead viability kit, and culturability by plate counts on King's B medium. E. amylovora was able to survive in water from different sources showing a long persistence in irrigation water and maintaining its infectivity for green pears. However, a ...
GENEVA (9 March 2015) - The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Eritrea, Sheila B. Keetharuth, today started an official visit to Belgium (9-11 March) to collect first-hand information from Eritrean refugees and migrants on the human rights situation in Eritrea.. Since 2014, Ms. Keetharuth has carried out similar information-gathering missions to Djibouti, Ethiopia, Germany, Italy, Malta and Tunisia. "Due to lack of access to Eritrea," she said, "I have been engaging with Eritrean refugees and migrants outside of their home country, and all others concerned by human rights in Eritrea, including those who consider themselves to be victims of alleged human rights violations, human rights defenders and other civil society actors." The human rights expert has made several official requests to visit Eritrea since her appointment in November 2012, which have so far not been granted. She has repeatedly urged the Eritrean authorities to cooperate with her mandate in order ...
North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents approximately 52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout)
This thesis analyses several factors affecting the control of triatomines in Guatemala. There are three synantropic triatomines in Guatemala, i.e., Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata and T. nitida. Their distibution is mainly at an altitude between 800 and 1500 m a.s.l. R. prolixus and T. nitida have localized but scaterred distibution while T. dimidiata is present in 21 of the 22 departments in the country. Several investigations have shown that R. prolixus could be relatively easily eradicated while T. dimidiata may be more difficult to control, since it is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments showing high diversity and a variety of epidemiological characteristics. Based on the incidence of Trypanosma cruzi infection in humans in the distributional areas of the triatomines, R. prolixus appear to be a more competent vector than T. dimidiata. This is despite the fact that these vectors have similar infection rates. Inside houses, R. prolixus and T. dimidiata and in ...
Beyond Pesticides, January 31, 2008) A study to be published in the February 2008 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives finds that children who eat a conventional diet of food produced with chemical-intensive practices carry residues of organophosate pesticides that are reduced or eliminated when they switch to an organic diet. The study is entitled "Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/Suburban Children" (Chensheng Lu, Dana B. Barr, Melanie A. Pearson, and Lance A. Waller) and includes authors from Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, and the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.According to the authors, "The objective of this article is to present the data of assessing young urban/suburban childrens longitudinal exposure to OP [organophosphate] pesticides in a group [of] young children participating in the Children Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). The results from ...
Egypt has extensive environmental pollution and the highest proportion of early-onset colorectal cancers in patients under age 40 in the world (35 percent of total colorectal cancers). These tumors show high mucin production, more undifferentiation, and a lower prevalence of k-ras mutations that tumors of US patients. The molecular and pathological patterns of these tumors could indicate possible environmental exposures. Organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic amines (HCAS), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been correlated with colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals. Egyptians are highly exposed to these carcinogens in farming, cooked foods, combustion products, and polluted air and water. Egypt offers a unique opportunity and a natural experiment for a population study to investigate the impact of organochlorine pesticides and other environmental carcinogens on early-onset colorectal cancer. In order to better understand the association ...
Aryldialkylphosphatase (EC 3.1.8.1) (more commonly known as phosphotriesterase, and also organophosphate hydrolase, parathion hydrolase, paraoxonase, and parathion aryl esterase) is a metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes the triester linkage found in organophosphate insecticides. an aryl dialkyl phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dialkyl phosphate + an aryl alcohol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are aryldialkylphosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are dialkylphosphate and aryl alcohol. The gene (opd, for organophosphate-degrading) that codes for the enzyme is found in a large plasmid (pSC1, 51Kb) endogenous to Pseudomonas diminuta, although the gene has also been found in many other bacterial species such as Flavobacterium sp. (ATCC27551), where it is also encoded in an extrachromosomal element (pSM55, 43Kb). Organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. They can be found as part of insecticides, ...
The current allergy diagnostic reagent of house dust mites marketed in the USA is at 10,000 AU/ml. This is based on the IDEAL50 concept put forth by Turkeltaub et al, almost 3 decades ago. Such concentration has been shown to give large degree of false positives even in the US population.. In Thailand, it was anecdotally observed that at such concentration, sizes of positive tests among atopic subjects were quite large and could lead to discomfort and a possible anaphylaxis in certain allergic individuals. Moreover, up to 40% of normal individuals could give positive reaction to this concentration.. It is therefore desirable to reexamine the appropriate concentration of diagnostic reagent of house dust mites among the Thai population and will be the main objective of this research. ...
Australian farmers and their workers are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are a widely used class of pesticide used for animal husbandry practices (Naphthalophos for sheep dipping, jetting and drench), crop production for pest control (Dimethoate) and in public health (Maldison for head lice). Acute poisonings with this class of insecticide are reported among agricultural workers and children around the globe, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Less is known about chronic exposures. Regular monitoring of erythrocyte AChE will enable farmers to identify potential exposure to organophosphate insecticides and take action to reduce exposures and improve their health and safety practices. This study aims to assess and improve the integration of AChE monitoring into routine point of care health clinics, and provide farming and non-farming people with a link between their AChE activity and their household chemical and agrichemical use. The research
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A replicated, controlled study in summer 1989-1990 in eight sites on one arable farm near Bonn, Germany (Henze & Şengonca 1993) found that a 50% reduction in pesticide application could control an aphid (Aphidoidea) outbreak as efficiently as the normal application. In farming systems with no insecticide use at all, natural predators reduced aphid populations to the same low levels (,5 aphids/plant), but the population decline occurred one week later than in the systems with pesticide use. Predatory arthropod populations also declined after pesticide treatment. Predator levels remained rather low in the normal pesticide system, however in the 50% reduced pesticide system they recovered in three weeks after pesticide application. Four farming systems were compared with two replicates each: conventional farming (normal pesticide use), integrated farming (50% reduction in pesticide use), minimum farming (no insecticides, strongly reduced herbicide use) and no pesticide farming (no pesticide ...
Business Directory for Methylene Chloride Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Methylene Chloride Manufacturers, Wholesale Methylene Chloride Exporters, Best Methylene Chloride Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Trade Names: Tensilon, Enlon. Drug Class: Short-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Preparations: Injection, 10 mg/mL. Dose: Diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis: 2 mg i.v. over 15-30 seconds; then, if no response is seen, 8 mg 45 seconds later. Indications: Diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis; used to differentiate cholinergic crisis from myasthenic crisis. Mechanism of Action: Increases acetylcholine concentrations by inhibiting its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to edrophonium or sulfites; GI or genitourinary obstruction. Precautions: May worsen weakness if this is caused by overtreatment (cholinergic crisis); intravenous atropine must be available to treat cholinergic symptoms. Use with caution in patients with asthma or those receiving cardiac glycosides.. Monitoring: Must be administered under medical supervision with resuscitation facilities on hand.. Pregnancy Risk: C. Adverse Effects ...
Beyond Pesticides, November 13, 2008) The Canadian Cancer Society is holding a conference to look at the possibility of advocating for stricter farm pesticide laws. The Cancer Society has been a vocal advocate for the cosmetic pesticide restrictions that have passed in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec as well as many municipalities, but it has not yet taken a stance on the much larger use of agricultural pesticides. Health Canada, the Canadian entity responsible for pesticide regulation insists, as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency does in the U.S., that registered pesticides do not pose a substantive health risk when used as directed, but mounting scientific evidence shows otherwise. Many of the same chemicals that Canadian provinces have banned for cosmetic use, such as the herbicide 2,4-D, are used in much higher volumes in agriculture than on lawns. Since the Cancer Society is a strong voice in favor of the cosmetic pesticide bans because of the dangers of pesticides, it is logical ...
Summary: Global Organophosphate Pesticides Market is poised to reach $8.49 billion by 2021 - 175 pages report by Market Data Forecast The Global Organopho
Pickyourown.orgs Guide to apple varieties grown in Georgia is the most complete list available. They provide, phone numbers, email addresses, links to orchards websites , apple festival and loads of information about apples, including EASY illustrated directions to make apple pies, canning applesauce and apple butter, making apple jelly and more.There is also a guide to apple varieties and a state by state listing of pick-your own apple orchards.
The cropland-to-apple orchard conversion is expanding in the semiarid Loess Plateau, yet its impacts on deep soil moisture and nitrate are poorly documented. This study was conducted in Luochuan, typically the best area for apple planting in China, where fifteen 6-m-deep soil profiles were sampled from each cropland (as the control), as well as 8-, 17- and 25-yr apple orchards, to investigate the ...
One of my fondest fall memories from childhood is that of driving out to Sauvie Island to visit the Bybee-Howell House. My mom, sister and I would wander the antique apple orchard and pick the newly fallen apples off the ground. When we first moved to the area, we asked the groundskeeper and he requested that we not to touch the apples still on the trees (they used them to make fresh-pressed cider in September), but that we were welcome to as many windfall apples as we could carry.. Wed fill paper grocery bags until they were nearly ready to split open and then head home to make applesauce. Id help my mom with the peeling and chopping, and I quickly learned from watching her that it was easy enough to cut around the bruises and occasionally wormholes, leaving behind perfectly useable (and delicious, fragrant, delicately-flavored) fruit.. Because of that early education in the use of imperfect fruit, Ive never been one to shy away from damaged apples, overripe pears (pear butter), brown ...