New US study says money spent on prison system and war on drugs should go towards education. Mental health experts from Meharry Medical College School of Medicine have released the first comprehensive report on the correlation between the incarceration of African American males and substance abuse and other health problems in the United States. Published in Frontiers in Psychology on the 12th of November, the report looks at decades of data concerning the African American population rates of incarceration and subsequent health issues. The authors conclude that the moral and economic costs of current racial disparities in the judicial system are fundamentally avoidable, especially if more resources are spent on education and treatment.. Instead of getting health care and education from civil society, African American males are being funneled into the prison system. Much of this costly practice could be avoided in the long-term by transferring funds away from prisons and into education, says Dr. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and Correlates of Recent Vaginal Douching among African American Adolescent Females. AU - DiClemente, R. J.. AU - Young, A. M.. AU - Painter, J. L.. AU - Wingood, G. M.. AU - Rose, E.. AU - Sales, J. M.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Study Objective: To describe the prevalence and correlates of vaginal douching among urban African American adolescents and to examine the association between douching and sexually transmitted infection (STI) status. Design: Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral data were collected through cross-sectional, self-administered surveys. Self-collected vaginal swabs were assayed using nucleic acid amplification tests for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. Setting: Sexual health clinic in a large metropolitan area of the southeastern United States. Participants: African American females (N = 701), ages 14-20, participating in a human immunodeficiency virus prevention intervention. Main Outcome Measure: The outcome of interest was ...
Objectives. Previous attempts at obtaining population estimates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 seroprevalence have been beset by problems of cooperation bias. As part of the fourth round of study with an urban African-American community cohort, the following investigation was aimed at assessing HIV-1 prevalence and the relative...
Race Women Stepping Forward. Collison, Michele N-K // Black Issues in Higher Education;05/27/99, Vol. 16 Issue 7, p24 Discusses the role scholarship by black women can and must play in African American studies and beyond. Attempt by Black women scholars to rebuild the canon of African American studies to include a feminist perspective; Criticism of most African American studies departments; Factors that make... ...
This study is designed to assess the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance in African American males. African American males have higher rates of diabetes and lower levels of fitness when compared to Caucasian males. A project such as this is necessary because there is evidence to show that exercise training can reduce the risk of developing diabetes, though no studies have been conducted in African American males. In addition, ARTIIS will test the effect adhering to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity and 2 days of 20 minutes of muscular strength activity), on insulin resistance in African American men. This study will provide important information that can either strengthen or refine current physical activity recommendations. Furthermore, this intervention will be delivered through community facilities in order to increase the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable ...
Achievement gaps between African American students and White students in onsite courses also exist in online courses (Rovai & Gallien, 2005; Rovai & Ponton, 2005; Xu & Jaggars, 2014), and gaps are often greater in online courses (Xu & Jaggars, 2014). Arroyo (2010) pointed to this issue by stating that, Contrary to those who tout online education as the great leveler in higher education with the promise of granting access to one and all, what we actually have is the recipe for a widened achievement gap (p. 38). Possible reasons why gaps between African American online students and White online students exist include differences in socio-economic status (Palmer et al., 2013), gaps in academic performance (Osborne, 2001), disparities in technology access (Fairlie, 2012a), lack of online technical support (Rovai & Gallien, 2005), and anxiety related to negative racial stereotyping (Osborne, 2001). Factors contributing to onsite academic success for African American males. Factors that helped ...
African American Studies: The Discipline and Its Dimensions is a comprehensive resource book that recounts the development of the discipline of African American Studies and provides a basic reference source for sixteen areas of knowledge of the discipline: anthropology, art, dance, economics, education, film, history, literature, music, philosophy, psychology, religion, sociology, political science, science and technology, sports and religion. African American Studies defines bodies of knowledge, methodologies, philosophies, disciplinary concepts, contents, scope, topics scholars have concerned themselves, as well as the growth, development, and present status of the discipline. African American Studies validates that African American Studies is a unique and significant discipline-one that intersects almost every academic discipline and cultural construct-and confirms that the discipline has a noteworthy history and a challenging future. The various bodies of knowledge, the philosophical ...
African American Studies: The Discipline and Its Dimensions is a comprehensive resource book that recounts the development of the discipline of African American Studies and provides a basic reference source for sixteen areas of knowledge of the discipline: anthropology, art, dance, economics, education, film, history, literature, music, philosophy, psychology, religion, sociology, political science, science and technology, sports and religion. African American Studies defines bodies of knowledge, methodologies, philosophies, disciplinary concepts, contents, scope, topics scholars have concerned themselves, as well as the growth, development, and present status of the discipline. African American Studies validates that African American Studies is a unique and significant discipline-one that intersects almost every academic discipline and cultural construct-and confirms that the discipline has a noteworthy history and a challenging future. The various bodies of knowledge, the philosophical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic Syndrome, Proteinuria, and the Risk of Progressive CKD in Hypertensive African Americans. AU - Lea, Janice. AU - Cheek, Deanna. AU - Thornley-Brown, Denise. AU - Appel, Lawrence. AU - Agodoa, Lawrence. AU - Contreras, Gabriel. AU - Gassman, Jennifer. AU - Lash, Jim. AU - Miller, Edgar R.. AU - Randall, Otelio. AU - Wang, Xuelei. AU - McClellan, William. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to kidney failure (end-stage renal disease) in African Americans, although the reasons for this are unclear. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and recently was linked to incident CKD. The purpose of this study is to examine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with kidney disease progression in hypertensive African Americans. Design & Participants: The current study design is a secondary analysis of the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney ...
A group-randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the Project ÒRÉ intervention, a community-based adolescent social network HIV/STI intervention tailored to African American culture. Four community based organization sites (CBOs) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or attention control condition. In both conditions, sexually experienced African American adolescent females will recruit members of their friendship group for the five-hour program. In the experimental condition, the intervention group will receive the half-day Project ÒRÉ intervention. The attention control group will receive a standard health promotion control program which has been used previously with similar populations. All participants will complete pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up self-administered questionnaires. In the experimental condition, a subset of groups will participate in a process evaluation focus group immediately following the program ...
Hypertensive African Americans often respond poorly to beta-blocker monotherapy, compared with whites. There is evidence, however, that suggests that this response may be different if beta-blockers with vasodilating effects are used. This 12-week, multi-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of nebivolol, a cardioselective, vasodilating beta1-blocker, at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg once daily in 300 African American patients with stage I or II hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [SiDBP] | or =95 mm Hg and | or =109 mm Hg). The primary efficacy end point was the baseline-adjusted change in trough mean SiDBP. After 12 weeks, nebivolol significantly reduced least squares mean SiDBP (P| or =.004) at all doses of 5 mg and higher and sitting systolic blood pressure (P| or =.044) at all doses 10 mg and higher, compared with placebo. The drug was safe and well-tolerated, with no significant difference in the incidence of
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.bu.edu/portal/AIDS-and-HIV-infection-in-the-African-American/SWKDE-hJHIE/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.bu.edu/portal/AIDS-and-HIV-infection-in-the-African-American/SWKDE-hJHIE/,AIDS and HIV infection in the African-American community : hearing before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 16, 1994,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.bu.edu/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.bu.edu/,Boston University ...
Grammy-nominated artist Mathieu Bittons work tells stories that range from the life of a rockstar, to depictions of everyday life in African-American communities. The images in his photo exhibition Darker Than Blue, on view at the Leica Gallery in…
Abstract: African Americans suffer disproportionately from higher rates of diet related chronic diseases compared with Caucasians. The purpose of this project was to design and implement a nutrition education intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among low-income, African American caretakers of young children. Study participants were low-income, African American residents of Guilford County, NC, and primary meal preparers and caretakers of a child less than 12 years of age. Participants (N=14) were recruited from community agencies (Guilford County WIC; Department of Social Services) and through a church with a high African American population. Participants received nutrition education classes that addressed barriers to healthy behaviors. Pre and post tests were given to assess changes in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy regarding dietary behavior. Overall, pre and post test results indicated a significant increase in nutrition knowledge, self reported ...
African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasian Americans and this discrepancy cannot be explained by measures of body weight or body composition. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity of African Americans and Caucasian Americans to glucocorticoids by measuring glucose and insulin responses to a meal challenge under conditions of placebo and glucocorticoid. A total of 160 healthy or overweight/obese African American and Caucasian American participants completed exercise testing and a liquid meal challenge during separate laboratory visits. Participants were evaluated following treatments with placebo and dexamethasone (4 mg). Main outcome measures were correlation between body composition measures (body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference) and insulin responses; insulin and glucose responses after a liquid meal challenge; and calculated HOMA. After dexamethasone treatment African Americans were significantly more hyperinsulinemic after a meal as indicated by
Ringwalt, C., Graham, P., Sanders-Phillips, K., Browne, D., & Paschall, M. (1999). Ethnic identity as a protective factor in the health behaviors of african-american male adolescents. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Ethnic Identity as a Protective Factor in the Health Behaviors of African-American Male Adolescents Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co., Inc ...
In partnership with the Grand Rapids Urban League and Grand Rapids Public School, GRCC provides institutional support to ensure the success of the African American Male Achievement Conference. Annually, the project convenes high school students from schools throughout Kent County. The conference aims to engage students in workshops and activities that affirm their identity and prepare them for the college experience and career opportunities.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in european and african american samples. AU - Otowa, Takeshi. AU - Maher, Brion S.. AU - Aggen, Steven H.. AU - McClay, Joseph L.. AU - Van Den Oord, Edwin J.. AU - Hettema, John M.. PY - 2014/11/12. Y1 - 2014/11/12. N2 - Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common mental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Since ADs are highly comorbid with each other, partially due to shared genetic basis, studying AD phenotypes in a coordinated manner may be a powerful strategy for identifying potential genetic loci for ADs. To detect these loci, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADs. In addition, as a complementary approach to single-locus analysis, we also conducted gene- and pathway-based analyses. GWAS data were derived from the control sample of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) project (2,540 European American and 849 African American subjects) genotyped on the ...
This announcement has been sent on behalf of our network supporters, the Harm Reduction Coalition:. African Americans and Hepatitis C. Thursday, July 25, 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. EDT. Register now!. Hepatitis C is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. It is also a neglected health condition, with: African Americans and Blacks have a higher prevalence of chronic Hepatitis C infection compared with non-Hispanic white Americans and are twice as likely to have ever been infected with Hepatitis C.. This webinar will provide information on the impact of Hepatitis C on African Americans and strategies to address the viral hepatitis C epidemic in the African-American community.. Click to register now!. The following will be discussed:. ...
Writing for the Oxford Research Encyclopedias. We work hard to support the researchers who publish articles with the Oxford African American Studies Center (AASC). This page provides information for those considering whether to contribute to AASC, as well as valuable services for authors who have already published with us.. Why Publish with the Oxford African American Studies Center?. The AASC combines the authority of carefully edited reference works with sophisticated technology to create the most comprehensive collection of scholarship available online to focus on the lives and events which have shaped African American and African history and culture. Along with encyclopedia-style articles, biographies, and primary source documents, AASC also contains a number of tools to help our users explore African American studies. Here are some of the benefits of publishing on the AASC:. Author Resources:. Contact the Editors. Core Content. FAQ. ...
Blacks/African Americans have been affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since early in the epidemic (1). Despite representing a smaller proportion (13.6%) of the U.S. population, blacks/African Americans accounted for half of the HIV diagnoses in adolescents and adults in 37 states during 2005--2008 (2). Data from the National HIV Surveillance System were used to estimate numbers, percentages, and rates of HIV diagnoses in blacks/African Americans during 2005--2008. Those data were reported to CDC through June 2009 from 37 states with mature (in operation since at least January 2005) HIV surveillance systems. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that during 2005--2008, blacks/African Americans were diagnosed with HIV infection more frequently than any other racial/ethnic population. During 2008, black/African American males and females were diagnosed with HIV infection at eight and 19 times the rates for white males and ...
HV is a crisis in African American communities, threatening the health and well-being of African American men and women across the United States. While African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV and AIDS of any racial/ ethnic group in the nation, prevention efforts have helped to maintain stability in the annual number of new HIV infections among African Americans for more than a decade. Additionally, recent CDC data found indications of an encouraging decline in new infections among African American women. Still, African American heterosexual women continue to be far more affected by HIV than women of any other race or ethnicity, and young black gay and bisexual men now account for more new infections than any other group in the United States ...
Truth comes to one distilled, shaped in the sayings of the ancestors. Copy your fathers, your ancestors. See their words endure in books. Open, read them, and copy them in order to know. One who is taught becomes skilled.. The African American Studies program in the College of Arts and Sciences offers a Bachelor of Arts degree and a minor in African American Studies. This degree provides students with a comprehensive undergraduate degree program designed to foster the systematic understanding and examination of the experiences of people of African descent. The program offers students the opportunity to engage in intellectual work that will give them a strong foundation in the core ideas, concepts, and theories of the discipline of African American Studies.. ...
B81 African American women are more prone to develop breast cancer at a younger age and present with a more aggressive, hormone-independent form of the disease than those belonging to other ethnic groups. Doxorubicin is commonly used in chemotherapeutic regimens to treat breast cancer irrespective of hormone receptor or p53 status. While patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer can derive benefit from using this agent, the onset of adverse effects can significantly diminish their quality of life. Some patients use herbal supplements containing flavonoids, while being treated with Doxorubicin, believing these products will potentiate its effectiveness. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the flavonoid Apigenin could suppress the growth of breast cancer cell lines derived from African American breast cancer patients with varying hormone receptor and p53 status and augment the anticancer effects of Doxorubicin in these cells. ...
In the current study, a CNV map was generated using DNA from a population of 385 African Americans using 50 randomly chosen female African Americans as a reference. A total of 1362 CNV events were identified in the population. In addition, CNVs were identified in a population of 435 White individuals using the same 50 African American females as a reference. The same reference population was used so that the CNV distributions of the two populations would be directly comparable. Two regions of the genome exhibited large CNV frequency differences between the two populations, one on chromosome 15 and another on chromosome 17. No genes in these regions had obvious roles in ethnic differences.. A total of 140 of the African American DNAs were derived from cell lines. The process of creating the cell lines generated a duplication on chromosome 14 in 74% of the cell line-derived DNAs. Although this region is listed as copy number variant in the Database of Genomic Variants, none of the DNAs derived ...
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous research, academic disidentification was determined by looking for an attenuation of the correlation between academic self-concept and grade point average (GPA) of male and female students. The relationship between academic self-concept and grade point average significantly decreased for African American males, while it significantly increased for African American females. Demographic factors included age and sex, while psychological factors included academic self-concept, devaluing academic success, and racial identity. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that sex and academic self-concept were significant positive predictors of GPA, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of filtered sodium load with medullary volumes and medullary hypoxia in hypertensive African Americans as compared with whites. AU - Textor, Stephen C.. AU - Gloviczki, Monika L.. AU - Flessner, Michael F.. AU - Calhoun, David A.. AU - Glockner, James. AU - Grande, Joseph P.. AU - McKusick, Michael A.. AU - Cha, Stephen S.. AU - Lerman, Lilach O.. N1 - Funding Information: Support: The project described was supported by award PO1HL85307 from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Center for Research Resources CTSA grant UL1 RR024150 . The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NHLBI or the NIH. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Background: African Americans develop hypertension earlier with more target manifestations than whites despite having a higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for any level of serum creatinine. Study Design & ...
SAGE - May 30, 2013. Many African American youth may develop high levels of allostatic load, a measure of physiological wear and tear on the body, by developing psychosocial competence under conditions of high risk related to socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was designed to test this hypothesis, which is based on John Henryism theory. In a representative sample of 489 African American youth living in the rural South, cumulative SES-related risks and teacher-reported competence were assessed at ages 11 to 13; depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and allostatic load were assessed at age 19. The data revealed that rural African American preadolescents who evinced high psychosocial competence under conditions of high cumulative SES-related risk displayed low levels of adjustment problems along with high allostatic load at age 19. Read more. ...
Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Psychiological Impact of Slavery on African Americans, with Ms. KShakill, Researcher, who talks about some of the psyc...
The disproportionate toll that COVID-19 is taking on African Americans calls us to reflect on the history leading to this moment.
A number of technology companies have released their Equal Employment Opportunity reports (EEO-1 reports) for 2014 and what they show is that there remains a diversity issue. Twitter, Microsoft and Google employ zero African-American women in executive and management level positions. Facebook, Intel and Amazon employ one African-American female each in such positions. Executive and management level positions are held by white men 65% of the time, white females 14% of the time, Asian males 13% of the time, Asian females 3% of the time, Hispanic males 2% of the time, Hispanic females and African-American males 1% of the time, and African-American females less than 1% of the time. The statistics for all employees arent much better for many companies. Twitter, for example, employs 0% African-American females and 1% African-American males and Hispanic males and females. It employs 25% Asian males and 8% Asian females. The Tech industry is aware of the issue and there are efforts being made to ...
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S., and disproportionally affects African Americans. Given the evidence for genetic susceptibility to CHD in African Americans and lagging discovery efforts in this population, we propose to search for gene variants that contribute to incident CHD risk in African Americans.. Methods: We examined the evidence for association of genome wide genetic markers with incident CHD using the high density custom array MetaboChip using data from two U.S. cohort studies comprising 7,967 African American individuals (Womens Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Genome-wide ancestry estimates (principal components) were determined using Eigensoft. We used Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for age and population stratification. Study- and sex-stratified results were combined using fixed effect meta-analysis. A Bonferroni corrected P, 2.8 x 10-7 was considered a significant array ...
Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. -Sterling, S.R., B. Bertrand, S. Judd, T.L. Carson, P. Chandler-Laney, M.L. Baskin, 2017. Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2017;14:160595. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd14.160595.
According to U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher, African Americans are twice as likely to suffer a stroke than whites, making them more susceptible to stroke than any other ethnic group. Satcher spoke out on this health disparity during a stroke-screening event in Rockville, Md., called Stroke Sunday.. Strokes have a disproportionate impact among African Americans, but there is something we can do as a community to combat this disease, states Satcher, who is African American. We can reduce our risk of stroke by lowering blood pressure, quitting smoking and keeping heart disease and diabetes in check.. Satcher stressed the importance of African Americans learning the five warning signs of stroke. These signs, as outlined by the American Stroke Association (ASA), are:. 1. Numbness or weakness of the arm, face or one side of the body ...
The Minority Gateway Satellite Clinic is located in the African-American community and evaluates and follows minority subjects (primarily African Americans) with or without memory and thinking problems and provides culturally sensitive care to patients and support to families. Established in 2001, the Minority Gateway Clinic is a clinical core satellite promoting the involvement of African Americans in aging and dementia research in the UK-ADC. It represents a special Gateway for African Americans to access clinical research endeavors. Our immediate goal is to recruit and follow elderly African Americans from intact cognition through intermediate states to dementia, focusing on the unique risk factor profiles in these participants that may contribute to cognitive transitions across the cognitive continuum. Involvement of African Americans in research is important because it is impossible to know whether research results will apply broadly to public health without such participation. ...
The mission of the African American Studies Department is to foster an understanding of and appreciation for the rich traditions of the African diaspora, to advance knowledge of African American history and culture, and to develop critical awareness of the status of peoples of African descent in our interconnected global society.. With this in mind, the African American Studies Option of the undergraduate degree program in Ethnic Studies exposes students to the history, politics, culture and contemporary social realities of African-descended people within the United States and globally. Its interdisciplinary approach provides students in the major and minor with skills in writing, critical thinking, and community building, and prepares students for further graduate study and a variety of professional paths including: business, the non-profit sector, public relations, education, human services, politics and government, and law. ...
The history of African American women and their participation in the birth control movement reflects a very conflicted set of ideals regarding African American women, the use of contraceptive practices and abortion. Prominent historical figures debated whether African American communities would benefit from birth control or if birth control was another methodical scheme put in place to suppress the African American community. During slavery times in the United States, black slave women were viewed as breeding slaves and child bearing women-simply vessels to meet the demands for labor in Southern agricultural areas. Through arranged marriages and forced mating with other slaves along with direct rape from slave owners, slave women were subject to frequent sexual exploitation. The women were even blamed for these phenomena as white male masters developed the Jezebel stereotype of black women as passionate, hypersexual beings who wanted to engage in sexual acts with anyone and everyone. In ...
Initially taken in 1838 to demonstrate the stability and significance of the African American community and to forestall the abrogation of African American voting rights, the Quaker and Abolitionist census of African Americans was continued in 1847 and 1856 and present an invaluable view of the mid-nineteenth century African American population of Philadelphia. Although these censuses list only household heads, providing aggregate information for other household members, and exclude the substantial number of African Americans living in white households, they provide data not found in the federal population schedules. When combined with the information on African Americans taken from the four federal censuses, they offer researchers a richly detailed view of Philadelphias African American community spanning some forty years. The three censuses are not of equal inclusiveness or quality, however. The 1838 and 1847 enumerations cover only the old City of Philadelphia (river-to-river and from Vine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females. AU - Sales, Jessica Mcdermott. AU - Monahan, Jennifer L.. AU - Brooks, Carolyn. AU - Diclemente, Ralph J.. AU - Rose, Eve. AU - Samp, Jennifer A.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods: Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15-20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results: Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all selfreporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. ...
As stated previously, acculturation has been investigated in conjunction with a number of physical, social and psychological variables. In a study of weight concern and body image among southern African American Females, Smith and Omari (2005) hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between cultural values (levels of acculturation) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in their sample. The premise of their study was that African American women with more traditional values would have higher BMI scores, primarily because it has been reported in the literature that African American women are comfortable with larger body size (Striegel-Moore et al., 1998). The hypothesis was not supported. They found that contrary to their expectations, acculturation was not significantly associated with BMI in African American females. This failure to detect an association between BMI and acculturation led to a question about the latent factor structure of the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-R) in ...
New York Life has more than 1,200 agents serving the African American community. Our agents are dedicated men and women who have pledged to help empower the African American communities they serve by touching the lives of thousands of families, and illustrating for them how purchasing life insurance today will empower future generations. Their mission is not just to sell life insurance; its to educate members of the black community about the importance of creating an estate and building a legacy for their children and grandchildren.. With the contribution of our African American Market Agents in their communities, we surpassed our 2017 goal of creating $50 billion of Life Insurance and Future Income protection. Through our focus on growing our network of agents in the community, continuing to provide financial education, and insuring more lives, changing the financial future for African American families is well within our reach.. Exposing individuals and families to financial tools and ...
Renal function measurements were obtained in 1,703 African Americans with presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis who were screened for entry into the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease (AASK). We examined the effect of race on relationships involving renal variables by comparing African Americans enrolled into the AASK with non-African Americans enrolled into the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. We examined the effect of gender on renal variables by comparing African American men and women. We compared various methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with iodine 125-labeled ((125)I)-iothalamate GFR. AASK data were also used to derive a new formula for estimating GFR in African Americans. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline GFR, African American patients on the AASK study were heavier and had larger body surface areas and body mass indices than either MDRD African Americans or non-African Americans. African Americans had greater serum ...
The Central Texas African American Family Support Conference provides information and educational opportunities about mental health, intellectual and developmental disabilities, substance use disorder, co-occurring disorders and physical health issues. The conference supports the African American community and embraces all members of the community regardless of race. The mission of the conference is to strengthen family and individual awareness of available behavioral and physical health care services through culturally sensitive education, support and partnerships. The conference strives to reduce stigma and eliminate health disparities.
On The OReilly Factor, host Eric Bolling and guest Horace Cooper didnt just deny that the killing of Walter Scott is part of a pattern of police shootings of black men, they actually argued that African Americans are favored when they have encounters with the police. Substitute host Bolling sneered at the beginning of the segment that the far left is using Scotts death as evidence that police killings of black men are a systemic problem in America. Bolling falsely claimed, Police killings of African Americans are down 70% over the last 50 years, so why perpetrate these claims?. But as Bolling should know, there are no hard statistics on the number of police killings in the past 50 years. However, we do know that blacks make up a disproportionate number of those whom we know are killed by the police. So why did Bolling perpetrate such a claim?. Blacks are incarcerated at a rate of six to seven times that of whites in America. And unarmed blacks are being killed about the same rate as ...
Elizabeth Montague is proving to young women everywhere that they can be the first in their fields. The 25-year-old cartoonist, just became the first African-American woman to have her illustrations featured in the legendary New Yorker magazine. Check out more of her story on this episode of In The Know Next Gen.
Numerous African Americans have resided in Ohio. Today, African American Ohioans continue to enhance Ohios cultural and social landscape. Prior to becoming a state, very few African Americans resided in Ohio. In 1800, only 337 African Americans lived in the area. Most of these people were free, but undoubtedly, a small number of them were slaves. African Americans hovered near two percent of Ohios total population throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. By 1810, 1,890 blacks called Ohio home, increasing to 4,723 a decade later. By 1860, 36,700 African Americans resided in the state. Over the years they have made significant contributions to the state, such as their service in the factories during the First World War. Ohios first constitution, the Ohio Constitution of 1803, outlawed slavery. This was a requirement of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Despite this legal protection, some African American Ohioans were actually slaves. Slave owners lived especially in southern Ohio. If ...
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African American womens interest in golf began in the early part of the twentieth century. Most of the women had been taught to play by their husbands or fathers. Although there were few opportunities to play professional golf, Marie Thompson, of Chicago, Illinois, became the first African American woman to win a major tournament. On Labor Day weekend in 1926, Thompson won the first Negro National Open, the premier golfing event for African Americans, at the Mapledale Country Club in Stow, Massachusetts. The United States Colored Golf Association (USCGA) sponsored the competition, which offered a place for talented African Americans to compete at a time when they were not allowed to do so in white tournaments. In 1929 the USCGA changed its name to the United Golf Association UGA Although African American women were originally allowed to participate in the National Open championship a separate women s ... ...
Health, ...DETROIT African Americans are seven times more likely than Caucasians...This finding however is much lower than that previously reported in ...Unlike regular scars keloids do not subside over time and often exten... Many African American patients are afraid to have head and neck surge...,African-Americans,7,times,more,likely,to,have,keloid,scarring,of,the,head,,neck,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Invited by the center, NHHC Historian Regina Akers, Ph.D., Joseph Reidy, Ph.D., a Professor of History and Associate Provost at Howard University, and retired Army Sgt. 1st Class Dereck Vines were the special guest speakers discussing African American Heritage. Specifically, African Americans in the Civil War Union Navy.. Its a topic all three know well. Akers and Reidy worked together previously on an ABC Nightline broadcast on the subject that first appeared on July 3, 2001, and both have continued their studies since.. It is an honor to serve on such a distinguished panel with Dr. Reidy and the other subject matter experts and to do so at the esteemed Wilson Center in Washington, D.C., said Akers. I always enjoy the privilege of sharing the history of the United States Navy. I am especially delighted to highlight African Americans rich legacy of naval service and sacrifice since the American Revolution. Blacks were often the first to volunteer even when war was waged for rights they were ...
Brown University. Africana Studies (PHD). City University of New York, The Graduate Center. Africana Studies (Certificate w/ Graduate degree). Clark Atlanta University. African and African American Studies (MA). Columbia University. African-American Studies (MA). Cornell University. Africana Studies (PHD). Duke University. African and African American Studies (Certificate w/ Graduate degree). Eastern Michigan University. African American Studies (Certificate w/ graduate degree). Florida International University. African and African Diaspora Studies (MA, Dual degree). Georgia State University. African-American Studies (MA). Harvard University. Department of African and African American Studies (PHD). Michigan State University. African American and African Studies (M.A and PHD). Morgan State University African American Studies (MA). New York University Africana Studies (MA). Northwestern University. African American Studies (Certificate w/ graduate degree and PHD). Ohio State University. African ...
African American women, who make up 13 percent of the female population in the United States, are making significant strides in education, participation, health, and other areas, but there is a long way to go to fully close the racial and ethnic disparities they face. New policies such as the Affordable Care Act, or ACA, and other proposed policies such as paid sick leave can greatly improve the lives of African American women and their families. For example, under the ACA, around 5.1 million African American women with private health insurance are currently receiving expanded preventive service coverage and an estimated 3 million African American women will gain access to affordable or subsidized health insurance.. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of statistics about health, education, entrepreneurship, economic security, and political leadership that should guide our choices to enact sensible policies to unleash the potential of this growing demographic and benefit our economy.. ...
ESCADAA (the Epidemiological Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Urban African Americans) will examine the prevalence of nine modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the African American population: abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables and alcohol and lack of regular physical activity.. Investigators will then look for correlations between those risk factors, social factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC), one measure of atherosclerotic heart disease.. African Americans in Allegheny County have higher death rates from heart disease than those in the rest of the state and other ethnic groups, said Indu Poornima, MD, director of the Womens Heart Center at Allegheny General Hospital.. We want to define the true prevalence of risk factors in our local population and see how those risk factors are influenced by socioeconomic factors such as income, education and health insurance ...
Clean Air Task Force (CATF) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) have co-authored a landmark report that demonstrates, for the first time, the specific health risks from airborne pollutants caused by oil and natural gas development impacting African American communities.
The importance of Social Security to communities of color is emphasized by the current poverty rates. As the numbers show, Social Security substantially reduces minority poverty. With Social Security, the poverty rate for older African Americans is 18 percent. But if they did not receive Social Security, 51 percent of African American seniors would live in poverty.. PROGRAM ASPECTS IMPORTANT TO AFRICAN AMERICANS. Although Social Securitys benefit and contribution provisions are neutral with respect to race, ethnicity, and gender, several features of the program are especially important to African Americans. The progressive benefit formula intentionally helps low income earners, many of whom are African American. In the aggregate, African Americans have higher disability rates and lower lifetime earnings, and thus receive greater benefits relative to taxes paid. Furthermore, lower than average life expectancy results in a proportionately higher share of survivor benefits. PROGRESSIVE BENEFIT ...
Genetic heterogeneity, lifestyle factors, gene-gene or gene-environment interactions are the determinants of T2D which puts Hispanics and populations with African ancestry at higher risk of developing T2D. In this dissertation, the genetic associations of PPARGC1A polymorphisms with T2D and its related phenotypes (metabolic markers) in Haitian Americans (cases=110, controls=116), African Americans (cases=120, controls=124) and Cuban Americans (cases=160, controls=181) of South Florida were explored. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of gene PPARGC1A were evaluated in each ethnicity for their disease association. In Haitian Americans, rs7656250 (OR= 0.22, pp=0.03) had significant protective association with T2D but had risk association in African Americans for rs7656250 (OR=1.02, p=0.96) and rs4235308 (OR=2.53, p=0.03). We found that in Haitian American females, both rs7656250 (OR=0.23, pp=0.03) had protective association with T2D. In African American females, rs7656250 (OR=1.14, p=0.78) had risk
A 66-year-old African-American male presented with a four-month history of asymptomatic hematuria. Interventional Radiology was consulted for embolization of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of role status on risky sexual behavior among African Americans during the transition to adulthood. AU - Kogan, Steven M.. AU - Brody, Gene H.. AU - Gibbons, Frederick X.. AU - Murry, Velma Mc Bride. AU - Cutrona, Carolyn E.. AU - Simons, Ronald L.. AU - Wingood, Gina. AU - Diclemente, Ralph. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Little research has examined the links between role status changes during the transition to adulthood and sexual behaviors that place African Americans at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Moreover, the mediating processes that explain these links, or protective factors that may buffer young adults from risky sexual behavior, are unknown. African American young adults who had either completed or dropped out of high school (ages 18 to 21, N = 186) provided information regarding their sexual behavior, role status, substance use, peer affiliations, religiosity, and receipt of protective family processes. Anticipated school attendance, ...
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Courtesy The Herald-Sun). The increasing reliance on Federal and state funding to support capital and operating costs at Watts would also, eventually, lead to the ultimate demise of Watts hospital, as Federal legislation - including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the enactment of Medicare in 1965 - would demand that hospitals be racially integrated.. Like most institutions in Durham, the hospital system was racially segregated - Watts had, until the 1960s, always served only white patients. One of the more unique things about Durham has always been the strength of the African-American community during the segregation era; when Watts had originally proposed adding a wing to Watts Hospital to treat African-American patients in 1900, he was persuaded by the African-American community that this was not in their best interest. The better solution would be to construct a hospital where African-Americans could both be seen as patients and be medical providers. The result was the construction of the ...
CDC marked Tuesday, National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, by stressing its commitment to ending an epidemic that disproportionately affects African Americans. At CDC, HIV prevention in black communities remains one of our top priorities, said Dr. Kevin Fenton, director of CDCs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention. Last year, we invested more than half of our HIV prevention budget to fight HIV among African Americans. Weve expanded initiatives to reach more African Americans with HIV testing, increased the number and reach of HIV prevention programs in black communities, and are working with our partners, like those in the Act Against AIDS Leadership Initiative, to launch campaigns aimed at increasing HIV testing and awareness among black women and black gay and bisexual men, among other groups, Fenton said. The director said testing and awareness are the best ways to prevent future HIV infections. We must also tackle factors such as homophobia and stigma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictors of end stage renal disease in African Americans with lupus nephritis. AU - Franco, Carlos. AU - Yoo, Wonsuk. AU - Franco, Domingo. AU - Xu, Zeng. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Lupus nephritis is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). African Americans generally have a more severe presentation and more often progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) than Caucasians. Several studies point to higher creatinine, low complement levels, thrombocytopenia, anemia, hypertension, and proliferative glomerulonephritis as predictors of ESRD in lupus nephritis within multi-ethnic cohorts. The purpose of the current study was to correlate clinical, serological, and immunological variables with the development of ESRD requiring dialysis in the African American population. Materials and Methods: A small retrospective study was performed with African American patients who had been diagnosed with lupus nephritis and biopsied between 1996 and ...
As same-sex couples who were able to legally marry last year celebrate their one-year-anniversaries, Equality California (EQCA) and Jordan / Rustin Coalition (JRC) are together launching an education and mobilization effort on the freedom to marry in LAs African-American communities. The effort includes a TV commercial, on-the-ground organizers and a dedicated field office, which will be based in South Los Angeles, a predominantly African-American community. Jordan / Rustin Coalition is happy to partner with Equality California as we do the work to open the hearts and minds of all Californians, including those in the Black community, on the question of marriage for same-sex couples, said Ron Buckmire, JRC board president. Our partnership includes a multi-media campaign, outreach and public education and even the nuts and bolts of staffing and supplies. I am confident that together we will see the day when full LGBT equality is restored to our state ...
Background: Low serum and dietary magnesium (Mg) intake are established risk factors for stroke, coronary disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known on the relationship between Mg intake and heart failure (HF). African Americans are known to have a low dietary Mg intake and have a high risk of HF compared to the general population; thus, an ideal group to study this relationship. We hypothesize that dietary Mg relates to HF hospitalization in African Americans.. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 5,133 participants from Jackson Heart Study, recruited during 2000-2004, in Jackson (MS), who completed a 61-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome was hospitalization for HF during 2005-2010. We related different cutoffs of dietary Mg intake (overall, mean, Recommended Daily Allowance [RDA] for men and RDA for women) with HF hospitalization using Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusting for potential confounding. Since HF ...
Key Findings: Studies show African Americans receive modestly more in Social Security benefits for each dollar they pay in payroll taxes than whites do. African Americans earn 73 percent as much as whites, on average, but because of Social Securitys progressive benefit structure, their average retirement benefit is about 85 percent as much as whites. African Americans benefit disproportionately from Social Securitys disability and survivors benefits, since they are more likely than other workers to become disabled or die before retiring. For example, while 15 percent of all U.S. children are African American, 23 percent of the children receiving Social Security survivors benefits are. The risks of replacing part of Social Security with private accounts would be more acute for African Americans than for whites, while the potential rewards likely would be smaller.
We joke about crazy black women, and who hasnt noticed that black people tend to mutter and sing to themselves in public much more often than other race?. Either because they are often sexualized at a young age or whatever, when you combine the violence; the chippy attitude; the apparent lack of a risk aversion gene; the dont touch my hair/I refuse to learn to swim stuff that would be labelled neurosis in any other race; the inability or refusal to think ahead; the possibly low-level depression that makes welfare more appealing than work; the hair trigger hostility to even benign authority figures; and even the almost Tourettes level of foul language in rap… Damn, America, dont you wish youd picked your own damn cotton? ...
why is black history month just in February? African American Inequality Social Justice Implications Median income for Blacks was $32,068 vs. $54,620 Whites 27.4% of African Americans living in poverty vs. 9.9% of Whites 39.1% of African American children vs. 12.4% of White children 21% of Blacks did not have health insurance vs. 12% of Whites Infant mortality rate among Blacks was 2.4 times the rate of Whites Obesity affects 49.5% of Blacks vs. 34.3% of Whites African Americans with Bachelors Degrees make 20% less than Whites with the same degree (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011) (Carnevale, Rose, & Cheah, 2011) (Flegal, Carroll, Kit, & Ogden, 2012) (MacDorman & Mathews, 2011) Multi-Phase Model of Psychotherapy, Counseling Human Rights, & Social Justice Chung & Bemak, 2012 Culture Family Among families headed by females, the rearing of children is often undertaken by a large number of relatives, older children, ...
Triple negative tumors have a poorer prognosis compared to other subtypes of breast cancer. They tend to be higher grade and have a greater number of mutations in the p53 gene-factors also linked to a worse prognosis [216,227-229].. Although data are limited at this time, some lifestyle factors may play a role in the higher rate of triple negative breast cancer among African American women. Some studies have found that compared to white women, African American women tend to have lower rates of breastfeeding and tend to carry excess weight in the abdomen area, both of which may increase the chances of having triple negative tumors [217,223,230-231].. It may also be that certain reproductive and lifestyle factors protect more against estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers than ER- breast cancers, including triple negative breast cancers. So, although African American may be more likely than white women to have these protective factors, they may not lower the risk of triple negative breast ...
Television is a medium that transmits messages to mass audiences daily. African American adolescents view more television than any other demographic group. Historically a disparity in educational achievement has existed among African American students and White students, but there are few studies that have examined the impact of television on this disparity.; This study explores the amount of television that is viewed by African American adolescents and its relation to their academic achievement and self-concept. The purpose of the study is to determine whether a significant correlation exists between television viewing and academic success of African American high school students and their self-concept. The results compare the variables of gender, socio-economic status, and mainstream viewing versus minority-oriented viewing in the correlation findings ...
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Abstract: Rates of hypertension in the United States have been rising over the past twenty years. Unfortunately, African Americans are at higher risk for early-onset hypertension, placing African American young adults at increased health risk. Healthy eating and physical activity behaviors have been associated with increased blood pressure control and could serve as areas for intervention for the prevention of early-onset hypertension in young adults. Parents have been shown to influence the development of their childrens health risk behaviors, thus providing a possible point of entry for these interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the eating and exercise behaviors of mothers in relation to the eating and exercise behaviors, gender, and hypertension risk category of their African American young adult children (n=56 dyads, youth ages17-20y). Mother and child took part separately in in-depth semi-structured interviews designed to elicit information about eating and physical ...
UNCFs Frederick D. Patterson Research Institute sought to amplify voices that are often marginalized in these education discussions. To that end, we released our latest report, A Seat at the Table: African American Youths Perceptions of K-12 Education at the Annual UNCF Education Summit a few weeks ago.
Variants of the gene ALOX5AP (also known as FLAP) encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein are known to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction1. Here we show that a haplotype (HapK) spanning the LTA4H gene encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, a protein in the same biochemical pathway as ALOX5AP, confers modest risk of myocardial infarction in an Icelandic cohort. Measurements of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production suggest that this risk is mediated through upregulation of the leukotriene pathway. Three cohorts from the United States also show that HapK confers a modest relative risk (1.16) in European Americans, but it confers a threefold larger risk in African Americans. About 27% of the European American controls carried at least one copy of HapK, as compared with only 6% of African American controls. Our analyses indicate that HapK is very rare in Africa and that its occurrence in African Americans is due to European admixture. Interactions with other genetic or ...
Author Summary Although recent genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants associated with total white blood cell (WBC) and WBC sub-type counts in European and Japanese ancestry populations, whether these or other loci account for differences in WBC count among African Americans is unknown. By examining |16,000 African Americans, we show that, in addition to the previously identified Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) locus on chromosome 1, another variant, rs9131, and other nearby variants on human chromosome 4 are associated with total WBC count in African Americans. The variants span the CXCL2 gene, which encodes an inflammatory mediator involved in WBC production and migration. We show that the association is not restricted to African Americans but is also present in independent samples of European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Japanese. This finding is potentially important because WBC mediate or have altered counts in a variety of acute and chronic
The Muskegon County Museum of African American History is being developed by community people for community people. Its primary goal is to provide local historical African American legacy information that will instill pride and motivation for young African Americans. While there will be a state and national presence, the primary focus is Muskegon County. The current major project is to identify and interview people or family members of people who were the first African American to own a business, hold political office or other notables and create a wall of Muskegon County firsts and other notables. Another major project is to create ongoing funding sources so we can hire staff and provide for the day-to-day operating costs. The museum has a fund development committe to help with this.
Supporters of the latest plan to create an African American museum in Seattle started a drive yesterday to raise the $1 million still needed to buy the abandoned Colman School -- a project with a rocky past. The event could have been called a cleansing ceremony because of past troubles with the project, said Paul Chiles, chairman of the Urban League board. The Urban League has the audacity to try to sabotage an important project like the African American cultural museum by turning it into a real estate development, Garrett said yesterday from the King County Jail. The Urban League plans call for a $17 million redevelopment that would include the museum, commercial space and 40-plus apartments that would go for low-income and market-rate rents. While Garrett claimed the project would face the wrath of the African American grass-roots community, yesterdays ceremony stressed unity and respect. Organizers involved past and present pastors of the citys major African American churches, political
Health,...Low-income African-American high school students with asthma who parti...The results of the study appear in the first issue for May 2007 of the...Christine L. M. Joseph M.P.H Ph.D. Senior Staff Epidemiologist for ...The web-based program which the researchers call Puff City tried to ...,Web-based,asthma,program,dramatically,improves,disease,management,for,low-income,black,students,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that ...
About the Lecture. Most popular accounts of the African American connection with Gandhi have swirled around the outsized figure of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as the public face of the Civil Rights Movement. However, the cry for a Negro Gandhi was first raised by W. E. B. DuBois, the most prominent African American intellectual of his generation, in the early 1920s. Thereafter, the figure of Gandhi appears frequently as someone that black Americans could emulate. Moreover, the African American press, represented by such newspapers as the Crisis, Pittsburgh Courier, New York Amsterdam News, and the Chicago Defender, was extraordinarily prolific in its representation of the Indian independence movement. In this talk, I analyze the worldview of the African American press and its outlook towards the movement in India. Prevailing conceptions of the Global South, focusing on anti-colonial movements in Asia and Africa, generally overlook the history of black America in the 20th century. ...
Picture of Close up caring African American mother holding child hands, showing love and support, black mum comforting, caressing kid, children protection concept, family enjoying moment together stock photo, images and stock photography. Image 123628441.