TY - JOUR. T1 - Subnational estimation of modern contraceptive prevalence in five sub-Saharan African countries. T2 - A Bayesian hierarchical approach 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services. AU - Li, Qingfeng. AU - Louis, Thomas. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Wang, Chenguang. AU - Tsui, Amy Ong. PY - 2019/2/20. Y1 - 2019/2/20. N2 - Background: Global monitoring efforts have relied on national estimates of modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) for many low-income countries. However, most contraceptive delivery programs are implemented by health departments at lower administrative levels, reflecting a persisting gap between the availability of and need for subnational mCPR estimates. Methods: Using woman-level data from multiple semi-annual national survey rounds conducted between 2013 and 2016 in five sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda) by the Performance, Monitoring and Accountability 2020 project, we propose a Bayesian ...
Through extensive systematic searching focusing on sub-Saharan Africa and with no date restrictions, we found 42 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, including seven that examined children. The previous systematic reviews in global populations mentioned in the introduction (Brown and colleagues, 2009 [16]; and Powles and colleagues, 2013 [15]) examined papers published between 1988-2008 and 1980-2011, and identified five and 11 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, respectively. Brown and colleagues [16] did not find any estimates for African children, while Powles and colleagues [15] did not include children in their systematic review.. We have found that sodium intake in many adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa is above the 2 g intake recommended as an upper limit by the WHO, and also above this limit in some populations of children. Indeed, there have been no estimates of sodium intake for adult populations that fell below this ...
We examine the impact of resource windfall on the standard of living both in the short-run and long-run, using a sample of 130 countries, 1963-2007. Then, we systematically investigate the effect of resource windfall on welfare in three different groups of countries: We find that in the short-run resource windfall is welfare enhancing in the whole sample, especially via increases in income and decreases in inequality. However, in SSA countries, the size of welfare improvement is small and it is smaller and almost zero after one year in fragile Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. In the whole sample, a resource windfall shock leads to significant welfare growth even in the long-run, but we couldnt find any significant long-run effect of resource windfall in SSA countries.
It is very difficult to obtain recent, reliable data form any Sub-Saharan country (except South Africa), which makes it hard to provide detailed information. Rolf Burckhardt from a personal experience states that there are definitely opportunities for animal feed production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, one has to be aware of the pitfalls.
CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), or stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), is the only known natural ligand for the HIV-1 coreceptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CXCL12 gene (SDF1-3A) has been associated with disease progression to AIDS in some studies, but not others. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene are generally rare and have not been implicated in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. This study analyzed the SDF1-3A SNP and performed mutation screening for polymorphic markers in the CXCR4 gene to determine the presence or absence of significant associations with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The study consisted of 257 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 113 HIV-1-seronegative controls representing a sub-Saharan African population belonging to the Xhosa ethnic group of South Africa. The SDF1-3A SNP was associated with an increased risk for HIV-1 infection (P = 0.0319) whereas no significant association was observed between the occurrence of the SDF1-3A SNP and
EDITORIALS. World TB Day 2010: Eradicating tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa needs effective and committed north-south partnerships The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 24 March of each year as World TB Day, to mark the anniversary of Robert Kochs discovery in 1882 of the cause of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regrettably, this is not a day for celebration. Instead, governments, policy makers, scientists and funders must reflect on the paradoxical fact that, although effective and cheap therapy has been available for over 60 years, TB kills nearly 1.8 million people every year, that is, 5 000 people every day! Together with HIV/AIDS and malaria, TB remains one of the most important causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. World TB Day provides an opportunity to reflect on the poor state of TB control globally, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries (SSA).1 The WHO, donor governments and other funding agencies have focused much of their ...
Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002�April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two noncommensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that ...
BOX 1 Six CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATED PRODUCTION In addition to appropriate irrigation technology, a number of conditions must be met for successful small-scale irrigated horticultural development to occur availability of suitable land, water, and labour resources and non irrigation inputs to production, access to markets, and capital resources (Norman, 1992, Alien and Perry, 1996) Availability of Land Resources A horticultural development programme is justified if it has strong potential for achieving increased production and incomes Land is one of the most important factors of production linked to this achievement It must exist in adequate quantities and with the appropriate physical properties for an expansion of irrigated horticultural production to occur Experience in several sub-Saharan countries confirms that land availability is not a constraint to increased irrigated production and that resulting increases in irrigated surface area is one of the main contributing ...
EDITORIALS. Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa - a potential time bomb The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) reported worldwide each year, and 1.7 million people die from the disease.1 The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains very high at over 300 new cases of TB per 100 000 population in 2007.2 The TB epidemic in SSA is fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and up to 70% of adults with TB are co-infected with HIV.2 There are few data on drug-resistant TB from SSA,3 probably owing to poor TB programme performance, inadequate laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing (DST), and poor surveillance, data collection and reporting procedures. The WHO estimated that 69 000 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2008 in Africa, which is most probably an underestimate.1. The global focus on TB control is on early diagnosis and treatment of people in the community in high TB- and TB/HIV-endemic countries. People concentrated ...
This week at CROI David Maman from Médecins sans Frontières presented a study that showed that breastfeeding mothers in sub-Saharan Africa are often
Sub-Saharan Africa does not yet have enough eye health workers to help the millions of people suffering from eye disease in this region. This article explains the challenges in sub-Saharan Africa and the efforts underway to train and empower more eye health workers.
Genetics evidence published in recent years suggests that certain strains of plague (Yersinia pestis) in sub-Saharan Africa may be centuries old. This raises questions whether there is correlation with the suspected depopulations in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the late medieval period. This symposium, for the first time ever, brings together historians, geneticists, archeologists, art historians, anthropologists, and linguists to examine these questions. ...
© Busby et al.Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of gene-flow within the last 4000 years. Our in-depth analysis provides insight into haplotype sharing across different ethno-linguistic groups and the recent movement of alleles into new environments, both of which are relevant to
A U.N. study of neonatal mortality around the world found that Africa has the highest rate, at 28 deaths for every 1,000 live births. In a study pertaining to 14 sub-Saharan African countries, [Michigan State University medical geographer Sue] Grady and her student investigators found that neonatal mortality was significantly associated with, among other factors, home births, where babies are delivered without the supervision of a trained professional. … Grady said newborn deaths in East and West Africa could be dramatically reduced if babies were delivered in medical facilities with trained personnel standing by…" (Berman, 6/7).. ...
Doctors with africa CUAMM is an NGO working for the promotion and protection of health in Africa.The organization actively operates in 7 sub-Saharan African countries with long-term healthcare projects, within a framework of social inclusion.
In a simple and hard-hitting way, the film depicts how the staple food crop cassava is destroyed in Sub-Saharan African countries by viruses carried by whiteflies. It draws attention to the way the 1,100-strong CONNECTED Virus Network is bringing together world-class researchers from across the globe to address these issues.. Early in 2019 Eve Bannister and Charlotte May were successful in a process which saw students pitch to the CONNECTED Network to create a film which, with the co-operation of their tutors, would form a key component of their second year of studies.. Their brief was to create a 90-second outreach animation about plant diseases impact, primarily aimed at non-expert laypeople, and to draw attention to the importance of the CONNECTED Network in helping address these issues. It takes the example of the cassava crop to show the impact of two damaging diseases spread by insects.. CONNECTED Network Director, Prof. Gary Foster (University of Bristol) explains: "The film uses ...
<p>Childhood cancer diagnosis low in Africa, South Africa ponders air pollution tax, goats attack Malawi seed programmes, and more.</p>
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of motor, cognitive, language and social-emotional impairment related to HIV infection in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Literature searches using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Additionally, the reference lists of previous reviews were checked to ensure that all eligible studies were identified. Cohens d, a measure of effect size, was computed to estimate the level of impairment. RESULTS: Six reports met the inclusion criteria. In infancy a consistent delay in motor development was observed with a median value of Cohens d = 0.97 at 18 months, indicating a severe degree of impairment. Mental development showed a moderate delay at 18 months, with a median value d = 0.67. Language delay did not appear until 24 months of age, d = 0.91. Less clear findings occurred in older subjects. CONCLUSION: Although HIV has been shown to affect all domains of child functioning, motor development is the most apparent in terms of severity, early onset, and persistence
People in Africas Sub-Sahara region, a relatively undeveloped area, are generally satisfied with their sex lives, with the most common rating -- reported by 18 percent of survey respondents -- being a perfect 10, according to Baylor University research to be presented Monday at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association.
Abstract: There exists a continuously growing health care gap between Africa and the rest of the world. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts
Three months ago sub-Saharan Africa confirmed its first COVID-19 case in Nigeria. Although infections have risen and continue to grow, early and swift action by
Research in some sub-Saharan African countries does not provide sustainable solutions to the vital problems of hunger and poverty, underdevelopment, disease, poor educati..
Hunger, disease and poverty continue to extract a painful toll throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Large percentages in the 10 African countries surveyed say there
You cannot eat a sweet with the wrapping," young men from South Africa told researchers as part of a recent World Bank study, explaining why they refuse to wear condoms despite a high and well-known risk of HIV. Men often dont see condoms as manly, and women feel unable to insist.. What does this mean? A 2011 Gallup poll of 19 sub-Saharan African countries, home to more than two-thirds of the worlds HIV-infected population, found most adults know how to prevent the spread of HIV. But while 72 percent agreed people should use latex condoms every time they have sex, only 40 percent said they ever had.. ...
According to a new study, adults with HIV in rural sub-Saharan Africa who receive antiretroviral drugs early in their infection may reap benefits.
未知 (‎2008)‎. HIV drives childrens pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86 (‎5)‎, 324 - 325. World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.010508 ...
Buy In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa by Institute of Medicine at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780309054300. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
... | Country profiles are practical business assessments of corruption in individual countries. Use the profiles to assess the levels of risk, relevant legislation and local information networks for doing business.
Novartis announced today a new strategy to broaden patient reach and availability of its portfolio of medicines in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to the largest underserved patient population in the world.
From deadly droughts and destroyed crops to shrinking water sources, communities across sub-Saharan Africa are struggling to withstand the onslaught of global record-breaking temperatures.
Downloadable! Trade integration of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries agriculture is pointed out as a powerful driver of agricultural growth, especially if it increases processing of agricultural products. But there is no consensus on which negotiations for increased trade integration to put first. Static effects of regional and multilateral tariff reduction shocks are simulated with the Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium computable general equilibrium model in order to compare them and test their coherence with the objective of enhanced value-added in agriculture. A new method is tested to treat existing data issues in the GTAP 7 database that usually lead to overestimations of gains from some trade integration.
Every day, as many as 500 babies in sub-Saharan Africa are born with HIV. Standard practice in many of these countries is to give them treatment if they
While the world has focused on the traditional causes of premature death in Africa - communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, malnutrition,…
The papers in this volume address three important issues: the role ofexchange-rate policy in enhancing the competitiveness of African manufactured exports; the steps that can be taken to improve production efficiency; and the role of institutional and structural reforms in promoting competitiveness in manufacturing and in improving Africas attractiveness to foreign direct investment. An epilogue evaluates progress and developments since the conference that gave rise to this volume was held.
Doing business in sub-Sahara Africa can be full of disparate challenges, and anyone looking to identify a classic African consumer will struggle. Despite sharing a common border,...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Are we there yet? Spatio - temporal analysis of the effect of household/area level education inequality, income inequality, quality of education, poverty and gender gap in achieving millennium development goals in Sub-Sahara Africa? ...
People with disabilities must be at the heart of research into inclusion and accessibility, says Brazilian researcher Jessica Norberto Rocha.
When DSM Nutritional Products' existing blending facility threatened to reach its production capacity a few years ago a decision was made to invest in a new plant at their Isando head-office in Johannesburg. DSM transferred all of its premix production to this plant at the beginning of March 2009.
Protein AA are needed for the synthesis of hundreds of different tissues, regulatory, receptor, blood, protective and secretory proteins.
We work primarily through women and girls, to build the knowledge, skills and means to transform their health, laying foundations for generations to come and improving maternal health across sub-Saharan Africa.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has disbursed US$10 billion to 27 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to enable them to effectiv
The worlds first human test of a vaccine against the prevalent subtype of HIV in sub-Saharan African and Asia, where millions have the virus that cau
Variants in the DARC/ACKR1 gene associated with sub-Saharan African origins may explain why black women have worse breast cancer outcomes than white ...
Over the past three decades, the HIV epidemic has gained a stranglehold in sub-Saharan Africa, where 10% of the world‟s population comprises more than 60% of all people living with the disease. Recent initiatives to boost ...
Sub-Saharan Africa, the region that has been hit the hardest by the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic, is making important progress toward lessening the effects of the virus. Since 2009, seven of those African nations have cut their rates of childrens HIV infections in half, the United Nations AIDS program announced on Tuesday.. Those countries include Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, and Zambia. All of them are considered "priority nations" in the UNs fight to combat AIDS. According to a new UNAIDS report, the 21 priority nations in Africa have seen a 38 percent drop in new HIV infections among children over the past four years.. The children who do become infected still struggle to access the HIV drugs they need. Only about three out of every ten HIV-positive children in most priority countries are getting treatment. Those numbers are "unacceptably low," according to UNAIDS.. Still, the report signals good news. "The progress in the majority of countries is a strong signal ...
Diversifying crop production has been proposed as a means of reducing food and nutrition insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, but previous empirical studies yield mixed results. Much of this evidence...
A long-debated question concerns the fate of archaic forms of the genus Homo: did they go extinct without interbreeding with anatomically modern humans, or are their genes present in contemporary populations? This question is typically focused on the genetic contribution of archaic forms outside of Africa. Here we use DNA sequence data gathered from 61 noncoding autosomal regions in a sample of three sub-Saharan African populations (Mandenka, Biaka, and San) to test models of African archaic admixture. We use two complementary approximate-likelihood approaches and a model of human evolution that involves recent population structure, with and without gene flow from an archaic population. Extensive simulation results reject the null model of no admixture and allow us to infer that contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of genetic material (≈2%) that introgressed ≈35 kya from an archaic population that split from the ancestors of anatomically modern humans ≈700 kya. Three ...
A long-debated question concerns the fate of archaic forms of the genus Homo: did they go extinct without interbreeding with anatomically modern humans, or are their genes present in contemporary populations? This question is typically focused on the genetic contribution of archaic forms outside of Africa. Here we use DNA sequence data gathered from 61 noncoding autosomal regions in a sample of three sub-Saharan African populations (Mandenka, Biaka, and San) to test models of African archaic admixture. We use two complementary approximate-likelihood approaches and a model of human evolution that involves recent population structure, with and without gene flow from an archaic population. Extensive simulation results reject the null model of no admixture and allow us to infer that contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of genetic material (≈2%) that introgressed ≈35 kya from an archaic population that split from the ancestors of anatomically modern humans ≈700 kya. Three ...
Mass drug administration is an effective way to control Schistosomoiasis; work from Francisca Mutapi and her team shows that it should be extended to include pre-school age children.. Mass administration of anti-parasite medication is currently taking place in 28 African countries. Despite infection afflicting as much as 60 per cent of the preschool population in these countries, the age group is not included in any of the treatment programmes.. Researchers claim that current clinical testing of schistosome vaccines is neglecting preschool children by targeting only primary pupils. They say that this raises the potential of future vaccinations continuing to exclude the younger age group.. Schistosomiasis affects 200 million people worldwide and is endemic in 43 African countries, with 90 per cent of cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, who carried out the study, found that infection can occur in babies as young as six months in high transmission ...