But the lists existence is no secret anymore, nor is the ambition of many in the administration to see it greatly expanded, with designs on setting the goal of killing a number of Islamist militants across Northern Africa and then creating the US military and/or CIA infrastructure to start getting those killings done.. The man to get this escalation done is Mokhtar Belmokhtar, the Algerian militant behind last months hostage siege at a BP gas plant along the Libyan border. His addition would set a precedent that would mean a precipitous increase in US ambitions across northern Africa.. Belmokhtar is not believed to be on the list yet because theres simply no one to kill him. The CIAs drone campaign is restricted to Yemen and Pakistan, and the Pentagon isnt occupying Algeria.. This means getting him on the list, on the surface something most officials will feel is non-controversial, will mean putting something in Northern Africa to kill him. A drone base for the CIA is a possibility, and ...
Dust still lingered over northern Africa on February 24, 2006, a day after a massive dust storm swept over Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard the Aqua satellite captured this image on February 24.. In this image, a cloud of dust several hundred kilometers across extends from Libya and Egypt over the Mediterranean Sea. Faint tendrils of dust reach as far to the east as Israel. Although the dust hides many land features in northern Africa, the lush, green Nile Delta still stands out from its surroundings.. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. ...
City Navigator Middle East & Northern Africa NT 2015.20 Coverage may vary, the above is a previous release picture Provides more than 960,000 km (596,700 mi) of road coverage. Displays more than 1
In Northern Africa, UCSF researchers are involved with testing hepatitis C treatment. The Global Health Group (GHG) works on malaria elimination in Algeria. Steven Deeks international HIV trials network (INSIGHT) works collaboratively with researchers in Morocco.. ...
Looking for Sahara Desert? Find out information about Sahara Desert. worlds largest desert, c.3,500,000 sq mi , N Africa; the western part of a great arid zone that continues into SW Asia. Extending more than 3,000 mi , from... Explanation of Sahara Desert
With the fast pace of our everyday, we cant lose the patients story [asthma history] as a part of the care process. Asthma Insight recognizes the power of voice [data] in the care continuum and helps patients not only capture their story, but connect with everyone on their care team - parents, doctors, nurses, caretakers, and anyone they feel is important to their care journey. Asthma Insight empowers this connection between patients & care teams through information exchange. Identifying triggers is a very personal process [outside of allergy testing alone] and Asthma Insight acts as a personal repository for symptom tracking that will be important in augmenting care planning - while also maintaining connectivity and sharing information with vital care stakeholders. ...
The 374F mutation in the SLC45A2 gene encoding the membrane associated transporter protein (MATP) has been suggested to be associated with skin color in Caucasians. In this synthesis, we collected the distribution of the 374F allele in 2910 unrelated subjects from 28 European and 4 North African populations. The highest allele frequency was observed in Denmark (0.98) and the lowest frequencies were observed in Tunisia (0.61) and in Algerian Mozabites (0.40). A significant decreasing latitudinal cline in 374F allele frequencies was observed, ranging from the north of West Europe to North Africa (R² = 0.6781). Key words: Human skin pigmentation, SLC45A2 gene, 374F mutation, membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), population study, gradient of allele frequencies, West Europe and North Africa.
There is concern among many observers that U.S. efforts to help build Afghan governance, democracy, civil society, and rule of law will founder as the United States and its partners seek to wind down their involvement in Afghanistan by the end of 2014. Some argue that the informal power structure, which has always been at least as significant a factor in governance as the formal power structure, will sustain governance beyond 2014 if formal governing structures falter. Others say greater reliance on the informal power structure will invite even more corruption and arbitrary administration of justice than is the case now. Karzai has turned the informal power structure to his advantage by relying on the loyalty of several close, ethnic Pashtun allies, while both engaging and dividing the minority ethnic and political faction leaders that generally oppose him. However, several powerful non-Pashtun faction leaders oppose Karzais willingness to make concessions to insurgent leaders in search of a ...
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Cotton: Gossypium spp.( Magnoliophyta, Magnoliopsida, Malvales, Malvaceae). Origin: Arab merchants brought cotton cloth to Europe about 800 A.D.. Service: Provides us with thin material to make clothes. Largely self pollinated.. Sheep: Ovis aries (Chordata, Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Origin: the sheep is supposed to have been domesticated in the Neolithic period about 10,000 years ago in Asia.. Service: Provide merino wool for carpets in our house, lining in cars and for human clothing. Curdled milk is used to make organic paint.. Rye grass: Lolium perenne (Angiosperm, Poales, Poaceae). Origin: domesticated from Eurasia and northern Africa. Service: Provides food for cows and sheep.. White clover: Trifolium repens, (Angiosperm, Fabales, Fabaceae). Origin: domesticated from Eurasia and northern Africa. Service: fertilised the rye grass and fed the cow and sheep.. Honeybee: Apis mellifera, (Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae). Origin: Europe. Service: pollinates the clover. Nitrogen ...
British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia throughout Europe to the Canary Islands and Northern Africa, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Korea, Japan, Canada, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York and New England. Winters in Mexico, Gulf coast, Florida, Cuba, northern Africa and southern Asia ...
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This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species ...
Background Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs), we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula) and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈17% in Canary Islanders, whereas
The androgen receptor (AR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for several cancers (breast, prostate, uterine endometrium, colon, and esophagus). Ethnicity is considered an associated risk factor for some of these cancers. Several case-control genetic studies have been focused in samples of the main ethnic groups, but little is known about the distribution of risk polymorphisms in current populations with accurate ethnic and/or geographic origins. The A allele of the G1733A polymorphism of the AR gene has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We provide data from this marker in 12 samples from 7 Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Italy (Sardinia), Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt. A sample from Ivory Coast has also been analyzed. The A allele distribution shows a frequency in the Ivory Coast population (65.17%) that contrasts with the low values found in Northern Mediterraneans (mean average value of 13.98%). North African populations present two-times higher ...
Are you heading to Morocco and planning to go overnight camping in the Sahara? Here is my Sahara Desert packing list to help you for your trip!
Every day, millions of microorganisms reach Spain from the Sahara Desert and the Sahel region -- by flying. Louis Pasteur demonstrated back in 1861 that germs can move through the air, but it was only recently discovered that bacteria, fungi and viruses can travel thousands of kilometers stuck onto dust particles. Satellite images show clouds that come close to the size of the Iberian Peninsula.
Impossible as it might seem, there are many such groups, all of them tribal nomads on the fringes of the Sahara desert. Take the Beja, who live in the Sudan between the Nile and the Red Sea. As recently as 5,000 years ago, northern Africa had a much wetter climate. When the rains dried up, so did the land, leading to a spread of the desert into traditional nomadic pastoral lands. Agriculture became impossible in this desert setting. Only animals could eat the few plants that naturally grew and no other food sources were available (condition 3). Yet the Beja survive as long as their animals do. During the dry season that may last as long as nine months they live almost entirely on the milk of their camels and goats, up to 3 quarts per adult per day (condition 1). Milk processing and storage in forms that are low in lactose is impossible given the desert temperatures and the nomadic Beja lifestyle. All the milk must be drunk fresh (condition 2). As the Beja clearly satisfy all three conditions, ...
Aminatou Haidar, who is 42 and has two children, was detained at Laayoune airport, Western Sahara on 13 November when she returned from a month-long trip, to countries including the USA, where she accepted the 2009 Civil Courage Prize, which is awarded every year for steadfast resistance to evil at great personal risk. She was questioned about why she had given her home as Western Sahara rather than Moroccan Sahara on her landing card; she was also asked about her travel, as well as her political opinions and affiliations. Her Moroccan passport and identity card were then confiscated and she was detained in the airport overnight. She said that on 14 November officials offered to release her in return for a public acknowledgement of Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. She refused to do so, and a few hours later she was put on a flight to Lanzarote, in the Canary Islands.. Aminatou Haidar has been on hunger strike since 15 November in protest. According to her family, she has grown ...
Recent scientific literature has highlighted the relevance of population genetic studies both for disease association mapping in admixed populations and for understanding the history of human migrations. Deeper insight into the history of the Italian population is critical for understanding the peopling of Europe. Because of its crucial position at the centre of the Mediterranean basin, the Italian peninsula has experienced a complex history of colonization and migration whose genetic signatures are still present in contemporary Italians. In this study, we investigated genomic variation in the Italian population using 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of more than 300 unrelated Italian subjects with well-defined geographical origins. We combined several analytical approaches to interpret genome-wide data on 1272 individuals from European, Middle Eastern, and North African populations. We detected three major ancestral components contributing different proportions across the ...
Celiac disease (CD) is an intolerance to dietary proteins of wheat, barley, and rye. CD may have substantial morbidity, yet it is quite common with a prevalence of 1%-2% in Western populations. It is not clear why the CD phenotype is so prevalent despite its negative effects on human health, especially because appropriate treatment in the form of a gluten-free diet has only been available since the 1950s, when dietary gluten was discovered to be the triggering factor. The high prevalence of CD might suggest that genes underlying this disease may have been favored by the process of natural selection. We assessed signatures of selection for ten confirmed CD-associated loci in several genome-wide data sets, comprising 8154 controls from four European populations and 195 individuals from a North African population, by studying haplotype lengths via the integrated haplotype score (iHS) method. Consistent signs of positive selection for CD-associated derived alleles were observed in three loci: IL12A, ...
Pre-Existing Slave Trade Trans-Saharan trade routes (Red Sea and East African) had been trading slaves for centuries throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa Mostly women: traded as concubines for harems; domestic servants Some men: soldiers, field workers (salt production and gold mines), caravan laborers Europeans tapped into existing routes and supplies of slaves. Used this to justify their own enslavement of Africans in New World Mid 1400s: Europeans begin to utilize slaves in Europe as household servants Other forms of servitude used by Europeans: Indentured servitude: Required to work for a master for
The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C3 vs. C4 vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C3 plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C3 vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (≈50-45 ka) and MIS 5 (≈120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross ...
In 1990, Africas forests covered almost 750,000 mn hectares, representing 23 per cent of total land area on the continent. Twenty years later, they covered less than 675,000 mn hectares. Yet, says State of the Worlds Forests 2011, a report of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there is good news: the loss of the continents forest cover is slowing. Between 1990 and 2000, the UN report notes, 40 mn hectares of forest were destroyed. During the last decade, that number went down to 34 mn hectares.. Two main reasons account for the reduction, the report explains. First are efforts by North African countries to preserve their forests. Net losses in this region dropped to 41,000 hectares per year, from a previously recorded 590,000 hectares per year. Recent efforts by Sudan to gather data about the state of its forest is the second reason. Figures for 2000-2010 proved significantly lower than earlier estimates for the preceding decade. Also, North African countries and Sudan lead the ...
מזרח‎ Mizraḥ, Hebrew for east. In the past the word Mizrahim, corresponding to the Arabic word Mashriqiyyun (Arabic مشريقيون or Easterners), referred to the natives of Iraq and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghribiyyun). In medieval and early modern times, the corresponding Hebrew word maarav was used for North Africa. In Talmudic and Geonic times, however, this word maarav referred to the land of Israel, as contrasted with Babylonia. For this reason, many object to the use of Mizrahi to include Moroccan and other North African Jews. The term Mizrahim or Edot Hamizraḥ, Oriental communities, grew in Israel under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of Jewish immigrants from Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, followers of Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Temani (Yemenite) rites. In modern Israeli usage, it refers to all Jews from Central and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority ...
The Sahara desert is one of the harshest, most inhospitable places on the planet, covering much of North Africa in some 3.6 million square miles of rock and windswept dunes. But it wasnt always so desolate and parched. Primitive rock paintings and fossils excavated from the region suggest that the Sahara was once a relatively verdant oasis, where human settlements and a diversity of plants and animals thrived. Now researchers at MIT have analyzed dust deposited off the coast of west Africa over the the last 240,000 years, and found that the Sahara, and North Africa in general, has swung between wet and dry climates every 20,000 years. They say that this climatic pendulum is mainly driven by changes to the Earths axis as the planet orbits the sun, which in turn affect the distribution of sunlight between seasons - every 20,000 years, the Earth swings from more sunlight in summer to less, and back again.. For North Africa, it is likely that, when the Earth is tilted to receive maximum summer ...
Animal herding, which has been a way of life in northeastern Africa for about 8,000 years, had spread to southern Africa by 2,000 years ago. Whether this pastoral lifestyle was brought south by immigrants or adopted by hunter-gatherers who were already living in the region has long been an open question. In an attempt to find an answer, a multinational team of scientists studied 41 genomes from people who lived in Africa between 4,000 and 300 years ago. The results revealed that pastoralists who migrated from northeastern Africa into eastern Africa around 5,000 years ago had ancient roots in southwestern Asia, northern Africa, or both. At first, they interbred with local foragers, but about 3,300 years ago, once the herding lifestyle had become established, this interbreeding ceased. According to lead researcher Mary Prendergast of Saint Louis University in Madrid, why pastoralists and foragers stopped interbreeding remains unknown. ...
Applying race to a people with ancient roots makes nearly no sense. This is not a social dilemma, it is a scientific and historical one. People identified as tribes, not in skin color. Race is a modern concept that was birthed for the mere purpose of division and an outlet for domination by instilling a sense of innate superiority. It has no place in categorizing indigenous peoples.. Those saying Black North African Imazighen dont exist are not saying dark-skinned North African Imazighen dont exist. The definition of Black being used is to mean Subsaharan descent. From here, it is easy to conclude that one who is native to Subsaharan Africa cannot also be native to the very Northern regions of North Africa. They were a nomadic people, but separate tribes nonetheless. Black North African Imazighen are referred to as Haratin, a people who were the product of enslavement. This mixed lineage is a result of interaction. There is a difference between being tan to the point of passing as a ...
Haplogroup E3b1-M78 is the second most prevailing one (23%) in the studied sample with E3b1-M78 chromosomes accounting for almost all E representatives (98%) except a single E3b2-M81 and two E3b3-M123 chromosomes (fig. 2). E3b1-M78 is the most common haplogroup E lineage in Europe (Cruciani et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004). The spatial pattern shown in figure 4(C) depicts a nonuniform E3b1 geographic distribution with a frequency peak centered in south Europe and SEE (13%-16% in southern Italians and 17%-27% in the Balkans). Declining frequencies are evident toward western (10% in northern and central Italians), central, and eastern Europe (from 4% to 10% in Polish, Russians, mainland Croatians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, Herzegovinians, and Bosnians). Noteworthy is a low E3b1 frequency (5%) in Turkey. Apart from its presence in Europe and the Middle East, E3b1 is also found in eastern and northern Africa. Cruciani et al. (2004) estimated that E3b-M78 might have originated in eastern Africa about ...
The Sorraia is a rare breed of horse indigenous to the portion of the Iberian peninsula, in the Sorraia River basin, in Portugal. The Sorraia is known for its primitive features, including a convex profile and dun coloring with primitive markings. Concerning its origins, a theory has been advanced by some authors that the Sorraia is a descendant of primitive horses belonging to the naturally occurring wild fauna of Southern Iberia. Studies are currently ongoing to discover the relationship between the Sorraia and various wild horse types, as well as its relationship with other breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa. Members of the breed are small, but hardy and well-adapted to harsh conditions. They were occasionally captured and used by native farmers for centuries, and a remnant population of these nearly extinct horses was discovered by a Portuguese zoologist in the early 20th century. Today, the Sorraia has become the focus of preservation efforts, with European scientists ...
Clara Sherwood is an alumna of the 2020 CLS Arabic virtual institute hosted by Arab American Lanugage Institute in Meknes, Morocco. Shes a junior at Washington & Jefferson College majoring in Spanish, international relations, and a thematic major titled Music & Conflict Resolution.. Getting to Know Clara. I grew up in a small town in Western Pennsylvania where I was an avid lacrosse player, life-long member of the swim team, and the vocalist for my high schools jazz band. When I had free time, I enjoyed sailing and learning languages (Spanish and Arabic). Learning languages has helped me to understand the complexities of international politics and different cultures and has helped shape me into a young scholar-activist.. Why Arabic?. I was drawn to learn Arabic because of my interest in the Middle East and Northern Africa, its relevance to American foreign policy, and because it is a beautiful language, both visually and orally. Additionally, I want to help solve refugee and immigration issues ...
The people of Africas vast savanna are united by their strong identity with the sprawling plains that surround them. Originally, these pastoral groups came to the savanna looking for food, scavenging after leftover game killed by large predators. Today, these original hunter-gatherers exist in the form of the Dorobo tribes of the eastern Serengeti, who survive by hunting small game and collecting honey and wild fruits and vegetables. Long ago, the Dorobo were joined by herdsmen and pastoralists from northern Africa. Among these, the Maasai have held the most tenaciously to their wanderlust. These tall, dark skinned herdsmen in striking red cloaks and beadwork have come to symbolize the face of Africas savanna people to the outside world. The Maasai share the plains with the Kikuyu, traditionally a nation of farmers, who now form the backbone of Kenyan society ...
HIV epidemics in people who inject drugs have been on the rise in recent years, including cases in Indiana, USA and Glasgow, UK, raising the question of which measures should be prioritised by authorities - particularly in regions with limited resources, such as the recently affected areas of the Middle East, northern Africa and southeastern Asia.. The research is published in the journal AIDS.. Lead author Tetyana Vasylyeva, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Zoology at Oxford University, said: The HIV epidemic among drug users in Russia and Ukraine following the collapse of the Soviet Union is the biggest of its kind ever recorded. From around only 50 cases per year by 1993, the epidemic grew to several thousand cases in 1994. By the end of the decade, over 1 million people were infected across the two countries - the majority of them drug users.. There was very little in the way of a preventive effort in this epidemic, which makes it a good model to study.. The researchers analysed ...
Colubrine snakes are distributed worldwide, with the highest diversity in North America, Asia, northern Africa, and the Middle East. There are relatively few species of colubrine snakes in Europe, South America, Australia, and southern Africa, and none in Madagascar, the Caribbean, or the Pacific Islands.[2][3][4]. Colubrine snakes are extremely morphologically and ecologically diverse. Many are terrestrial, and there are specialized fossorial (e.g. Tantilla) and arboreal (e.g. Oxybelis) groups, but no truly aquatic groups. Some of the most powerful constrictors (e.g. Pantherophis, Pituophis, Lampropeltis) are members of this group, as are a few snakes that have strong enough venom to kill humans (i.e. boomslangs [Dispholidus] and twigsnakes [Thelotornis]).[5][6]. Within Colubrinae, genera and species seem to make up five distinct radiations[7] that are to varying degrees broadly similar in terms of ecology and geographic distribution, although increased sampling is needed to determine whether ...
Genomic evidence for shared common ancestry of East African hunting-gathering populations and insights into local adaptation (Scheinfeldt, 2019) Abstract: Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa ∼300,000 years ago, but the demographic and adaptive histories of African populations are not well-characterized. Here, we have generated a genome-wide dataset from 840 Africans, residing in western, eastern, southern, and northern Africa, belonging to 50 ethnicities, and speaking languages
Sixth cholera pandemic Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal The sixth cholera pandemic was a major outbreak of cholera from the years 1899 to 1923. It killed more than 800,000 in India then erupted in the Middle East, northern Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe. The last outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York City. Vigilant health authorities isolated the infected on Swinburne Island. Eleven people died, including a health care worker at Swinburne Island. Wave nature Flu pandemics typically come in waves. The 1889-1890 and 1918-1919 flu pandemics each came in three or four waves of increasing lethality. But within a wave, mortality was greater at the beginning of the wave. Variable mortality Mortality varies widely in a pandemic. S. Army camps where reasonably reliable statistics were kept, case mortality often exceeded 5 percent, and in some circumstances exceeded 10 percent. 9 percent. In isolated human ...
Duration: 100 hours. The Need for Conservation is Not New. Conserving the natural resources of the planet earth has been desirable since ancient times. However, throughout history the basic principles of the use of natural resources have been ignored, sometimes with disastrous results. For example: major losses such as the silting of rivers and estuaries, and the flooding of lowlands, have been caused by the destruction of forests and grasslands protecting watersheds. This is apparent mostly in Northern China and in Asia near the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Large areas of Northern Africa and the Middle East have been rendered barren by many centuries of uncontrolled livestock grazing. Lands have been left barren by unwise cultivation and the excessive use of woody plants for fuel that have been cut down and not replanted.. In more recently developed areas of the world, similar damage to the environment has, or is occurring. This is sometimes due to the unwise introduction of species into new ...
Western Saharan nationalist and human rights advocate, is the most prominent figure in the ongoing nonviolent resistance movement in Western Sahara in support of human rights and in opposition to Moroccan occupation of the country. Widely known as the Sahrawi Gandhi, as of the early twenty-first century Haidar serves as president of the Collective of Sahrawi Human Rights Defenders (CODESA). Born in 1966, she currently lives in El Aaiún in occupied Western Sahara and received her baccalaureate degree in modern literature. She is divorced and the mother of two adult sons.. The kingdom of Morocco, which claims Western Sahara as an integral part of its territory, has occupied most of the former Spanish colony since 1975. The Polisario Front, the nationalist movement which had initially battled Spanish colonialist forces, waged a guerilla war against the Moroccan occupation until a cease-fire agreement in 1991 A series of United ... ...
The Summit provided the unique opportunity in bringing together the United Nations and the financial sector from the Middle East and Northern Africa, in order to discuss the positive contributions of the banking system to the international efforts to implement resolution 1540 (2004).. In addressing the Summit, Ms. Angela Kane, High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, conveyed a message from the UN Secretary-General to the Summits participants. The Secretary-General welcomed the Summits focus on weapons of mass destruction, one of the gravest security challenges facing the international community. He stressed that international cooperation in upholding the provisions of resolution 1540 is essential and that the United Nations was mobilizing all stakeholders to join efforts aimed at preventing WMD proliferation and terrorism and would continue to reach out to financial institutions and companies as indispensable partners.. The Summits session on resolution 1540 (2004) was convened by the ...
Read up on the dry body brushing ritual. EXFOLIATION: A process by which the top layer of dead skin cells is sloughed off the face or body whether by dry-brushing, scrubs, or other exfoliation techniques.. FANGO MUD: A high mineralized mud used in wraps, or facials to eliminate toxins and increase blood circulation.. FOUR-HANDED OR SYNCHRONIZED MASSAGE also known as BALINESE MASSAGE: A massage administered by two therapists working in synchronized movements along the body.. FIGIDARIUM: A cold bathing room where bathers plunge into a cold pool of water to refresh and close pores after visiting the warmer Caladerium. The term dates back to Ancient Rome.. HAMMAM: A traditional Turkish or Middle-Eastern communal bathing house with various rooms at different temperatures. Unless youre in Turkey, northern Africa or the Middle East, the term hammam is usually used to refer to ceramic-tiled steam rooms.. HERBAL WRAP: A treatment in which moisture, heat and herbal essences penetrate the skin while the ...
Cayetana Blanca is a grapevine variety widely distributed in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). In addition a wide list of synonyms and its presence in Northern Africa point to a long history of cultivation. In this work we aimed to identify its genetic relationships with other Iberian and Mediterranean cultivars using a panel of SNP markers. A total of 243 SNPs and four chloroplast microsatellite loci allowed for identifying synonyms, trios (parents and offspring) and duos (parent-offspring) relationships. A total of six trios including Cayetana Blanca as a parent were found and supported by very high LODs. Five of the trios have the variety Alfrocheiro Preto as the other parent and gave rise to cultivars used in Portugal: Cornifesto, Camarate, Mouratón, Malvasia Preta and Periquita. The Spanish cultivar Jaén Tinto is confirmed to be an offspring of Cayetana Blanca and Listán Prieto. Additionally, we detected synonyms and duos which in some cases were not anticipated beforehand. ...
Incidence of Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is very high in Southern China and Northern Africa (Qui et al 2011). We can map epidemiological data with GiS. We can convert tabular tendencies into trends and beautiful maps. It goes well with government as well, because GiS is good at following administrative boundaries. Accurate mapping with GiS would help in identifying priority areas in light of prevention and treatment.As we travel from Southern China to north, incidence of NPC decreases. We can direct rediotherapy and chemotherapy or both together for patients according to need. On the basis of MAP LEGENDS, new cancer center, or chemotherapy center or reditherapy centyers can be started. Yesterday , I was following Malaysian news, and 71 year old nasopharyngeal cancer patient was turned down by hospital authority. So sad to know that (Daily Express , Malaysia2013).. Qiu C, Yang N, Tian G, Liu H. Weight loss during radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective study from northern China. ...
To feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050, agricultural production will need to rise by almost 1.4% per year from the year 2000 baseline. This will require an enormous effort on the part of farmers, researchers, and agricultural extension workers. Given all the pressures involved in some regions in making the swift improvements needed in, for example, irrigation, transport infrastructure, and fertilizers, it is uncertain whether such output growth per unit of land can be achieved and sustained to 2050. Much of the land most suitable for food and feed crops is already in use or is not available because it is under legal protection, has carbon and biodiversity value (i.e., forests), or feeds most of the worlds 3.5 billion ruminant livestock. On a per capita basis, prime and good resources for agriculture are plentiful in only a few regions, mainly Australia, South America, North America, Eastern Europe, and Russia. There is little availability in northern Africa and Asia, ...
In the future, according to the report, we can expect that freshwater supplies will increase at high latitudes and in wet tropical areas. However freshwater supplies will become less available in areas where water is already in short supply. Areas that are affected by drought, such as southern and northern Africa, are expected to become more so. Flooding will likely become more common in areas that are already prone to flooding.. Within this century climate change and other global changes such as change in land use and pollution will collectively be too much for many ecosystems to handle and they will not be able to adapt. Twenty to thirty percent of plant and animal species will become extinct if global average temperatures increase 1.5 - 2.5°C, which is within the range estimated by computer models for 21st Century.. Coastal communities, especially in low-lying regions, will be increasingly vulnerable to flooding as sea level rises, especially where tropical storm events are common. Plus, the ...
We examine the relation between Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder upper tropospheric (UT) carbon monoxide (CO) to address when CO can be used as a proxy for aerosols. Ice cloud effective radii (re), also from Aqua MODIS, are also analyzed to investigate possible aerosol effects on ice clouds. Our analysis focuses on five regions where ice clouds are collocated with high UT CO loadings: South America (SAM), southern Africa (SAF), northern Africa (NAF), South Asia (SAS), and East Asia (EAS). We find three levels of AOT to CO sensitivity. High AOT sensitivity to CO is characterized by a rapid increase of AOT when CO increases. SAM in August-November and SAF in June- September fall into this category. Moderate AOT sensitivity to CO is characterized by moderate increase of AOT with CO. It includes SAF in October-May, NAF in January- March, SAS in all months, and EAS in August-September. The other months for each ...
Figure 23: This first CATS image, acquired over northern Africa, shows clouds, dust and smoke from fires, as well as topography returned by the instrument (image credit: NASA). - The CATS team is calibrating the data from the two wavelengths on the primary laser operating at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The backup laser on CATS has three wavelengths. The different wavelengths reflect differently when they hit aerosols, so comparing the returns from multiple wavelengths allows the scientists to distinguish dust from ice, smoke or other airborne particles.. - Before receiving data plots like the one over Africa, the team aligned the telescope pointing. They used motors to adjust optics inside the instrument during nighttime segments until they got the strongest signal, indicating that the telescopes field of view aligned with the reflected laser photons.. - Data from CATS will help scientists model the structure of dust plumes and other atmospheric features, which can travel far distances and impact air ...
Winter is the perfect season for time-honoured tradition of congee (zhou or porridge). One part rice, seven parts water added to a ceramic pot or slow cooker and cooked for a couple of hours. Fast version, soak overnight and cook for 40 minutes or until grains are broken. Porridge for breakfast is an important aspect of Chinese preventative health and one that resonates with many other civilizations. In the north of China (or Northern Africa), it is traditionally millet as rice could not be grown in this climate. When using millet, add one-third white rice to give better texture to the porridge. In Russia, barley porridge is the tradition. In Europe, Oat porridge was the stable breakfast. Traditionally in the Americas, corn gruel. In the pacific islands it is taro root porridge. Porridge is the meal whether you are sick or well. It is easy to digest, nutritious and the perfect food for healing when you are sick or not feeling well. Many ingredients can be added to vary the actions of the ...
All lumbricid species recorded in Great Britain and Ireland, including the few recent additions, are peregrine species or belong to peregrine genera [4,11]. By contrast, the genus Prosellodrilus, comprising about 25 species, has a small, endemic range in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France, with a few species occurring in northern Spain, Sardinia and northern Africa [5,12]. The established P. amplisetosus populations in Dublin represent a northward range extension for the genus of about 1000 km. A previous record of a single adult P. amplisetosus from a farm in County Louth, Ireland [13], together with sporadic records from single, agricultural locations in Galicia, Spain [14] and Burgundy, France [15], could suggest that this species geographical range is expanding.. The extent and speed of northward range extensions, as well as the agents and climate factors, are well-documented for economically important taxa such as invasive terrestrial arthropods [16] and plant pests [17]. Soil ...
CIDRAP News) - Though flu activity is still below epidemic thresholds in most of the Northern Hemisphere, increases in areas such as Spain, northern Africa, and part of Canada suggest that the season is starting, the World Health Organization (WHO) said today. ...
ROME - The avian flu virus has made its way to western Europe and northern Africa, raising concerns that its appearance among immunocompromised patients may give the A(H5N1) strain an opening to mutat