Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb,
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination.
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of aflatoxin B1 contamination in pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, Food products, Poultry and livestock feeds in Tamil Nadu, India. AU - Vijayasamundeeswari, Ayyathurai. AU - Mohankumar, Munusamy. AU - Karthikeyan, Muthusamy. AU - Vijayanandraj, Selvaraj. AU - Paranidharan, Vaikuntavasen. AU - Velazhahan, Rethinasamy. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, have adverse health effects on humans and livestock that ingest aflatoxin- contaminated food products and feeds. To secure the safety of food and feed, regular monitoring of aflatoxin levels is necessary. In order to understand the magnitude of aflatoxin contamination, a survey was conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India and 242 samples consisting of pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, food products, poultry and livestock feeds were collected from farmers fields, poultry farms, retail shops and ...
No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,[23] but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below.[4] High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis (acute aflatoxicosis), resulting later in cirrhosis or carcinoma of the liver. Acute liver failure is made manifest by bleeding, edema, alteration in digestion, changes to the absorption and/or metabolism of nutrients, and mental changes and/or coma.[23] Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. Chronic exposure increases the risk of developing liver and gallbladder cancer,[24] as aflatoxin metabolites may intercalate into DNA and alkylate the bases through epoxide moiety. This is thought to cause mutations in the p53 gene, an important gene in ...
Aflatoxins are important because some are extremely toxic to many kinds of animals; 10 ppb AFB1 consumed regularly by rats may eventually result in fatal liver cancer and in somewhat larger amounts-a few hundred ppb-aflatoxin cause a great variety of ill effects in wild and domestic animals. An aflatoxin contamination level of 20 ppb is permitted in feed grains and in feeds in the U.S.A. but in foods intended for human consumption the tolerance is zero. However, these guidelines were then revised. North Carolina agricultural officials reported that maize containing up to 200 ppb could be fed to heifers (older than 6 months), calves and bulls and to non-lactating brood cows. Maize containing aflatoxin higher than 20 ppb should not be fed to lactating animals, used as any starter ration or feed to poultry. All other animals could be fed with maize containing aflatoxin levels up to 100 ppb. For human consumption, a level, below 20 ppb is enforced (Mirocha and Christensen 1982 and Pitt, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01236 Interpretive Summary: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi within Aspergillus section Flavi. Certain isolates with section Flavi have the small sclerotia or S morphology (< 400 µm) and contaminate crops with high concentrations of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops in both United States (US) and Africa has been attributed to S morphology fungi; however, knowledge of genetic diversity of these highly aflatoxigenic fungi in the US remains limited. The current study utilized molecular, phylogenetic and aflatoxin analyses to identify communities of S morphology fungi resident in regions of the US where crops are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Individual and concatenated phylogenies constructed using calmodulin (1.9 kb) and nitrate reductase (2.1 kb) genes along with deletions in norB-cypA genes of aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster resolved 494 S morphology fungi from the US into four species, including ...
This community-based study evaluated the role of aflatoxin exposure in advanced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-endemic townships. Preventive health examination was performed on 314 adults ≥ 40 years of age recruited from HCV-endemic townships in Tainan, Taiwan. Aflatoxin-albumin in serum was quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. After adjusting serum albumin levels and platelet counts, aflatoxin-Bi albumin adducts was still an independent risk factor for advanced liver disease among all 314 residents (> 8 versus ≤ 8 (AFBi)-albumin/albumin; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.23-4.27, P = 0.009) and particularly in anti-HCV-positive subjects (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.09-4.0, P = 0.026). Levels of AFB1-albumin/albumin were significantly related to ultrasonographic parenchyma scores (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) in all and anti-HCV-positive subjects. The findings indicated aflatoxin exposure may be associated with advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in HCV-endemic
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Studies conducted in Benin, in which the main staple foods are maize, cassava, groundnuts and yams, showed high levels of aflatoxin residues in blood of the exposed population. The natural contamination with fungi and aflatoxins in cassava chips sold at markets in Benin, West Africa was investigated. A total of sixty samples were sampled from open markets in 11 districts of 3 agroecological zones and analyzed for the presence of mycoflora and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Fourteen genera of fungi were associated with marketed dried cassava chips. Within these, twenty- two isolates were identified to species level, whereas four were identified only to genus. The dominating fungal species isolated were Rhizopus oryzae, Nigrospora oryzae, Chrysonilia sitophila, Cladosporium resinae, Cladosporium herbarum, Apergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Fifty-four out of sixty samples were contaminated with A. flavus. The rate of occurrence in CFU/g of A. flavus fungi was lower than for all other fungal ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
A survey was conducted in Nairobi, Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya between March and July 2009 with 1263 peanut products sampled out of which 705 samples underwent microbial analysis. The study aimed at determining the incidence of fungal species - emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi - associated with peanut products. A 0.5kg representative sample was obtained from each surveyed vendor and the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal species determined. The samples were also analyzed for total aflatoxin level while isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were screened for production of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Eight fungal species were detected in the samples and were in decreasing order of CFU/g of sample: A. flavus S-strain (467), A. flavus L-strain (341), Penicillium spp. (326), A. niger (156), A. tamari (27), A. alliaceus (21), A. parasiticus (10), and A. caelatus (5). The overall incidence of A. flavus S-strain in samples from Nairobi was 92 and 1425% higher than samples from ...
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. More importantly, aflatoxin biosynthesis as well as conidia and sclerotia development were fully blocked in ΔAfStuA. In addition, our results supported that AfStuA regulated the aflatoxin synthesis in an AflR-dependent manner. Intriguingly, it was revealed that AfRafA and AfStuA exert an antagonistic role in the regulation of biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid. In
There are a variety of aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2, M 1, M 2) produced by Apergillus flavus. Temperatures of 82° to 90° F, along with grain moisture levels of 22% to 26% provide ideal conditions for producing aflatoxin in a variety of grains, including corn, wheat, barley, and oats. The mold is abundant in the southeastern United States, but has occasionally become a problem in the Midwestern corn belt when drought conditions occur.. Aflatoxin is the only mycotoxin regulated by FDA because it has been shown to be carcinogenic, and therefore concerns about the mycotoxin entering the human food chain exist. No more than 20 ppb aflatoxin is allowed for interstate shipment of contaminated grain. Grains containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb cannot be used for human consumption and dairy feeds, and should not be fed to young animals. At low levels (20 - 200 ppb), aflatoxin decreases performance and well-being. Feed intake is commonly reduced, resulting in depressed growth rate, while ...
Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. Initial findings associated with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain.. According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. Furthermore, 27 of the 35 feed samples that were analyzed contained more than one mycotoxin. This poses additional risk to animals since in many cases the combined effects of two mycotoxins are higher than the individual effects of each toxin alone.. ...
Several mycotoxins are known to contaminate crop produce and processed forms but aflatoxins are the most common. They are mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Cereals and their products which constitute the staples in most developing countries are particularly vulnerable to attack by aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the potential health risk posed to animals and humans, many people in developing countries are oblivious of the ability of aflatoxins to cause cancer and other debilitating diseases. This review therefore examines the various types of aflatoxigenic fungi and toxins, their occurrence in foodstuffs, their harmful effects, economic losses caused, regulation including the tolerable limits set by various national and international agencies and how their effects can be minimized or eliminated. Since developing countries are less resourced, there is the need for their developed counterparts and international agencies to offer them financial and technical
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) "These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
We examined the relationship between various health parameters and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adduct levels in plasma. Design. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in four villages in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A survey on socio-demographic and health characteristics was administered to 162 volunteers and blood (20 ml) was donated by 140 participants. AFB1 albumin adduct levels, liver function, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and malaria infections were determined. AFB1 levels ranged from 0.12 to 2.995 pmolmg21 albumin (mean¡standard deviation50.89¡ 0.46) and was categorized based on the median as low (,0.80 pmolmg21) or high (,0.80 pmol mg21) and used in the analyses. By multivariate analysis, significantly higher levels of AFB1 were obtained for participants who reported symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis: history of yellow mouth (odds ratio55.5, confidence interval51.04-29.07, p50.04); history of sore swollen stomach (odds ratio54.54, confidence interval51.28-15.62, p50.01). A ...
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a type of epilepsy characterized by repeated head-nodding seizures that appear in previously healthy children between 3 and 18 years of age. In 2012, during a WHO International Meeting on NS in Kampala, Uganda, it was recommended that fungal contamination of foods should be investigated as a possible cause of the disease. We therefore aimed to assess whether consumption of fungal mycotoxins contributes to NS development. We detected similar high levels of total aflatoxin and ochratoxin in mostly millet, sorghum, maize and groundnuts in both households with and without children with NS. Furthermore, there was no significant association between concentrations of total aflatoxin, ochratoxin and doxynivalenol and the presence of children with NS in households. In conclusion, our results show no supporting evidence for the association of NS with consumption of mycotoxins in contaminated foods.
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a "safer" cigarette, "as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns." Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for aflatoxin total (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanu .... ...
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for aflatoxin total (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanu .... ...
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
Information is fragmented on the prevalence of aflatoxins, a variety of mycotoxin, in the maize value chain in Kenya and in the groundnut value chain in Mali. The purpose of this study is to generate a consistent database of aflatoxin prevalence along the maize and groundnut value chains through systematic sampling, and to identify critical points where intervention strategies are likely to have the greatest impact ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
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Speakers: Andrew Emmott (Twin), Isaac B. Gokah (Malawi Partnership for Aflatoxin Control), Julian Smith (Food and Environment Research Agency, UK) Date: November 19, 2013 Time: 09:00 EST (Washington, DC); 14:00 GMT (UK); 16:00 CAT (Malawi)
peanut meal, shipped from Brazil and contaminated with mold that produces a poison known as aflatoxin. At the time, little was known about aflatoxin, but some scientists suspected it could be linked to liver cancer in humans. Soon after the U.K. outbreak, a young MIT toxicologist named Gerald Wogan launched a thorough, decades-long investigation into the toxin, eventually exposing it as one of the most potent carcinogens humans can encounter. Throughout his career, Wogan not only made discoveries illuminating aflatoxins role in liver cancer, which kills about 600,000 people a year, but he also used his knowledge to shape food-safety regulations in the United States and Europe, and helped develop new measures that could fight liver cancer in developing countries, where aflatoxin exposure is still common. "A lot of people are content to do basic science, but he picked up that mantle of responsibility and went right into the regulatory arena," says John Essigmann, MIT professor of toxicology and ...
Residents of Qidong, China, located at the mouth of the Yangtze River, are undergoing a rapid fluctuation in cancer incidence rates at many organ sites, reflecting a dynamic interplay of socio-behavioral, economic and environmental factors. As tracked by their cancer registry, there are extraordinary changes in the China age-standardized incidence rates for the two leading cancer killers in the Qidong region: one going down and the other one up, liver and lung cancer respectively. In endemic areas such as Qidong, liver cancer arises from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ingestion of aflatoxins. Agricultural and economic reforms in the 1980s promoted a switch from maize to rice as the dietary staple, with concomitant ,40-fold decreases in aflatoxin exposure over this period as measured by aflatoxin-albumin adducts in archived serum samples. Universal, subsidized vaccination against HBV was initiated in the early 2000s and likely does not account for the 45% drop in liver cancer ...
Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his Mississippi-based team are learning to combat the disease through corn breeding and molecular markers.
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
RASFF - aflatoxins (B1 = 81.2 µg/kg - ppb) in peanut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 133 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK
A. parasiticus is employed to hydroxylate 2-hydroxyterphenyl compounds to terphenyltriols, which can be used to form branched polycarbonates. The hydroxylation reaction is enhanced by maintaining a sufficient amount of a carbon source in the culture medium-reaction medium to maintain the ammonium level below 300 ppm. during the bioconversion phase. Employment of a mutant strain of A. parasiticus which was isolated following ultraviolet light mutagenesis to reduce its tendency to produce aflatoxins is preferred.
Farmer-led evaluation of the effect of double row planting pattern and crop residue incorporation on yield, mould prevalence and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts
Aflatoxin contamination is not an uncommon problem in pet food. Its expensive to detect cuz all the grains would have to be checked, entire shipments, everytime they arrived, to avoid the possibility. Natures Recipe had it go through their food, dogs and cats died, they ended up being bought out by Heinz cuz they couldnt come back from the loss. The last one I know of to have that happen was Innova and Cal. Nat., they have survived but it cost them a whole lot of money in vet bills and such. I doubt it will do much harm to this company being so huge ...
According to Veterinary Practice News "aflatoxins are produced on peanuts, soybeans, corn and other cereals in the field or during storage when moisture content and temperatures are sufficiently high for mold growth. High doses of aflatoxins result in severe hepatocellular necrosis, and prolonged low dosages result in reduced growth rate and liver enlargement. Pets that have consumed the affected product and are exhibiting symptoms of illness including sluggishness or lethargy combined with a reluctance to eat, vomiting, yellowish tint to the eyes or gums, or diarrhea should be seen by a veterinarian." ...
Towards the goal of establishing useful in vitro models of in vivo responses to toxicants, this work characterizes several advantages and disadvantages of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs) cultured for a short term vs those maintained for three weeks with 2.25% DMSO. PMHs examined 1 day (short term, ST) after isolation demonstrated a dramatic loss in ATP (~27 fold lower compared to in vivo) while those cultured for 3 weeks (3 wk) over-produced ATP. The important liver proteins albumin, Cyp1a1 and Gsta were found to be higher in the 3 wk cultures. Gene expression analysis revealed the ST cultures have unregulated numerous pathways involved in compensatory hyperplasia and oxidative injury.. Aflatoxin and acetaminphen (APAP) were used to investigate the metabolic capability of each system. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by S9 fractions harvested from ST and 3 wk cultures induced for 24 hours with 3-methylcholanthrene, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile, and dexamethasone indicated the ST cultures had higher ...
Use the standard graph to plot the area of the test (whose concentration is not known) and using the standard graph bring it down to the X-axis to find its concentration ...
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MIT researchers have developed a way to determine, by sequencing DNA of liver cells, whether those cells have been exposed to aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen. This profile of mutations could be used to predict who has a high risk of developing liver cancer, potentially many years before tumors actually appear.
B.M. Prasanna, Director of CIMMYTs Global Maize Program, speaks on CIMMYTs work to help farmers in the context of the aflatoxin crisis in Kenya.. ...
Evaluation of sampling plans used in the United States, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands to test raw shelled peanuts for aflatoxin ...
VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Laboratory Wet-Milling of Corn Containing High Levels of Aflatoxin and a Survey of Commercial Wet-Milling Products. ...