See Federal Register notice and regulatory docket. This Federal proposal is driven mainly by the large quantities of aerosol cans coming from the retail sector, which are likely to contain much of their original contained material. The comment deadline is May 15, 2018. Currently, four states (CA, CO, NM, and UT) include aerosol cans in their state Universal Waste programs, and two more states (MN and OH) have proposed to do so. This Federal proposal is intended to be consistent with those programs and to be adopted by the other states. As proposed, Federal Universal Waste aerosol cans include "all discarded, intact, non-empty hazardous waste aerosol cans", regardless of size, but do not include compressed gas canisters and cylinders and similar containers. While this definition may be clear for aerosol cans from the retail sector (e.g., returned cans that cannot be resold), it is not necessarily clear for empty aerosol cans sent to recycling facilities because of the definitions of "discarded" ...
There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious
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Aerosol Can" is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist Pharrell Williams. Williams co-wrote the song with Major Lazer member Diplo. The song was released as a single on 14 February 2014 and features on Major Lazers 2014 extended play Apocalypse Soon. It became a top 40 single in Australia peaking at #37. It was featured in the soundtrack for the video games "NBA 2K15" and "Watch Dogs 2". A remix contest was held for the track in April, in which the winner was announced in the end of May. "iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer". iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014. Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest :: Beatport Play "Australian-charts.com - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can". ARIA Top 50 Singles. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can" (in Dutch). Ultratip. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - ...
Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13−800) were collected over a oneyear- period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33-39 %), Aitken (39-49 %) and accumulation mode (18-22 %) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. Performing clustering analysis on hourly size distributions, nine K-means DMPS clusters were identified and, by directional association, diurnal variation and relationship to meteorological and pollution variables, four typical aerosol size distribution scenarios were identified: traffic (69% of the time), dilution (15% of the time), summer background conditions (4% of the time) and regional pollution (12% of the time). According to the results of PMF, vehicle exhausts are estimated to contribute at ...
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OBJECTIVE: In the era of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infectious airborne aerosol generation during otolaryngologic procedures has been an area of increasing concern. The objective of this investigation was to quantify airborne aerosol production under clinical and surgical conditions and examine efficacy of mask mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quantification of airborne aerosol generation during surgical and clinical simulation. SETTING: Cadaver laboratory and clinical examination room. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Airborne aerosol quantification with an optical particle sizer was performed in real time during cadaveric simulated endoscopic surgical conditions, including hand instrumentation, microdebrider use, high-speed drilling, and cautery. Aerosol sampling was additionally performed in simulated clinical and diagnostic settings. All clinical and surgical procedures were evaluated for propensity for significant airborne aerosol generation. RESULTS: Hand instrumentation and ...
According to the subject invention, dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based compositions are provided, including methods for their manufacture and dry powder dispersion devices. A dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based composition is one having a moisture content of less than about 10% by weight (% w) water, usually below about 5% w and preferably less than about 3% w; a particle size of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median diameter (MMD), usually 1.0-4.0 μm MMD, and preferably 1.0-3.0 μm MMD; a delivered dose of about |30%, usually |40%, preferably |50%, and most preferred |60%; and an aerosol particle size distribution of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), usually 1.5-4.5 μm MMAD, and preferably 1.5-4.0 MMAD. Such composition are of pharmaceutical grade purity.
A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
Atmospheric aerosol particles are linked to visibility reduction and adverse health effects, and radiation balance of the Earth- directly by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by influencing the cloud properties and processes and, possibly, by changing the heterogeneous chemistry of reactive gaseous species. Atmospheric aerosols are the most uncertain driver of global climate change. The South‒Asian region has been increasingly recognized as one of the global hotspots of aerosols; and Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) is one among them with complex geography, heterogeneity in sources and varying atmospheric dynamics. These factors make IGPs aerosol and pollution very difficult to characterize. So far, long-term regional observations of aerosol properties have been scarce in this region, but argued necessary in order to bring the knowledge of regional and global distribution of aerosols further. In this context, regional studies of aerosol properties their dynamics and ...
Just like any other metal container, aluminum and steel aerosol cans are recyclable. For the last decade, Ball worked with customers and other partners (such as the Consumer Aerosol Products Council in the U.S. or the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association in the United Kingdom) to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans. While challenges remain with accurate data on recycling rates and consumer access to recycling, we have made significant progress. For example, the U.K.s consumer education program MetalMatters, which Ball developed and supports, was instrumental in doubling the number of local authorities that accept aerosols in their recycling schemes from 2011 to 2015 and achieves a 96 percent acceptance rate. Also, a 2016 study on access to recycling in the U.S. showed that recycling availability for aluminum aerosol stands at 72 percent and steel aerosol containers at 69 percent, making aerosol cans a widely recyclable container in the U.S. ...
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ABSTRACTDuring the World Exposition 2010, which ran from May to October, emission control measures were implemented in Shanghai and surrounding areas to improve the air quality. This study evaluated the effects of regional transport on aerosol characteristics under these controlled local emission conditions using a month’s worth of observations of the aerosol number size distributions (10 nm–10 μm) and the chemical compositions of the aerosols. Back-trajectories and a Lagrangian dispersion model were combined to analyze the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution and the related mechanisms. Two classes of aerosols were identified and compared. Class I was a clear air condition with ocean-oriented air masses. Particle counts in this class were dominated by particles in the size range 20–40 nm, and NH4+ was mainly present in the form of (NH4)2SO4. A strong peak at noontime indicated that the particle formation or growth process was promoted by the photochemical
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025," the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/pulmonary-drug-delivery-devices-market. Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
This thesis presents a new technique to identify a 2D mask showing the extent of particulate aerosol distributions in satellite imagery. This technique uses a supervised texture classication approach, and utilises data from two distinct satellite sources. The vertical feature mask (VFM) product from the CALIPSO lidar, provides an accurate description of the aerosol content of the atmosphere but has a limited footprint and coverage. The CALIPSO VFM is used to provide training data in order to for classiers to be applied to other imagery, namely data from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) on the MSG satellite. The output from the classication is a 2D mask representing the locations of the particulate aerosol of interest within the SEVIRI image. This approach has been demonstrated on test cases over land and ocean, and shows a good agreement with other techniques for the detection of particulate aerosol. However, the supervised texture approach provides outputs at a higher ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles play a critical role in Earths radiation budget, act to limit visibility through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and represent a significant respiratory health hazard in urban environments. However, the existing network of aerosol particle measurements is significantly sparse, and unable to capture the strong heterogeneity in particles that exists in urban locations. In addition, current 24-hour air quality standards of particulate matter are based solely on the total mass of particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm, and do not account for variations in particle size or total number. As a result, air quality assessments and local and regional modeling efforts are: 1) limited by a paucity of data, and 2) unconstrained by routine observations of particle number and size, which are both critical metrics for assessing the impact of aerosol particles on visibility and human health.. ...
A new IITRI poster presented at the recent ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases 2016 meeting is now available. In this poster, Winston Lin and colleagues describe the development of an aerosol model of infection for _B anthracis_ in rabbits using a modified 64-port inhalation nose-only exposure chamber with nebulizers. This platform produced consistent spray factors across concentrations. And, with capability for up to 8 rabbits, the platform potentially reduces variability in aerosol concentration delivery and minimizes the number of runs needed for a therapeutic or vaccine study.
The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol ...
Aerosol particles have important effects on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related activities, and organic compounds are known to constitute a significant fraction of ambient aerosol mass in many locations. Yet, large uncertainties remain in quantifying the chemical composition and atmospheric transformations of these aerosols, especially with respect to organic particulate matter. Particularly lacking are real-time, size-resolved, quantitative instruments for the identification, speciation, and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols. An innovative thermal desorption, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer recently has been developed with capabilities that can fill a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition data on aerosol particles. This project will develop and demonstrate a light scattering module for this instrument, which will enable full characterization of ...
The present invention relates to an aerosol formulation containing: a) a liquefied propellant gas or propellant gas mixture from the group of alternative propellant gases which contain no chlorine atoms which can be split off; b) a non-ionic surfactant from the group of monoacetylated or diacetylated monoglycerides of the MYVACET series; c) a pharmaceutical agent or a combination of agents and, if necessary, d) other conventional pharmaceutical ancillary substances which are suitable for aerosol formulations. The aerosol formulation can be used, in particular, in inhalation therapy for the treatment of diseases of the upper airways such as asthma or rhinitis.
Author(s): Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W | Abstract: Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also
Publication: McMurry, P. H., H. Takano and G. R. Anderson, 1983, "A Study of the Ammonia (Gas)-Sulfuric Acid (Aerosol) Reaction Rate," Environ. Sci. Technol., 17:347-351. Mozurkewich, M., P.H. McMurry, A. Gupta, and J.G. Calvert, 1987, "Measurements of HO2 Mass Accommodation Coefficients on Moist Aerosols," J. Geophys. Res., 92:4163-4170. Tao, Ye and P.H. McMurry, 1989, "Vapor Pressures and Surface Free Energies of C14-C18 Monocarboxylic Acids and C5 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids," Environ. Sci. Technol., 23:1519-1523 Kelly, W.P. and P.H. McMurry, 1992,"Measurement of Particle Density by Inertial Classification of DMA-generated Monodisperse Aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol., 17: 199-121. Gupta, A., D. Tang, and P.H. McMurry, 1995 "Growth of Monodisperse, Submicron Aerosol Particles Exposed to SO2, H2O2, and NH3," J. Atmospheric Chemistry, 20:117-139. Ziemann, P. J. and P. H. McMurry, 1998, "Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles," Aerosol ...
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Do your best to separate the aerosol cans from other storage materials as well as from any fixtures that feature high temperatures or flames. Never store flammable aerosol cans in a basement or similar area that features hot water heaters, gas heaters, fireplaces, boilers or any other type of intense heat. You should also keep them away from high voltage areas or anywhere that an unexpected spark could ignite. While the cans themselves protect the flammable aerosol product from exposure to such temperatures and sparks, a leak or sudden flame could cause a catastrophic fire. And keep them away from any pointed edges or corners even if its only furniture with sharp edges. These points will puncture a can and can result in a dangerous spray of flammable liquid.. ...
As material costs continue to rise, companies need to reduce operating costs while maintaining high quality standards. To ensure that every aerosol can produced is within specifications, it is important to use accurate and repeatable measurement instruments that can monitor the product quality, locate any potential problems, record the measurement data and predict future trends.. Analog-based testers are no longer sufficient in todays competitive environment. These gauges wont tell you which side of the can buckled first, and they cant monitor all three pressure points in one run (the two buckling pressures and the burst pressure). If you want to record and analyze the data, you need to write down each measurement and enter the data manually in to an SPC program.. Quality By Visions new Aerosol Buckle & Burst Tester is an accurate, user friendly and affordable system that automatically measures, analyzes and records all pressure points on any size aerosol can. The system displays the ...
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More realistic device testing in the lab can save valuable time on clinical trials. A research team at Virginia Commonwealth University s School of Pharmacy led by Peter Byron and Michael Hindle is using realistic mouth, throat, and airway models, coupled with the realistic breathing profiles of the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator to investigate the relationship between in vitro experimental aerosol drug deposition and in vivo drug deposition behavior in patients. Read the full story.. ...
Boy with aerosol inhaler. Male child demonstrating the correct use of an inhaler device. The pressurised aerosol inhaler is as effective and convenient method of giving a bronchodilator for mild to moderate asthma. The drug is delivered to the lungs, where it widens the airways. The technique is to inhale slowly and hold the breath for 10 seconds before breathing out. A good seal must be made around the nozzle with the lips. The patient needs to be well co-ordinated and compliant. The device is not suitable for achildren under the age of eighteen months. - Stock Image M109/0029
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR (www.eusaar.org). The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol particles are produced from natural and anthropogenic sources, through a variety of different process that include; wind-blown suspension, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. Due to this complexity the instrumentation used to analysis these particles must have the ability to separate based on size and in real-time provide information on their chemical composition. To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability ...
Abstract. This study evaluates the potential of using aerosol optical depth (τa) measurements to characterise the microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. With this aim, we used the recently developed GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) code for numerical testing of six different aerosol models with different aerosol loads. The direct numerical simulations (self-consistency tests) indicate that the GRASP-AOD retrieval provides modal aerosol optical depths (fine and coarse) to within 0.01 of the input values. The retrieval of the fine-mode radius, width and volume concentration are stable and precise if the real part of the refractive index is known. The coarse-mode properties are less accurate, but they are significantly improved when additional a priori information is available. The tests with random simulated errors show that the uncertainty in the bimodal log-normal size distribution parameters increases as the aerosol load decreases. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor. AU - Ahlberg, Erik. AU - Falk, John. AU - Eriksson, Axel. AU - Holst, Thomas. AU - Brune, William Henry. AU - Kristensson, Adam. AU - Roldin, Pontus. AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
a Maximum limits represented by ninety-eight percentile (98%) values not to be exceed more than once a year.. b Arithmetic mean c SO2 and Suspended Particulate matter are sampled once every six days when using the manual methods. A minimum of twelve sampling days per quarter of forty-eight sampling days each year is required for these methods. Daily sampling may be done in the future once continuous analyzers are procured and become available. d Limits for Total Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 25-50 um. e Annual Geometric Mean f Provisional limits for Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 10 microns and below until sufficient monitoring data are gathered to base a proper guideline. g Evaluation of this guideline is carried out for 24-hour averaging time and averaged over three moving calendar months. The monitored average value for any three months shall not exceed the guideline value.. ...
The size distribution and chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol at the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Republic of Maldives was determined during the winter northeast monsoon season to aid in determining the light scattering and light absorption properties of the aerosol particles in that region. These experiments were conducted over 8 two-day periods during February 11-26, 1999, using filter-based samplers and cascade impactors operated at ambient relative humidity which was in the range of 80-89% relative humidity over 83% of the period sampled. Fine particle concentrations (D_a,1.8 μm) averaged 17.7(±0.22) μg m^(−3) and varied between 8.4(±0.33)-24.7(±0.21) μg m^(−3) over the period studied. Sulfate ion and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle mass concentration, accounting for 33-37% and 26-27% of the fine mass, respectively. Calcium carbonate contributes 3% of the mass measured on the impactor stages. Ammonium, nitrate, and ...
We combine optical remote sensing with computed tomography to determine simultaneously (a) the concentration and (b) the size distribution of particles at every pixel in a plane that slices through an aerosol. Light-extinction measurements are made along intersecting paths that pass through the plane. The spatial distribution of extinction coefficients at multiple wavelengths is obtained by an algebraic image-reconstruction technique (ART3). The size distribution of the aerosol at every pixel in the plane is obtained by inversion of the Fredholm integral equation. Computer simulations of this procedure were conducted. Extinction coefficients were found at all pixels in the plane at multiple wavelengths. Aerosol size distributions were retrieved at four pixels. Results of this analysis show that four projection angles were sufficient for reconstruction of extinction coefficient distributions in the plane. The technique can tolerate up to 10% random, normally distributed noise in the measurements. ...
A disposable shielded device for producing aerosol having particles less than 2 microns in size from an aqueous colloidal suspension obtained from human serum albumen and labelled with 99m Technetium for use in scintigraphic imaging of pulmonary function. The device includes a nebulizing chamber having a membrane of 0.1 mm to about 0.01 mm in thickness and 40 mm to about 50 mm in diameter which nebulizes the labelled substance in response to ultrasound waves transmitted thereto.
An apparatus for generating respirable aerosol internal to a selected one of a plurality of medicament receptacles (40) containing pre-measured amounts of powdered medicament is disclosed herein. The medicament receptacles (40) are disposed in a medicament carrier (38) contained within a housing (10), and are sealed from exposure to the outside environment. The medicament carrier (38) is preferably a ring-shaped member detachably coupled to a carriage (24) which can be rotated to any one of a plurality of selected positions. A pair of aerosolization conduits (54, 56) having ends capable of puncturing the seal (44) covering the medicament receptacle (40) selected by the patient are also provided. Compression of the cover (12) and the carriage (24) pushes the selected medicament receptacle (40) against the edges of the aerosolization conduits (54, 56) causing the aerosolization conduits to puncture the seal (44) and penetrate the medicament receptacle (40). The medicament is entrained in air drawn in
Abstract. We briefly present in this short paper a new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model (SIREAM) which simulates the evolution of atmospheric aerosol by solving the General Dynamic Equation (GDE). SIREAM segregates the aerosol size distribution into sections and solves the GDE by splitting coagulation and condensation/evaporation-nucleation. A quasi-stationary sectional approach is used to describe the size distribution change due to condensation/evaporation, and a hybrid equilibrium/dynamical mass-transfer method has been developed to lower the computational burden. SIREAM uses the same physical parameterizations as those used in the Modal Aerosol Model, MAM Sartelet et al. (2006). It is hosted in the modeling system Polyphemus Mallet et al., 2007, but can be linked to any other three-dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model. ...
The World Health Organisation estimates that 100 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Pulmonary drug delivery is widely accepted as the firstchoice method for the treatment of respiratory diseases by glucocorticosteroids. Delivering these drugs to the lung by inhalation has many advantages in comparison to the same drug delivered orally. These include rapid onset of action, reduced dose and minimised side effects such as adrenal suppression, electrolyte imbalance, muscle weakness and growth retardation in children. Pulmonary drug delivery is also increasingly used for pain-controlling therapies and for administration of medications which are difficult to formulate orally such as proteins and peptides. The advantages of delivering drugs to the lung are undisputed, however, there are practical challenges still remaining to achieve repeatable and accurate dose delivery to the deep lung. An enabling ...
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The Asian dust aerosol model (ADAM) and the aerosol dynamic model with the output of the fifth generation of mesoscale model (MM5) in a grid of 30×30 km2 have been employed to simulate the temporal and spatial distribution of the Asian dust aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol concentrations in East Asia for the period of 19-23 March 2002 when a severe Asian dust (Hwangsa) event was observed in Korea. The simulated aerosols are implemented to estimate radiative forcing at the surface and the top of atmosphere (TOA) with the use of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) column radiation model (CRM) of community climate model 3 (CCM3). The results indicate that the ADAM model simulates quite well the spectral-mass concentration distribution with the R 2 value of 0.7 whereas the aerosol dynamic model underestimates the observed anthropogenic aerosol by a factor of 4 over Korea. The estimated mean total aerosol mass in the analysis domain for the period of 19-20 March 2002 is found to ...
Within the framework of nuclear accident scenarios, the initial contamination of continental hydrosystems is essentially from surface deposition of atmospheric aerosols. Whereas the deposition velocities were recently widely studied for meadows, forest and urban forest canopies, the aerosol deposits on hydrosystems need more specific investigations. The present work concerns the first step of a study on the mechanisms of dry deposition of sub-micro aerosol on continental hydrosystems (rivers, lakes and wetlands). As the spectrum of aerosols emitted during a nuclear accident is estimated to be centred around sub-micro particles, the objective of this work is to analyse dry deposition mechanisms on surface water, initially for particles close to 0.2μm. ...
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