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Author Summary The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito and has spread from South East Asia to Europe, the United States and northern areas of Asia in the past 30 years. Aedes mosquitoes transmit a range of viral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya. Aedes albopictus is generally considered to be somewhat less of a concern in this regard than Aedes aegypti. However a recent mutation in the chikungunya virus dramatically increased its transmission by Aedes albopictus, causing an important outbreak in the Indian Ocean in 2006 that eventually reached Italy in 2007. This highlights the potential importance of this mosquito, which can thrive much further from the Equator than can Aedes aegypti. This paper describes the first genetic engineering of the Asian tiger mosquito. This is an essential step towards the development of genetics-based control methods against this mosquito, and also an invaluable tool for basic research. We describe both transposon-based and site
The mosquito genus Aedes includes the following species. Where known, the listings indicate whether the species bites humans, and any pathogens that the species is known to carry. names Aedes australis Aedes aboriginis - northwest coast mosquito Bites humans Aedes aegypti - yellow fever mosquito Bites humans, carries chikungunya, dengue fever, heartworm, Murray Valley encephalitis, Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus Aedes africanus Aedes albolineatus Aedes alboniveus Aedes albopictus - Asian tiger mosquito Bites humans, carries Cache Valley virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, Eastern equine encephalitis, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus Aedes albolineatus Aedes alboscutellatus Aedes aloponotum Aedes amesii Aedes annulipes Aedes arboricola Aedes argenteoventralis Aedes atlanticus Carries Keystone virus, West Nile virus Aedes atropalpus also spelled Aedes atropalpos Bites humans, carries La Crosse virus, Plasmodium gallinaceum, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile ...
Arbovirus Summary Archives. (2008). Repellents, Traps, Virus Information, Maps, etc. Pest Alert. http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/pestalert/arbovirus/arbovirus.htm (14 May 2008). Barrera R. 1996. Competition and resistance to starvation in larvae of container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes. Ecological Entomology. 21: 117-127. Carpenter SJ, LaCasse WJ. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 360 pp. Centers for Disease Control. (2007). Chikungunya fever fact sheet. Division for Vector-borne Infectious Diseases: Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/chikungunya/ (13 May 2008). Centers for Disease Control. (2016). Surveillance and Control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States. Division of Vector-Borne Diseases: Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/resources/vector-control.html (4/8/2016).. Clements AN. 1999. The Biology of Mosquitoes, Vol. II. Egg laying. Cabi, Wallingford. ...
Which mosquitoes are targeted using SIT technology?. Mosquito control agencies are public health entities that control nuisance mosquitoes and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. SIT and similar male release strategies are being explored to target the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), two invasive insects in the United States that are capable of transmitting pathogens causing dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya. By minimizing these mosquitoes, disease concerns could be greatly reduced.. How are SIT mosquitoes produced?. SIT was traditionally a form of radiation-based sterilization of male insects, but has begun to include other techniques that achieve the same goal. Key organizations involved in work being conducted in the United States include: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and companies such as MosquitoMate, Verily, and Oxitec. Three male release ...
Which mosquitoes are targeted using SIT technology?. Mosquito control agencies are public health entities that control nuisance mosquitoes and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. SIT and similar male release strategies are being explored to target the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), two invasive insects in the United States that are capable of transmitting pathogens causing dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya. By minimizing these mosquitoes, disease concerns could be greatly reduced.. How are SIT mosquitoes produced?. SIT was traditionally a form of radiation-based sterilization of male insects, but has begun to include other techniques that achieve the same goal. Key organizations involved in work being conducted in the United States include: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and companies such as MosquitoMate, Verily, and Oxitec. Three male release ...
Oxitec has achieved a world first by transforming the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), an important vector of the viral disease chikungunya. Oxitec
With the spread of the Zika virus, the threat posed by the tiny mosquito has been magnified into shark-size proportions.But among the more than 3,000 species of the insect worldwide, only two in the Americas are known carriers of the virus: the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus).The potential range of the two species in the
Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Malaria Consortium - The correlation between the premise condition index and the presence of adult aedes aegypti mosquitoes in kampong cham cambodia - One of the worlds leading non-profit organisations specialising in the prevention, control and treatment of malaria and other communicable diseases among vulnerable populations.
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined for the Foshan strain, an established laboratory colony derived from wild mosquitoes from southeastern China, a region within the historical range of the origin of the species. The genome comprises 1,967 Mb, the largest mosquito genome sequenced to date, and its size results principally from an abundance of repetitive DNA classes. In addition, expansions of the numbers of members in gene families involved in insecticide-resistance mechanisms, diapause, sex determination, immunity, and olfaction also contribute to the larger size. Portions of integrated flavivirus-like genomes support a shared evolutionary history of association of these viruses with their vector. The large genome repertory may ...
Aedes aegypti mosquito feeding on skin. Footage of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, feeding on human skin. Female mosquitoes feed on vertebrate blood to produce their eggs. If the mosquito is infected with a parasite or other pathogen, the saliva will transmit this to her host. The abdomen swells and turns red as the mosquito feeds on the blood of her human host. The Aedes aegypti mosquito, found throughout tropical Africa and in parts of South America, is a vector of Zika fever, yellow fever and dengue fever. - Stock Video Clip K005/6324
The Asian tiger mosquito or forest mosquito is native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia.. However in the past couple of decades this species has invaded many countries. Aedes albopictus is an epidemiologically important vector for the transmission of many viral pathogens, including the Yellow fever virus, dengue fever and Chikungunya fever, as well as several filarial nematodes such as Dirofilaria immitis.. ...
The Goriška region and the town of Nova Gorica itself are a hotspot for reproduction and further spreading of many plant or animal non-native species. The reason for this are its transitional position and its mild climate. In recent years an invasive species known as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1894) has colonized this area. Here it successfully reproduces and maintains its population. In this paper we studied the seasonal dynamics of its reproduction from the appearance of first eggs until the development of the species larvae in various urban, suburban and forested locations. We studied the presence of tiger mosquito larvae in different surroundings and tried to determine its most suitable microhabitat. In order to acquire appropriate results we used ovitraps, which are commonly used to monitor mosquito larvae in their natural environment. At the end we examined the ratio between larvae of indigenous species and tiger mosquito larvae. The data were compared to shed light on ...
This is the mouth parts of the aquatic third-stage larva of an Asian tiger mosquito, newed behin a microscope. Its been magnified 800 times. The asian tiger
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the chikungunya virus has not reached the U.S., but there were confirmed cases on the Caribbean Island of St. Martin in December 2013. At the time of publication, at least three travelers from the U.S. to the Caribbean have contracted the chikungunya virus. It wont be long before the Asian tiger mosquito makes its way onto U.S. soil. The CDC states that other mosquitoes that can spread the chikungunya virus and dengue are in the United States. These mosquitoes include Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Entomologists have found the species as far south as Floridas Gulf Coast and as far north and west as Chicago, Illinois.. ...
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for
The mosquito transmitted RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) shows significant variation as a consequence of the lack of proofreading activity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that synthesizes new virus genomes. How this variation affects DENV replication, and how this in turn impacts drug development remains largely unknown. Given the technical limitations in working with large numbers of isolates few studies have sought to investigate this area. This study used a panel of 14 DENV isolates of different serotypes and origins to determine how much virus replication in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells was affected by DENV variability. The results showed that there was considerable variation, with peak titers ranging from 6Log10 to 8Log10, and maximum titer being reached from day 3 to day 9 post infection. While strains from DENV 1 and 4 serotypes showed considerable uniformity, DENV 2 and 3 strains showed much greater variation. Overall, these results show that serotype specific strain variation can have a
Dengue is of great concern in various parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries where the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are present. The transmission of this virus to humans, by what is known as horizontal transmission, occurs through the bite of infected females of one or other of the two mosquito species. Furthermore, an infected female or male parent, by what is known as vertical transmission, can transfer this arbovirus to some part of their offspring. Considering that vertical transmission may represent an important strategy for maintaining the circulation of arboviruses in nature, the verification of this phenomenon worldwide is extremely important and necessary to better understand its dynamic. In the present study, we conducted a literature review of the presence of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus worldwide. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, sciELO and Lilacs and all the studies published in
Basseterre, St. Kitts, September 21, 2016 (SKNIS): Local retired entomologist Dr. Sam Rawlins said that it is possible to reduce the prevalence of the zika-carrying aedes aegypti mosquito if all members of the community become involved in what he terms integrated vector management.. Im preaching the message of integrated vector management for disease transmission interruption, Dr. Rawlins said. And what I mean by that, is using all the tools that we have and using them in a rational combination of all the methods. We and our partners can collaborate in reducing these habitats and using the various tools because theres a whole range of tools that we have.. Dr. Rawlins explained that while there are approximately 13 species of mosquito on-island, the one that causes the greatest threat is the aedes aegypti mosquito because of its disease-carrying capability.. The integrated method includes using tools such as environmental control that involves emptying and removing containers that can ...
CITY NEWS SERVICE. EL MONTE - An aggressive species of mosquito responsible for outbreaks of dengue virus in Florida, Hawaii and Texas has been found in El Monte, officials said Tuesday.. Asian tiger mosquitoes are aggressive biters and active during daylight hours, as well as at dusk and dawn, according to the San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District, the agency responsible for mosquito control in the area.. Our goal is to eradicate this population, said Kenn Fujioka, the districts assistant manager. We definitely do not want this mosquito to become established in our communities.. The black-and-white striped insect, about a quarter-inch long, is a native of tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia and has not been seen in the San Gabriel Valley since 2001, when they were accidentally imported in shipments of plants called Lucky Bamboo.. The pest can transmit many serious diseases, including dengue fever, yellow fever; chikungunya, which is similar to dengue fever; ...
A new mosquito species, know as Asian tiger mosquitoes, is invading the Northeast region of the United States. They are joined by ticks, cicadas and other mosquitoes.
Background Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. Methods We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested ...
Oxitec scientists have reported the creation of a new flightless strain of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The breakthrough, reported in the jo
Some photographs of me donating blood. The first is, I think, an Asian rock pool mosquito (Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus; formerly known as Aedes japonicus japonicus). The second is an Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus). Introduced to New Jersey in 1998 and Texas in 1985, respectively. Both photographs were taken in Pennsylvania. ...
This study describes the natural history of dengue virus (DENV) infection in rhesus monkeys exposed to the bites of DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue virus-infected mosquitoes were generated by either intrathoracic inoculation or by oral feeding on viremic blood meals. Each of the six rhesus monkeys that were fed upon by intrathoracically infected mosquitoes developed NS1 antigenemia and an IgM response; viremia was detected in 4/6 individuals. No virological or immunological evidence of DENV infection was detected in the three monkeys exposed to mosquitoes that had been orally infected with DENV. These results demonstrate the utility of mosquito-borne challenge of rhesus monkeys with DENV.
The Asian tiger mosquito is an invasive mosquito species that is known to be a vector for a wide range of mosquito-borne illness and disease. Learn more on our blog.
Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of the etiological agents of yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya fever. In 1901, Walter Reed and colleagues showed that yellow fever was transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Their work was based on Carlos Finlays hypothesis that mosquito bites could transmit the organism causing the disease. Due to its easy adaptation to laboratory culture it is the most studied species within the Culicinae, and has extensively contributed to our understanding of mosquito biology, physiology, genetics, and vector competence.. The Aedes aegypti complete genome sequence was first published in 2007. About 47% of the genome consists of transposable elements, probably contributing to the expansion in size and organization of the Aedes aegypti genome over time. ...
Experts say an extremely aggressive and an obnoxious breed of mosquitoes called the Asian Tiger Mosquito is going to swarm New Jersey.
The extremely invasive mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse 1894, a known vector of various human pathogens like dengue and chikungunya viruses, is gradually extending its distribution to colder climate regions [1]. At present, the northernmost breeding populations of this species in Europe occur in Freiburg [2], Heidelberg and Jena, Germany (Norbert Becker, personal communication, June 2016). A further spread of Ae. albopictus into the Rhine rift valley and parts of Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is very likely due to climatic habitat suitability and man-made features [3, 4]. Apart from the frequently suboptimal low temperatures in these regions, the establishment of Ae. albopictus may be modulated by interactions with resident container-breeding mosquitoes [5-7].. Aedes albopictus was shown to be a strong competitor for resident mosquito species such as Aedes triseriatus as well as exotic species like Aedes aegypti in the United States of America [7, 8]. However, ...
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/32J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/32J virus expressing B2 (TE/32J/B2) compared to TE/32J and TE/32J virus expressing GFP. TE/32J/B2 exhibited increased
Recognizable by its black and white stripes and small size, the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been gaining ground in the territory for several years now
Abstract: Aedes invasive mosquitoes (AIMs) play a key role as vectors of several pathogens of public health relevance. Four species have been established in Europe, including Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus and Aedes koreicus. In addition, Aedes atropalpus has been repeatedly recorded although it has not yet been established. In spite of their importance in the transmission of endemic (e.g., heartworms) and imported pathogens (e.g., dengue virus), basic information of parameters affecting their vectorial capacity is poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to review the blood feeding patterns of these invasive mosquito species in Europe, summarizing available information from their native and introduced distribution ranges. The feeding patterns of mosquitoes constitute a key parameter affecting the contact rates between infected and susceptible hosts, thus playing a central role in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne pathogens. Our results highlight that these mosquito ...
73. Andrew J Maynard, Luke Ambrose, Robert D Cooper, Weng K Chow, Joseph B Davis, Mutizwa O Muzari, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jeomhee M Hasty, Thomas R Burkot, Michael J Bangs, Lisa J Reimer, Charles Butafa, Neil F Lobo, Din Syafruddin, Yan Naung Maung Maung, Rohani Ahmad, Nigel W Beebe. (2017). Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11 (4), e0005546 ...
Any bioassay to test new chemically synthesized larvicides or phytolarvicides against |i|Culicidae|/i| and more harmful mosquito species, such as |i|Aede|/i|s |i|aegypti|/i| and |i|Aedes albopictus|/i|, which specifically transmit dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya viral fevers as well as Zika virus, or |i|Anopheles gambiae|/i|, a vector for malaria and philariasis, requires thousands of well-developed larvae, preferably at the fourth instar stage. The natural morphogenetic cycle of |i|Aedes|/i| spp., in the field or in the laboratory, may extend to 19 days at room temperature (e.g., 25°C) from the first permanent contact between viable eggs and water and the last stage of larval growth or metamorphosis into flying adults. Thus, accelerated sequential molting is desirable for swifter bioassays of larvicides. We achieved this goal in |i|Aedes aegypti|/i| with very limited strategic and low-cost additions to food, such as coconut water, milk or its casein, yeast extract, and to a lesser extent,
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Aedes aegypti glutathione transferase family. AU - Somboon, P.. AU - Severson, D. W.. AU - Lumjuan, N.. AU - Stevenson, B. J.. AU - Prapanthadara, L.. AU - Ranson, H.. AU - Brophy, Peter M.. AU - Loftus, B. J.. N1 - Lumjuan, N., Stevenson, B. J., Prapanthadara, L., Somboon, P., Brophy, P. M., Loftus, B. J., Severson, D. W., Ranson, H. (2007). The Aedes aegypti glutathione transferase family. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37, (10), 1026-1035.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - In this report, we describe the glutathione transferase (GST) gene family in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and suggest a novel role for a new class of mosquito GSTs. Twenty-six GST genes are present in Ae. aegypti, two of which are alternatively spliced to give a total of 29 transcripts for cytosolic GSTs. The six classes identified in other insect species are all represented and, as in Anopheles gambiae, the majority of the mosquito GSTs belong to the insect-specific Delta and Epsilon ...
PS, PCs, and PEs cannot be clearly distinguished by simple mass spectrometry alone, as PE species are isobaric with PC species and acetate adducts of PC species are isobaric with deprotonated PS species. They can be distinguished based on intensity profiles, retention times, and MS/MS profiles, but here we focus on manually curated annotations (see Tables S15 and S16 in the supplemental material) among the 272 species annotated by MI-Pack as PC, PE, PS, or their diacyl- or lysoforms in the LC-MS data set. The DIMS data set contains 136 PC, PE, and PS signals, but there are a number of mixed species and these are more challenging to assign than LC-MS signals, for which isobaric PE and PC species are unlikely to have the same retention time. Similar considerations also hold true for annotations of phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), so the following analysis concentrates on LC-MS data.. Forty-four out of 53 (diacyl) PC signals were identified with significant differential ...
Scientists from Goethe University and Senckenberg Society for Nature Research are developing maps on the Zika virus infection risk. The spread of infectious diseases such as Zika depends on many different factors. Environmental factors play a role, as do socioeconomic factors. Recently, several attempts have be made to predict the transmission risk of the Zika virus at a global and local level, but the spatial and temporal patterns of transmission are still not well understood. Researchers from Goethe University and the Senckenberg Society for Nature Research in Frankfurt were now able to generate reliable maps for the transmission risk of the Zika virus in South America. The results have been published in the scientific journal PeerJ. Based on the models for South America, they will use the method to determine the Zika risk for Europe as well.. In most cases, mosquitoes of the genus Aedes transmit the Zika virus to humans. Primary vectors are the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the ...
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Abstract. Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6°C around a 26°C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6°C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV
Meksianis Zadrak Ndii, Roslyn I Hickson, Geoffry N Mercer Abstract Infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the bacteria Wolbachia has been proposed as an innovative new strategy to reduce the transmission of dengue fever. Field trials are currently being undertaken in Queensland, Australia. However, few mathematical models have been developed to consider the persistence of Wolbachia-…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. AU - Liu, Yang. AU - Liu, Jianying. AU - Du, Senyan. AU - Shan, Chao. AU - Nie, Kaixiao. AU - Zhang, Rudian. AU - Li, Xiao Feng. AU - Zhang, Renli. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Qin, Cheng Feng. AU - Wang, Penghua. AU - Shi, Pei Yong. AU - Cheng, Gong. PY - 2017/5/25. Y1 - 2017/5/25. N2 - Zika virus (ZIKV) remained obscure until the recent explosive outbreaks in French Polynesia (2013-2014) and South America (2015-2016). Phylogenetic studies have shown that ZIKV has evolved into African and Asian lineages. The Asian lineage of ZIKV was responsible for the recent epidemics in the Americas. However, the underlying mechanisms through which ZIKV rapidly and explosively spread from Asia to the Americas are unclear. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) facilitates flavivirus acquisition by mosquitoes from an infected mammalian host and subsequently enhances viral prevalence in mosquitoes. Here we show that NS1 ...
Trinidad and Tobago, May 5, 2017 - Port of Spain - Community participation is critical to the success of any programme designed to eliminate breeding sites of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Efforts are doomed to failure if even one household is negligent. So said Dr C James Hospedales, Executive Director of the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA), as he commented on the importance of Caribbean Mosquito Awareness Week, which is being observed from May 8-12. In his assessment of the mosquito prevention efforts in the Region thus far, Dr Hospedales noted that strategies for the control of the mosquito, which causes Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika are failing, and stated that what is needed is an all hands onboard approach. Dr Karen Polson Edwards, CARPHA Assistant Director of Surveillance, Disease Prevention Control, supports this all hands onboard approach perspective as she said, mosquitoes are social creatures and we are their preferred host. Their breeding sites are mostly man-made water ...
Zika virus is spread through the bite of infected mosquitoes in the Aedes genus, the same mosquitoes that carry dengue fever and chikungunya.. The primary carrier, Aedes aegypti, also called yellow fever mosquito, is found predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the United States.. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are also presumed to transmit the virus. This species, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, has a much wider distribution in the U.S and in addition to the southeast, is found in northeastern and mid-west states.. Other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, include Malaria, West Nile virus, Yellow fever, Filariasis, Dengue fever and Encephalitis kill and debilitate millions of persons worldwide even with todays advances in medicine.. ...
Maintain strong emphasis on prevention form being bitten by Mosquito. Use long sleeves, light coloured clothes, trousers, socks and closed shoes at the mosquito´s most active period (sunrise and sunset) and repellents containing DEET, as well as reducing and eliminating breeding grounds for the Aedes aegypti mosquito, vector of the Dengue fever ...
The Aedes aegypti mosquito can transmit the viruses that cause dengue fever. The female mosquito lays eggs in containers with water and plants near the home. It bites people and animals. This species can survive year round in tropical and subtropical climates ...
We know that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes prefer not to share their oviposition sites with each other. However, they are excited to share amongst individuals of their own species. We will touch more on this phenomenon in a future post. It is also reasonable to assume that we cannot control all potential oviposition sites in a real world scenario. Can these pieces be used in a solution?. A 2003 study at North Carolina State University found that the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was effective at inhibiting the development from larva to adult Aedes mosquito. At only 0.2 parts per billion (approximately 0.2 micrograms per liter water), pyriproxyfen kept 50% of Aedes albopictus larvae from reaching adulthood. This is such a small amount of pyriproxyfen that it could be transferred to an untreated or uncontrolled oviposition site on the legs of ovipositing mosquitoes. A single female visiting a clean container reduced adult emergence by 4-30%, but it could reduce adult ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro cultivation of Wolbachia pipientis in an Aedes albopictus cell line. AU - ONeill, Scott L.. AU - Pettigrew, M. M.. AU - Sinkins, S. P.. AU - Braig, H. R.. AU - Andreadis, T. G.. AU - Tesh, R. B.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - A continuous cell line, Aa23, was established from eggs of a strain of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, naturally infected with the intracellular aymblont Wolbachia pipientis. The resulting cell line was shown to be persistently infected with the bacterial endosymbiont. Treatment with antibiotics cured the cells of the infection. In the course of establishing this cell line it was noticed that RFLPs in the PCR products of two Wolbachia genes from the parental mosquitoes were fixed in the infected cell line. This indicates that the mosquito host was naturally superinfected with different Wolbachia strains, whereas the infected cell line derived from these mosquitoes only contained one of the original Wolbachia strains. The development of ...
Author Summary Mosquito-transmitted viruses such as dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that due to its close association with humans has historically been difficult to control. An innovative control strategy involving the release of mosquitoes infected with the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is currently being developed. This approach is based on the recent discovery that Wolbachia reduces infection of mosquitoes with dengue virus, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes. In the current study, we demonstrated that Wolbachia also blocks infection of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses in Ae. aegypti. The degree of virus inhibition depended on the strain of Wolbachia, the route of virus exposure, the virus strain and the titer of virus that the mosquitoes were exposed to. The implementation of Wolbachia-based control
Abstract. To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient
To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican Republic transmitted the Cambodia and Mexica strains. However, blood meals from viremic mice were more infectious than artificial blood meals of comparable doses; the Cambodia strain was not transmitted by mosquitoes from Brazil after artificial blood meals, whereas 61% transmission occurred after a murine blood meal (saliva titers up to 4 log10 infectious units/collection). Although regional origins of vector populations and virus strain influence transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heat Sensitivity of wMel Wolbachia during Aedes aegypti Development. AU - Ulrich, Jill N.. AU - Beier, John C. AU - Devine, Gregor J.. AU - Hugo, Leon E.. PY - 2016/7/26. Y1 - 2016/7/26. N2 - The wMel strain of Wolbachia bacteria is known to prevent dengue and Zika virus transmission in the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Accordingly, the release of wMel-infected A. aegypti in endemic regions has been recommended by the World Health Organization as a potential strategy for controlling dengue and Zika outbreaks. However, the utility of this approach could be limited if high temperatures in the aquatic habitats where A. aegypti develop are detrimental to Wolbachia. We exposed wMel-infected A. aegypti eggs and larvae to fluctuating daily temperatures of 30-40°C for three, five, or seven days during their development. We found that Wolbachia levels in females emerging from heat treatments were significantly lower than in the controls that had developed at 20-30°C. Notably, seven ...
Aedes albopictus was bioassayed to determine resistance development to malathion (OP). Two methods were applied, including WHO larval bioassay to determine the susceptibility to lethal concentration (LC), and adult bioassay to determine lethal time (LT). Larvae from colonies that had undergone selection pressure with malathion to yield 50 mortality were further subjected to selection for subsequent 10 generations. Selection of Ae. albopictus with malathion could relatively induce a consistent resistance ratio of 1.0 throughout 10 generations. It was noted that Ae. albopictus larvae showed less susceptibility to malathion compared to adults. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dosage of 5.0 malathion-impregnated paper showed a variety of susceptibility to malathion when compared to the susceptible strain. Bioassay results indicated that the LT 50 values of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus ranged between 11.5 - 58.8 minutes for ten consecutive generations. Biochemical enzyme ...
Looking for online definition of Aedes vexans in the Medical Dictionary? Aedes vexans explanation free. What is Aedes vexans? Meaning of Aedes vexans medical term. What does Aedes vexans mean?
Studies on the interactions of exotic species with their invaded environment are imperative in understanding their invasion biology. Larvae of container mosquitoes such as the invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) feed on microorganisms that subsist on allochthonous inputs like leaves. Ae. albopictus are vectors for many diseases including West Nile virus and are rapidly expanding their distribution in the United States. We tested the larval performance of Ae. albopictus at different larval densities in maple, oak, American elm, and persimmon. Survival was significantly lower and days to pupation were significantly higher with persimmon leaves compared with all others. In a follow-up experiment, we compared the performance of Ae. albopictus in different amounts of oak and persimmon and different ratios of persimmon + oak. The linear model for the growth rate (defined by larval head width) showed a positive slope as the amount of oak leaves increased in oak treatment, but there was no significant ...
They also bite during the day, a telltale sign.. It is important to know these species of mosquitoes because they are not what were used to in California, the states health officer, Dr. Karen Smith, said.. The yellow fever mosquito was first discovered in California in 2013. Typically, the virus is transmitted when infected travelers returning to California from outside the country transmit it to mosquitoes that bite them. With a bite, those mosquitoes can then infect others.. There is no vaccine or treatment for chikungunya or dengue fever. … Your participation in mosquito surveillance greatly aids in efforts to detect new infestations, Smith said.. West Nile virus is not a big concern with yellow fever mosquitoes. West Nile, which killed nine Orange County residents last year amid an unprecedented outbreak, is picked up by mosquitoes from birds and yellow fever mosquitoes do not typically bite birds, according to Jared Dever, a spokesman with the vector control district. ...
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The Cuyahoga County Board of Health continues to work closely with the Ohio Department of Health and conducts surveillance to monitor for mosquitoes that may transmit disease, including the Zika virus. Although local transmission of Zika virus through the bite of a mosquito has not been identified in the continental United States, the U.S. mainland does have two species of mosquitoes that can become infected with and spread Zika virus. The primary vector for transmitting Zika, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is not established in Ohio and is found in the Southeastern States. A possible second vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is also known as the Asian Tiger mosquito and is rarely found in Northeast Ohio. These species of mosquitoes do not breed in storm water control basins or woodland pools. They prefer to breed in water that collects in artificial containers (tires, buckets, garbage cans, flower pots, childrens toys, etc.). Residents can help reduce the local mosquito population by removing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal profiles of Aedes aegypti (Diptera. T2 - Culicidae) larval habitats in an urban area of Costa Rica with a history of mosquito control. AU - Troyo, Adriana. AU - Calderón-Arguedas, Olger. AU - Fuller, Douglas. AU - Solano, Mayra E.. AU - Avendaño, Adrian. AU - Arheart, Kristopher. AU - Chadee, Dave D.. AU - Beier, John C. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide and the principal vector-borne disease in Costa Rica. Control of Aedes aegypti populations through source reduction is still considered the most effective way of prevention and control, although it has proven ineffective or unsustainable in many areas with a history of mosquito control. In this study, seasonal profiles and productivity of Aedes aegypti were analyzed in the city of Puntarenas, Costa Rica, where vector control has been practiced for more than ten years. Households contained more than 80% of larval habitats identified, although presence of habitats ...
BACKGROUND:Arbovirus transmission by the mosquito Aedes aegypti can be reduced by the introduction and establishment of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia in wild populations of the vector. Wolbachia spreads by increasing the fitness of its hosts relative to uninfected mosquitoes. However, mosquito fitness is also strongly affected by population size through density-dependent competition for limited food resources. We do not understand how this natural variation in fitness affects symbiont spread, which limits our ability to design successful control strategies. RESULTS:We develop a mathematical model to predict A. aegypti-Wolbachia dynamics that incorporates larval density-dependent variation in important fitness components of infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Our model explains detailed features of the mosquito-Wolbachia dynamics observed in two independent experimental A. aegypti populations, allowing the combined effects on dynamics of multiple density-dependent fitness components to be
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5′ green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10[superscript 6.95] tissue culture infective dose[subscript 50] (TCID[subscript 50])/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was ...
A new approach for dengue control has been proposed that relies on life-shortening strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis to modify mosquito population age structure and reduce pathogen transmission. Previously we reported the stable transinfection of the major dengue ve …
Wolbachia pipientis are bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods currently being implemented as biocontrol agents to reduce the global burden of arboviral diseases. Some strains of Wolbachia, when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, reduce or block the replication of RNA viruses pathogenic to humans. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia was originally isolated from Aedes albopictus, and when transinfected into Ae. aegypti, persists in mosquitoes under high temperature conditions longer than other strains. The utility of wAlbB to block a broad spectrum of RNA viruses has received limited attention. Here we test the ability of wAlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. The C6/36 mosquito cell line was stably infected with the wAlbB strain using the shell-vial technique. The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus) viruses was compared in wAlbB
Stay inside and bring pets indoors if possible. Close doors and windows, and turn off fans that bring outdoor air inside the home. Cover ornamental fishponds to avoid direct exposure. Rinse fruits and vegetables from your garden with water before cooking or eating. Beekeepers and those with insects kept outdoors are encouraged to shelter hives and habitats during treatments. You may resume normal activities 30 minutes after the treatment. Vector Control will continue to conduct trapping for Aedes mosquitoes in the area and nearby locations for several weeks.. Information about chikungunya, dengue and the Zika virus can be found on the National Centers for Disease Control and Preventions website.. Two types of Aedes mosquitoes - the Aedes aegypti, yellow-fever mosquito and the Aedes albopictus, Asian tiger mosquito - are not native to San Diego and dont really like our climate. They were found in San Diego County for the first time in 2014 and 2015. To date, they have been found in relatively ...
Stay inside and bring pets indoors if possible. Close doors and windows, and turn off fans that bring outdoor air inside the home. Cover ornamental fishponds to avoid direct exposure. Rinse fruits and vegetables from your garden with water before cooking or eating. Beekeepers and those with insects kept outdoors are encouraged to shelter hives and habitats during treatments. You may resume normal activities 30 minutes after the treatment. Vector Control will continue to conduct trapping for Aedes mosquitoes in the area and nearby locations for several weeks.. Information about chikungunya, dengue and the Zika virus can be found on the National Centers for Disease Control and Preventions website.. Two types of Aedes mosquitoes - the Aedes aegypti, yellow-fever mosquito and the Aedes albopictus, Asian tiger mosquito - are not native to San Diego and dont really like our climate. They were found in San Diego County for the first time in 2014 and 2015. To date, they have been found in relatively ...
Of the more than 40 species of mosquitoes that live in Hillsborough County, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) have become significant pests because they closely associate with humans. In addition to being active at dusk and dawn, they typically fly and feed in the daytime. These mosquitoes can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika, yellow fever viruses, and other illnesses ...
Why hasnt Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused as much devastation in Africa, its continent of origin, as it has in the Americas? Outside of Africa, this flavivirus is transmitted by a ubiquitous mosquito subspecies, Aedes aegypti aegypti, which emerged from the African forerunner subspecies A. aegypti formosus and acquired a preference for human blood and a peridomestic lifestyle. Now, this subspecies colonizes many intertropical cities, aided by climate change and human trash. Aubry et al. tested 14 laboratory mosquito colonies for their relative susceptibility to ZIKV. Quantitative trait locus mapping showed differences on chromosome 2 between mosquitoes from Gabon and Guadeloupe. Mouse infection experiments revealed that African mosquitoes transmitted a smaller virus inoculum than the South American insects. Increased susceptibility coupled with the ability of A. aegypti aegypti to breed in any discarded object containing water has amplified the problematic nature of this virus as it has ...
Looking for online definition of Aedes variegatus in the Medical Dictionary? Aedes variegatus explanation free. What is Aedes variegatus? Meaning of Aedes variegatus medical term. What does Aedes variegatus mean?
A previously undescribed mosquito densovirus was detected in colonies of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Thailand, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus showed it to be most closely related to ADNV isolated from Russian Ae. aegypti. Both Aedes species were susceptible to oral infection with the Thai-strain virus. Larval mortality for Ae. albopictus was higher (82%) than for Ae. aegypti (51%). Aedes aegypti were able to transmit the virus vertically to a high (58%) proportion of G1 progeny, and the virus was maintained persistently for up to six generations. A PCR survey of adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Thailand indicated that only Ae. aegypti are infected in the field, with an overall prevalence of 44%. Densovirus infection in adult Ae. aegypti showed distinct seasonal variation. The Thai strain densovirus may play a role in structuring Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations in nature.. ...
Eggs and larva of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti). This mosquito is found throughout tropical Africa and in parts of South America, and is a vector of Zika fever, yellow fever and dengue fever. Filmed in Wales. - Stock Video Clip K006/7246
Thrashers mosquito control program couples immediate relief from all mosquitoes with a long-term Aedes mosquito control strategy. Aedes mosquitoes are among the most dangerous to humans as they transmit Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever and Zika virus.. IMMEDIATE CONTROL. We spray ULV* mosquito adulticides around your yard to kill mosquitoes on contact and provide initial, immediate relief. But because we know that more mosquitoes are only a stiff breeze away or may hatch soon in hidden areas of your yard, we install the In2Care® Mosquito Trap.. LONG-TERM CONTROL. The In2Care Mosquito Trap targets mosquitoes that are ready to lay their eggs. It attracts and kills Aedes females with novel green ingredients that affect mosquito larvae, adults, and other breeding sites surrounding the Trap. We monitor mosquito activity and replenish the Trap on a monthly basis during mosquito breeding season.. GREEN SOLUTION. For a completely green solution to Aedes mosquitoes, you may opt out of mosquito ...
Abstract Dengue has become an increasingly significant risk to global health. With up to 400 million cases annually, dengue constitutes the fastest growing vector-borne disease globally. In the western hemisphere, dengue, and more recently chikungunya and Zika, exist throughout much of Latin America. These diseases are spread by Aedes mosquitoes, which have been present in the region for centuries. While perceptions of mosquito-borne disease have been studied in Latin America, such qualitative literature on Costa Rica is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study uses qualitative methods to critically investigate the prevention of Aedes mosquito-borne diseases in Puntarenas and San José, Costa Rica. Specifically, this study examines local perceptions of policies and programs to combat Aedes mosquitoes and their associated diseases. Data were collected via household interviews (n=80); semi-structured interviews with public health officials, researchers, nonprofit organizations, and community ...
Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the toxicity and growth-inhibitory activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, of the crude acetone extracts of Polygonum senegalense (Meissn.) leaves, its flavonoid component 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone and the internal tissue flavanol quercetin. The first two showed significantly high insecticidal and growth-inhibitory activity even at low concentrations, whereas quercetin was toxic only at concentrations above 7μg/ml ...
Border health surveillance at Auckland Airport was stepped up over the Christmas / New Year period to ensure New Zealand remains free of a mosquito that can transmit dengue fever.. The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits a number of viruses including dengue fever, yellow fever and the Ross River virus, and is particularly common across the Pacific and in parts of Australia.. Two adult mosquito and a number of larvae were discovered by the airports surveillance programme last month.. But following five weeks of habitat control and enhanced surveillance, there havent been any detections of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes now for three weeks. The border has now been declared exotic mosquito free once more.. This surveillance shows just how effective border health and biosecurity measures in New Zealand are and why constant vigilance is so crucial to ensuring New Zealand remains free of exotic mosquitoes.. Samoa is currently experiencing a significant outbreak of dengue fever, but the risk of acquiring ...
Installing bird or bat houses to attract these insect-eating animals has been suggested as a method of mosquito control. However, there is little scientific evidence that this significantly reduces the mosquito population around homes.. RL: A lot of natural products are being marketed, such as wrist bands, sonic devices, and organic repellents. Do any of them really work?. JC: A recent landmark USDA study compared the repellency of OFF! Clip-On Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix ALLCLEAR Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers. The OFF! Clip-On and Terminix ALLCLEAR Sidekick reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26%, respectively, for Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), and by 94.94% and 92.15%, respectively, for Culex pipiens (the northern house mosquito).. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was ...
Remainder of title: Descriptions of the Indian species of Aedes (Aedimorphus), Aedes (Ochlerotatus), and Aedes (Banksinella), with notes on Aedes (Stegomyia) variegatus.. ...
A full outbreak response for dengue fever is underway in Rockhampton - a central Queensland city rarely touched by the mosquito-borne virus. Its the first time in decades the public health unit has issued an alert for dengue fever after being notified of a locally acquired case. Dr Gulam Khandaker, the director of the Central Queensland Public Health Unit, says while the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti exists in small numbers in sparsely populated areas of Rockhampton, locally acquired cases are rare. Its the first locally acquired case seen in decades.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Vector-virus interactions influencing vector competence vary and depend on biological and environmental factors. A mosquitos chronological age may impact its immune response against virus infection. Insecticides, source reduction, and/or public education are currently the best defense against mosquitoes that transmit ZIKV. This study assessed the effects of a mosquitos chronological age at time of infection on its response to ZIKV infection. We exposed young (6-7 d post-emergence) and old (11-12 d post-emergence) Ae. albopictus to a sublethal dose of bifenthrin prior to oral exposure to blood meals containing ZIKV (7-day incubation period). Old mosquitoes experienced a significantly (p < 0.01) higher rate of mortality than young mosquitoes. Significantly higher ZIKV body titers (p < 0.01) were observed in the old control group compared to the young control group. Significantly higher (p < 0.01) ZIKV
It is well known among mosquito entomologists and mosquito abatement personnel that scrap automobile and truck tires often support large populations of certain mosquito species. In southern U.S. two exotic species predominate in tires. These two species (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) are known to be the principle vectors of Yellow Fever and Dengue, diseases which afflict millions of people in the tropics. In temperate regions of North America, Aedes triseriatus (the native Eastern Treehole Mosquito) and Aedes atropalpus predominate in scrap tires (1). Based on samples taken in 1992, it is clear that these two species are predominant in tires in Rhode Island (personal observ.). Both of these species are known to be competent vectors of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) (2) and also of LaCrosse Encephalitis (LACV) (1). EEE is endemic to Rhode Island and fatality rates average near 50%. LACV, although much more prevalent than EEE, usually produces relatively mild symptoms in adults. It can ...
Finally, the dengue number of cases observed in the first 14 weeks of 2014 is more than 80% lower than the same period in 2013. Many factors could explain this observation, in particular the huge epidemic that occurred in 2013 (the highest ever in Brazilian dengue history with more than 1.3 million cases) and the severe drought observed in the summer period of 2103/2014. The latter factor has been previously reported in Brazil (Olívêr et al. 2014), when a significant negative correlation was observed between dengue cases and bushfires, a phenomenon strongly influenced by drought. In addition, important vector control measures were reinforced as a result of the huge outbreak in 2013. In any case, it is expected that the number of dengue cases among travellers visiting Brazil in the World Cup will be very low ...
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme. 29/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers were again high (128 collected) with 112 Aedes vigilax. 22/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers returned to being high (249 collected) with a late seasonal spike in Aedes vigilax numbers (177 being trapped). 14/Apr/2010: Medium mosquito numbers were trapped this week with a collection of 77, which included 29 Aedes vigilax. 7/Apr/2010: Mosquito collections were again high (310) this week and included 132 Culex annulirostris and 4 Aedes vigilax. 31/Mar/2010: Mosquito collections were medium (55) this week and included 23 Culex annulirostris and 7 Aedes vigilax. 24/Mar/2010: Mosquito collections continue to be high with a total of 112, which included 64 Culex annulirostris and 18 Aedes vigilax. 18/Mar/2010: Mosquito collections were high this week with a total of 182, which included 78 Culex annulirostris and 70 Aedes vigilax. 11/Mar/2010: Mosquito collections were low. 4/Mar/2010: Mosquito ...
The San Joaquin County Mosquito and Vector Control District (District) has detected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Stockton. The first detection was...
Chikungunya: Virus Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne alpha virus that was first isolated after a 1952 outbreak in modern-day Tanzania .A number of chikungunya outbreaks is due to the change in the genetic sequence which altered the viral coat protein which allows it to multiply more easily in the mosquito cells. The virus uses Asian tiger mosquito (invasive vector ) and the main vector being Aedes aegypti. Precautions need to be taken to stop the growth of the vector to combat the virus spread.. In 2006 there was a large outbreak in India . The virus re-emerged in 2006 after a gap of 32 years and caused an explosive outbreak affecting 13 states. The states first affected were Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Kerala. The tropical environment of India aids in the mosquito growth and hence spread of the virus.. Now in the year 2016 the outbreak in Delhi and regions near to Delhi is large. According to the Department of Microbiology at AIIMS, 712 samples ...
This packet presents raster data files that accompany a manuscript submitted for publication to Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, titled Climate Change Influences on Global Vector Distributions for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses. Included within this packet are the following data sets: • bias_layer.tif - This data layer summarizes the intensity with which Aedes mosquitoes have been sampled worldwide, according to the digital data resources that were accessed for this study. This data layer was used as a bias layer with which to guide background sampling in the Maxent algorithm. • aegypti_present.tif - Ecological niche model for Aedes aegypti under present-day conditions. • aegypti_a1b.tif - Ecological niche model for Aedes aegypti calibrated under present-day conditions, but transferred to SRES A1B conditions for 2050 (see text for details) • aegypti_a2.tif - Ecological niche model for Aedes aegypti calibrated under present-day conditions, but transferred to SRES A2 ...
WOOSTER, Ohio - Peter Piermarini, an entomologist with the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University, is available to speak with the media about the mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, which is now present throughout Latin America and has also infected more than 30 people in the U.S. who contracted the disease while traveling abroad.. In Brazil, Zika virus has been linked to cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome, pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Zika virus is transmitted by species of Aedes mosquitoes, but Aedes aegypti appears to be the most efficient, said Piermarini, an expert on disease-transmitting mosquitoes whose research seeks alternative ways to control these insects. Aedes aegypti is not found in Ohio, but it is common in the southern U.S., especially Florida and the Gulf Coast.. Piermarini said that other Aedes species are ...
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models.
Three billion people around the world live in tropical and subtropical regions where the four strands -or serotypes- of the denge virus (see map) exist. Each year, between 50 to 100 million people are infected through the bite of the female Aedes aegypti and other similar species, such as Aedes albopictus.. In the last decades, the rapid growth of urban populations, coupled with poor environmental sanitation services and a lack of adequate water-storage resources, has favoured the spread of mosquito vectors. At the same time, the increase in international air traffic has contributed towards the geographic dissemination of the viruses. These factors have led to a re-emergence of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome epidemics. Hyperendemicity (when few members of a single community are not infected) has also increased in several urban centres.. There are currently over 100 countries where dengue is endemic and the number is rising. With no available vaccine or specific ...
We assessed in a case-control study the test-validity of Aedes larval indices for the 2000 Havana outbreak. "Cases" were blocks where a dengue fever patient lived during the outbreak. "Controls" were randomly sampled blocks. Before, during, and after the epidemic, we calculated Breteau index (BI) and house index at the area, neighborhood, and block level. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine their performance as predictors of dengue transmission. We observed a pronounced effect of the level of measurement. The BImax (maximum block BI in a radius of 100 m) at 2-month intervals had an area under the ROC curve of 71%. At a cutoff of 4.0, it significantly (odds ratio 6.00, p&lt;0.05) predicted transmission with 78% sensitivity and 63% specificity. Analysis of BI at the local level, with human-defined boundaries, could be introduced in control programs to identify neighborhoods at high risk for dengue transmission.
This summer we have a lot more capacity to do more sampling, says Lyric Bartholomay, a UW-Madison medical entomologist and one of the leaders of the vector disease center. We set traps all over the southern tier of Wisconsin. One of the traps we had set in Dane County produced this Asian tiger mosquito.. This was possible because we have the people and capacity now to do more surveillance, says Bartholomay, who is a co-director of the new CDC-supported center.. Aedes albopictus had previously been identified sporadically in Minnesota and Northern Illinois. Southern Illinois hosts one of the northernmost established populations of the mosquito. It is currently thought that cold Wisconsin winters help prevent this species from establishing itself in the state. The individuals identified this week might have arrived from interstate travel, possibly hitchhiking on motor vehicles, says Susan Paskewitz, a UW-Madison medical entomologist who leads the vector disease center with Bartholomay.. As a ...
The terms intrinsic incubation period and extrinsic incubation period are used in vector-borne diseases. The intrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to complete its development in the definitive host. The extrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to develop in the intermediate host. For example, once ingested by a mosquito, malaria parasites must undergo development within the mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in the mosquito ranges from 10 to 28 days, depending on the parasite species and the temperature. This is the extrinsic incubation period of that parasite. If a female mosquito does not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period, then she will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites. But if a mosquito successfully transfers the parasite to a human body via a bite, the parasite starts developing. The time between the injection of the parasite into the human and the development of the ...