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Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5C (ARL5C) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Small GTP-binding protein which cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound form, and the rate of cycling is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAP). Required for normal cytokinesis and cilia signaling. Requires assistance from GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) like RP2 and PDE6D, in order to cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Required for targeting proteins such as NPHP3 to the ciliary membrane by releasing myristoylated NPHP3 from UNC119B cargo adapter into the cilium. Does not act as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf GTPases, stimulating the nucleotide exchange from the GDP-bound to the GTP-bound form. Catalyzes both the GDP release by and the GTP binding to ARF2. Has no exhange activity on Rab GTPases. Involved in vesicular transport.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
Ver más] The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is an essential component of the molecular machinery that catalyzes the formation of membranebound transport intermediates. By using an in vitro assay that reproduces recruitment of cytosolic proteins onto purified, high salt-washed Golgi membranes, we have analyzed the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) on ARF1 incorporation. Addition to this assay of either pure catalytic subunits of PKA (C-PKA) or cAMP increased ARF1 binding. By contrast, ARF1 association was inhibited following C-PKA inactivation with either PKA inhibitory peptide or RIIa as well as after cytosol depletion of C-PKA. C-PKA also stimulated recruitment and activation of a recombinant form of human ARF1 in the absence of additional cytosolic components. The binding step could be dissociated from the activation reaction and found to be independent of guanine nucleotides and saturable. This step was stimulated by C-PKA in an ATP-dependent manner. ...
ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4A (ARL4A) is a developmentally regulated member of the ARF/ARL GTPase family. The primary structure of ARL4A is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, but its function remains unclear. The trans-Golgi network golgin GCC185 is required for maintenance of Golgi structure and distinct endosome-to-Golgi transport. We show here that GCC185 acts as a new effector for ARL4 to modulate Golgi organization. ARL4A directly interacts with GCC185 in a GTP-dependent manner. Sub-coiled-coil regions of the CC2 domain of GCC185 are required for the interaction between GCC185 and ARL4A. Depletion of ARL4A reproduces the GCC185-depleted phenotype, causing fragmentation of the Golgi compartment and defects in endosome-to-Golgi transport. GCC185 and ARL4A localize to the Golgi independently of each other. Deletion of the ARL4A-interacting region of GCC185 results in inability to maintain Golgi structure. Depletion of ARL4A impairs the interaction between GCC185 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Active Arf6 recruits ARNO/cytohesin GEFs to the PM by binding their PH domains. AU - Cohen, Lee Ann. AU - Honda, Akira. AU - Várnai, P.. AU - Brown, Fraser D.. AU - Balla, Tamas. AU - Donaldson, Julie G.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - ARNO is a soluble guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Arf family of GTPases. Although in biochemical assays ARNO prefers Arf1 over Arf6 as a substrate, its localization in cells at the plasma membrane (PM) suggests an interaction with Arf6. In this study, we found that ARNO activated Arf1 in HeLa and COS-7 cells resulting in the recruitment of Arf1 on to dynamic PM ruffles. By contrast, Arf6 was activated less by ARNO than EFA6, a canonical Arf6 GEF. Remarkably, Arf6 in its GTP-bound form recruited ARNO to the PM and the two proteins could be immunoprecipitated. ARNO binding to Arf6 was not mediated through the catalytic Sec7 domain, but via the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Active Arf6 also bound the PH domain of Grp1, another ...
This gene encodes a member of an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein family involved in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamics. This gene functions as a direct regulator of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 on endosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
ARF1 - ARF1 (untagged)-Human ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
We have demonstrated previously the potent activation of PLD by the chemokine IL-8 in T lymphocytes (18). We have now extended our findings to include the C-C chemokine RANTES in demonstrating that in the Jurkat T cell line, the activation of this enzyme occurs at subnanomolar concentrations and is dependent on the activation of small GTP-binding protein cofactors. RANTES-induced PLD activation is consistently maximal at 1 nM, a concentration corresponding to the optimal chemotaxis-inducing dose in normal T lymphocytes. Interestingly, PLD activation in T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells appears to be an important biologic consequence of chemokine action and more readily measurable (at nanomolar concentrations) than readouts of receptor activation such as calcium flux. It was also apparent that RANTES is the only chemokine tested to date (RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, MCP-3, lymphotactin) that induces as robust a response as seen in this study, although the others listed were capable of low ...
Arl1 (ARF like protein1) is a poorly understood member of ARF family small GTPases. This thesis presents an original characterization of Arl1 and its effectors. Arl1 was localized to the tans Golgi under EM. Over expression of guanine nucleotide mutants of Arl1 dramatically affects the structure and function of Golgi apparatus. Arl1-GTP was found to interact with GRIP domain of Golgins (Golgin-97, Golgin-245, GCC1 and KIAA0336). The interaction was dependent on the conserved amino acids on both switch II region of Arl1 and the GRIP domain. Collectively, the research presented in this thesis reveals Arl1 is a new regulator of Golgi structure and function and one mechanism of Arl1a??s function is that it recruits and regulates its effectors a?? GRIP domain Golgins to Golgi ...
Human gamma-adaptin-related protein 2 ELISA Kit;Human golgi-localized, gamma ear-containing, ARF-binding protein 2 ELISA Kit;Human VHS domain and ear domain of gamma-adaptin ELISA Kit;Human VEAR ELISA Kit;Human KIAA1080 ELISA Kit;Human golgi associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 2 ELISA Kit;Human ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA2 ELISA Kit;Human VHS domain and ear domain-containing protein ELISA Kit ...
Abbreviations: ABC, ATP-binding cassette transporter; ANGPTL3, angiopoietin-like 3; apo, apolipoprotein; ARL7, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 7; CAD, coronary artery disease; CXCR4, CXC receptor 4; EC, endothelial cell; FOXA2, forkhead box A2; GPAM, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HDL-C, HDL-cholesterol; HMGCR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase; IL, interleukin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LDLR, LDL receptor; LNA, locked nucleic acid; LOX-1, oxidized LDL receptor 1; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; LXR, liver X receptor; Mct1, monocarboxylate transporter 1; MI, myocardial infarction; miRNA, microRNA; Mtpn, myotrophin; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; p27Kip1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; p57Kip2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C; oxLDL, oxidized LDL; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; pre-miRNA, ...
The small GTP-binding proteins of the ARF family play a central role in membrane dynamics and protein transport in eukaryotic cells. The GEFs that catalyze GDP/GTP exchange on ARF are of critical importance to ARF function, as they determine when and where ARF proteins will be activated within the cell (reviewed by Jackson and Casanova, 2000). We present here an in vivo characterization of the Gea1p and Gea2p ARF GEFs in the secretory pathway of S. cerevisiae. The Gea1p and Gea2p proteins are members of a subfamily of ARF GEFs with members in plants and animals, as well as in yeast ( Claude et al., 1999; Steinmann et al., 1999). This subfamily is distinct from that of Sec7p and its mammalian orthologues BIG1 and BIG2 ( Mansour et al., 1999; Morinaga et al., 1997; Togawa et al., 1999).. The Gea1p and Gea2p proteins are functionally redundant, but at least one is necessary for viability in yeast. We have generated three temperature-sensitive gea mutants and have examined their phenotypes. The ...
D. Jones, B. Bax, S. Cockcroft; ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases in signal transduction and membrane traffic: independent functions?. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1999; 27 (4): 642-647. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0270642. Download citation file:. ...
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity ...
Rafiq et al. demonstrate that the small G protein ARF1 and its activator, cytohesin 2 (ARNO), are required for podosome formation in macrophage-like cells and fibroblasts. Inhibition of ARNO-ARF1 signaling results in increased RhoA activity and disassembly of podosomes in a myosin-IIA-dependent fashion. In fibroblasts that normally do not form podosomes, constitutively active ARF1 induces actin-rich puncta associated with sites of matrix degradation, putative precursors of podosomes. ...
Cell migration is an orchestrated and highly coordinated multi-step process that is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Dysregulated migration however, is associated with pathological states such as tumor formation and metastasis; thus a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive this process is critical to the development of counteracting therapeutics. Cell migration and adhesion-dependent cell spreading share a number of features. For example, both processes rely on the activation of mechanisms for the coordinated spatial and temporal assembly/disassembly of focal adhesions, as well as mechanisms controlling actin rearrangements and directed vesicular trafficking. Actin remodeling and vesicular trafficking events are in turn, implicated functions of a variety of small GTPases of the Ras superfamily, which include the Rho and Arf subfamilies. Thus towards efforts of further characterizing the molecular pathways that drive cell spreading, I pursued aims
Two closely related human Arls, Arl8a and Arl8b, were found to localise to lysosomes in mammalian cells. conventionally, membrane binding of Arf and Arl proteins is mediated by both an N-terminal myristoyl group and an N-terminal amphipathic helix that are inserted into the lipid bilayer upon activation of the GTPase. Arl8 GPTases lack myristolylation sites, and examination of the N-terminus of Arl8b revealed that it contains an acetyl group instead, and this acetylated methionine is necessary for its lysosomal location. Lysosomes of cells overexpressing Arl8b move more frequently, suggesting a role for Arl8a and Arl8b as positive regulators of lysosomal transport. Arl4a, Arl4c and Arl4d are very similar in sequence and were found to act in a pathway upstream of Arf6, Arf6 is a regulator of key processes at the plasma membrane, such as endocytosis, actin dynamics and cell adhesion. One of the major activators of Arf6 is the exchange factor ARNO (Arf nucleotide binding site opener). In order to ...
... Arf 6 Activation Assay Kit bases on the configuration-specific anti-Arf 6-GTP monoclonal antibody to measure the active Arf 6-GTP levels, either from cell extracts or from in vitro GTPγS loading Arf 6 activation assays. Briefly, anti-active Arf 6 mouse monoclonal antibody will be incubated with cell lysates containing Arf 6-GTP. The bound active Arf 6 will then be pulled down by protein A/G agarose. The precipitated active Arf 6 will be detected by immunoblot analysis using an anti-Arf 6 rabbit polyclonal antibody, respectively. ...
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
Arf-like protein 1 (Arl1) is a member of the Arf family of regulatory GTPases, within the Ras superfamily of GTPases, and with highly conserved orthologs throughout eukaryotes. Arl1 is essential for early embryonic development in Drosophila and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Arl1 is most similar in primary sequence, cellular location, and function (regulation of membrane traffic) to Arf1-6 and even shares several common binding partners. In addition to its function in membrane traffic at the Golgi/trans-Golgi network, there are reports indicating a possible role for Arl1 in ion homeostasis in yeast. ...
Lyophilized antibodies can be kept at 4ºC for up to 3 months and should be kept at -20ºC for long-term storage (2 years). To avoid freeze-thaw cycles, reconstituted antibodies should be aliquoted before freezing for long-term (1 year) storage (-80ºC) or kept at 4ºC for short-term usage (2 months). For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made with the assay buffer. After the maximum long-term storage period (2 years lyophilized or 1 year reconstituted) antibodies should be tested in your assay with a standard sample to verify if you have noticed any decrease in their efficacy ...
Other than a role for Ca2+ store depletion, the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigen-stimulated Ca2+ influx into mast cells are not well-understood. The observation that CT dramatically enhances 45Ca2+ influx into RBL-2H3 cells suggests that this reagent might be a useful tool to study the Ca2+ entry pathway (Narasimhan et al., 1988). That CT amplifies both antigen-evoked ICRAC and 45Ca2+ influx to a similar extent bolsters the idea that CRAC channels are a major pathway for FcεRI-mediated Ca2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 mast cells (Zhang and McCloskey, 1995).. Two hypotheses to explain the effect of CT on 45Ca2+ influx are immediately testable by patch clamping. First, it is possible that CT activates Cl− or K+ channels, and thereby increases the electrical force propelling Ca2+ entry. This indirect mechanism cannot explain the enhancement of Ca2+ influx currents that we observed, because voltage-clamp measurements eliminate any difference in membrane potential between control and CT-treated ...
CONTACT: [email protected] GENBANK UPDATE: 22 July 1997 28 unique yeast ORFs ORF NAME LOCUS PRODUCT/DESCRIPTION -------- ----- ---------------------------------------- YFL039C ACT1 Actin YDL192W ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor YDL137W ARF2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 YJR121W ATP2 F(1)F(0)-ATPase complex beta subunit, mitochondrial YER177W BMH1 Homolog of mammalian 14-3-3 proteins YLR229C CDC42 member of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like proteins YER133W GLC7 protein phosphatase type I YLR293C GSP1 GTP-binding protein YOR185C GSP2 GTP-binding protein YBR009C HHF1 Histone H4 (HHF1 and HHF2 code for identical proteins) YNL030W HHF2 Histone H4 (HHF1 and HHF2 code for identical proteins) YBR010W HHT1 Histone H3 (HHT1 and HHT2 code for identical proteins) YNL031C HHT2 Histone H3 (HHT1 and HHT2 code for identical proteins) YDR224C HTB1 Histone H2B (HTB1 and HTB2 code for nearly identical proteins) YBL002W HTB2 Histone H2B (HTB1 and HTB2 code for nearly identical proteins) YBL087C RPL17A Ribosomal protein ...
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Complete information for ARF6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ARL6IP6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor Like GTPase 6 Interacting Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ARFGAP3 antibody, C-term (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3) for WB. Anti-ARFGAP3 pAb (GTX89988) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Homo sapiens golgi associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 1 (GGA1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00026088-R01) - Products - Abnova
I want to BRAG big time about Becky and Sheila for great Tourism Currents track at Blogworld LA. Their positive energy comes through in every tweet and photos people are sharing.. I also want to brag again on my girl Jeanne Robertson. She was in 5 cities in 5 days. She is remarkable. btw, at 68 she is busier and more popular than ever. She credits modern tools like Facebook and YouTube for her new career. She has been a professional speaker for 48 years.. Gee, when Becky said "you are in charge of the brag basket" she probably didnt mean just me. What wonderful things have yall been doing this week?. ...
ADP-ribosylation factor, GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated formation vesicles in intracellular trafficking within the ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
ARFIP2 antibody [N1C2] (ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ARFIP2 pAb (GTX104241) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
BFA induces the ADP-ribosylation of BARS-50 and GAPDH in permeabilized cells. (A) RBL cells were permeabilized with 3 U/ml SLO and exposed to 10 μg/ml BFA
FUNCTION: Guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) required for the formation or budding of transport vesicles from the ER. This function involves the cytoplasmic domain of the protein, which is thought to interact with the small GTP-binding protein SAR1. Required for autophagy. MISCELLANEOUS: In the process of transport, SEC12 itself may migrate to the Golgi apparatus and function in subsequent transport events. MISCELLANEOUS: Present with 6160 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium ...
Arginine adenosine-5′-diphosphoribosylation (ADP-ribosylation) is an enzyme-catalyzed potentially reversible posttranslational changes where the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ towards the guanidino CHR2797 moiety of arginine. proteins with binding companions e.g. toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin at R177 blocks actin polymerization sterically. In case there is the nucleotide-gated P2X7 ion route ADP-ribosylation at R125 near the ligand-binding site causes route Rabbit Polyclonal to SF3B3. gating. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) bring a quality R-S-EXE theme that distinguishes these enzymes from structurally related enzymes which catalyze ADP-ribosylation of additional amino acid part chains DNA or little substances. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosylation could be inhibited by little molecule arginine analogues such as for example CHR2797 agmatine or meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) which themselves can serve as focuses on for arginine-specific ARTs. ...
Summary Arl (Arf-like) proteins, GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily, are molecular switches that cycle between a GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active state. There are 16 members of the Arl subfamily in the human genome whose basic mechanistic function is unknown. The interactome of Arl2/3 includes proteins involved in retinopathies and other ciliary diseases such as Leber¿s Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) and kidney diseases such as nephronophthisis. Arl6 has been found mutated in Bardet Biedl Syndrome, another pleiotropic ciliary disease. In the proposed interdisciplinary project I want to explore the function of the protein network of Arl2/3 and Arl6 by a combination of biochemical, biophysical and structural methods and use the knowledge obtained to probe their function in live cells. As with other subfamily proteins of the Ras superfamily which have been found to mediate similar biological functions I want to derive a basic understanding of the function of Arl proteins and how it ...
ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). Arl1 subfamily. Arl1 (Arf-like 1) localizes to the Golgi complex, where it is believed to recruit effector proteins to the trans-Golgi network. Like most members of the Arf family, Arl1 is myristoylated at its N-terminal helix and mutation of the myristoylation site disrupts Golgi targeting. In humans, the Golgi-localized proteins golgin-97 and golgin-245 have been identified as Arl1 effectors. Golgins are large coiled-coil proteins found in the Golgi, and these golgins contain a C-terminal GRIP domain, which is the site of Arl1 binding. Additional Arl1 effectors include the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein)/VFT (Vps53) vesicle-tethering complex and Arfaptin 2. Arl1 is not required for exocytosis, but appears necessary for trafficking from the endosomes to the Golgi. In Drosophila zygotes, mutation of Arl1 is lethal, and in the host-bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei, Arl1 is essential for viability. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a rat brain phospholipase D isozyme. AU - Min, Do Sik. AU - Park, Seung Kiel. AU - Exton, John H.. PY - 1998/3/20. Y1 - 1998/3/20. N2 - We have recently cloned a cDNA encoding a phospholipase D (PLD) from rat brain and named it rPLD1. It shows 90% amino acid identity with the human PLD isoform hPLD1b. We have expressed rPLD1 as a histidine-tagged fusion protein in insect (Sf9) cells using the expression vector pBlueBacHis and purified the recombinant protein to homogeneity by Ni2+-agarose affinity chromatography. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-P2 and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5- P3 activated the PLD equipotently, but other acidic phospholipids were ineffective. The activity of rPLD1 was dependent on both Mg2+ and Ca2+. It was specific for phosphatidylcholine and showed a broad dependence on pH with optimum activity at pH 6.5-7.5. The enzyme was inhibited by oleate and activated by the small G proteins ARF3 and RhoA in the presence of guanosine ...