Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. Play a role in the epithelial polarization (By similarity).
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins recognized as critical components in intracellular vesicular transport and phospholipase D activation. Both guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for ARFs have been cloned recently. A zinc finger motif near the amino terminus of the ARF1 GAP was required for stimulation of GTP hydrolysis. ARD1 is an ARF family member that differs from other ARFs by the presence of a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension. We had reported that the ARF domain of ARD1 binds specifically GDP and GTP and that the amino-terminal extension acts as a GAP for the ARF domain of ARD1 but not for ARF proteins. The GAP domain of ARD1, synthesized in Escherichia coli, stimulated hydrolysis of GTP bound to the ARF domain of ARD1. Using ARD1 truncations, it appears that amino acids 101-190 are critical for GAP activity, whereas residues 190-333 are involved in physical interaction between the two domains of ...
Ver más] The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is an essential component of the molecular machinery that catalyzes the formation of membranebound transport intermediates. By using an in vitro assay that reproduces recruitment of cytosolic proteins onto purified, high salt-washed Golgi membranes, we have analyzed the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) on ARF1 incorporation. Addition to this assay of either pure catalytic subunits of PKA (C-PKA) or cAMP increased ARF1 binding. By contrast, ARF1 association was inhibited following C-PKA inactivation with either PKA inhibitory peptide or RIIa as well as after cytosol depletion of C-PKA. C-PKA also stimulated recruitment and activation of a recombinant form of human ARF1 in the absence of additional cytosolic components. The binding step could be dissociated from the activation reaction and found to be independent of guanine nucleotides and saturable. This step was stimulated by C-PKA in an ATP-dependent manner. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
D. Jones, B. Bax, S. Cockcroft; ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases in signal transduction and membrane traffic: independent functions?. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1999; 27 (4): 642-647. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0270642. Download citation file:. ...
Top performende anti-Ratte (Rattus) ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Antikörper für Immunofluorescence (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IF (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
Cell migration is an orchestrated and highly coordinated multi-step process that is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Dysregulated migration however, is associated with pathological states such as tumor formation and metastasis; thus a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive this process is critical to the development of counteracting therapeutics. Cell migration and adhesion-dependent cell spreading share a number of features. For example, both processes rely on the activation of mechanisms for the coordinated spatial and temporal assembly/disassembly of focal adhesions, as well as mechanisms controlling actin rearrangements and directed vesicular trafficking. Actin remodeling and vesicular trafficking events are in turn, implicated functions of a variety of small GTPases of the Ras superfamily, which include the Rho and Arf subfamilies. Thus towards efforts of further characterizing the molecular pathways that drive cell spreading, I pursued aims
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
Angiogenesis: Growth of new blood vessels by sprouting from existing ones. Anoxia: a condition characterized by an absence of oxygen supply to an organ or a tissue Apoptosis: Form of cell death, also known as programmed cell death, in which a suicide program is activated within the cell, leading to fragmentation of the DNA, shrinkage of the cytoplasm, membrane changes and cell death without lysis or damage to neighboring cells. It is a normal phenomenon, occurring frequently in a multicellular organism. ARF: ADP Ribosylation Factor (ARF) is a member of the GTP-binding proteins responsible for regulating both COPI coat assembly and clathrin coat assembly at Golgi membranes. ATM: a protein that regulates several cellular responses to DNA breaks. C. elegans: Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode (unsegmented) worm with very simple anatomy. Chaperone (molecular chaperone): Protein that helps other proteins avoid misfolding pathways that produce inactive or aggregated polypeptides. Drosophila: ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. The activity of the encoded enzyme is enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and ADP-ribosylation factor-1. This protein localizes to the peripheral membrane and may be involved in cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and/or regulated secretion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011 ...
Lyophilized antibodies can be kept at 4ºC for up to 3 months and should be kept at -20ºC for long-term storage (2 years). To avoid freeze-thaw cycles, reconstituted antibodies should be aliquoted before freezing for long-term (1 year) storage (-80ºC) or kept at 4ºC for short-term usage (2 months). For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made with the assay buffer. After the maximum long-term storage period (2 years lyophilized or 1 year reconstituted) antibodies should be tested in your assay with a standard sample to verify if you have noticed any decrease in their efficacy ...
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare 12 different ARF4 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 12 verschiedene ARF4 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
Complete information for ARF6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ARF1 - ARF1 (untagged)-Human ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for ARL6IP6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor Like GTPase 6 Interacting Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ARFGAP3 antibody, C-term (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3) for WB. Anti-ARFGAP3 pAb (GTX89988) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ADP-ribosylation factor, GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated formation vesicles in intracellular trafficking within the ...
ARFIP2 antibody [N1C2] (ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ARFIP2 pAb (GTX104241) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3 (BIG3) has been identified recently as a novel regulator of estrogen signalling in breast cancer cells. Despite being a potential target for new breast cancer treatment, its amino acid sequence suggests no association with any well-characterized protein family and provides little clues as to its molecular function. In this paper, we predicted the structure, function and interactions of BIG3 using a range of bioinformatic tools. Homology search results showed that BIG3 had distinct features from its paralogues, BIG1 and BIG2, with a unique region between the two shared domains, Sec7 and DUF1981. Although BIG3 contains Sec7 domain, the lack of the conserved motif and the critical glutamate residue suggested no potential guaninyl-exchange factor (GEF) activity. Fold recognition tools predicted BIG3 to adopt an α-helical repeat structure similar to that of the armadillo (ARM) family. Using state-of-the-art methods, we predicted interaction sites
This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008 ...
Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles are involved in transport processes within the early secretory pathway (Bethune et al., 2006). For their biogenesis, the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) in its GDP-bound form is recruited to the Golgi membrane by dimeric transmembrane proteins of the p24 family (Gommel et al., 2001) or by interaction with membrin (Honda et al., 2005). The membrane-associated Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 catalyzes exchange of the bound GDP to GTP (Zhao et al., 2006). Arf1-GTP dissociates from the p24 proteins and is inserted into the Golgi membrane (Franco et al., 1996; Antonny et al., 1997) as a dimer (Beck et al., 2008) to recruit the heptameric protein complex coatomer (Palmer et al., 1993). Coatomer polymerization leads to the formation of a COPI-coated vesicle (Bremser et al., 1999; Reinhard et al., 1999). Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze hydrolysis of the GTP bound to Arf1 followed by dissociation of the coat (Tanigawa et al., ...
Buy ARFGAP1 recombinant protein, ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 1 (ARFGAP1) Recombinant Protein-NP_001268411.1 (MBS1301288) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
Arl1 (ARF like protein1) is a poorly understood member of ARF family small GTPases. This thesis presents an original characterization of Arl1 and its effectors. Arl1 was localized to the tans Golgi under EM. Over expression of guanine nucleotide mutants of Arl1 dramatically affects the structure and function of Golgi apparatus. Arl1-GTP was found to interact with GRIP domain of Golgins (Golgin-97, Golgin-245, GCC1 and KIAA0336). The interaction was dependent on the conserved amino acids on both switch II region of Arl1 and the GRIP domain. Collectively, the research presented in this thesis reveals Arl1 is a new regulator of Golgi structure and function and one mechanism of Arl1a??s function is that it recruits and regulates its effectors a?? GRIP domain Golgins to Golgi ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity ...
Two widely expressed mammalian phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipases D (PLD), PLD1 and PLD2, have been identified. Recombinantly expressed PLD2 has high basal activity and is insensitive to GTP-binding protein activators of PLD1 [Colley, W. C., et al. (1997) Curr. Biol. 7, 191-201]. To investigate the regulation of PLD2 we isolated PLD2, from mouse brain by immunoaffinity chromatography. The native and recombinant proteins have indistinguishable properties: PLD2 is potently activated by phosphoinositides with a vicinal 4,5-phosphate pair but is not stimulated by guanosine 5-O-(3-thio triphosphate)-activated ADP-ribosylation factor-1, Rho family GTP-binding proteins, or protein kinases C-alpha, or -beta1 ...
Other than a role for Ca2+ store depletion, the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigen-stimulated Ca2+ influx into mast cells are not well-understood. The observation that CT dramatically enhances 45Ca2+ influx into RBL-2H3 cells suggests that this reagent might be a useful tool to study the Ca2+ entry pathway (Narasimhan et al., 1988). That CT amplifies both antigen-evoked ICRAC and 45Ca2+ influx to a similar extent bolsters the idea that CRAC channels are a major pathway for FcεRI-mediated Ca2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 mast cells (Zhang and McCloskey, 1995).. Two hypotheses to explain the effect of CT on 45Ca2+ influx are immediately testable by patch clamping. First, it is possible that CT activates Cl− or K+ channels, and thereby increases the electrical force propelling Ca2+ entry. This indirect mechanism cannot explain the enhancement of Ca2+ influx currents that we observed, because voltage-clamp measurements eliminate any difference in membrane potential between control and CT-treated ...
GTP-binding protein involved in protein trafficking that regulates endocytic recycling and cytoskeleton remodeling. Required for normal completion of mitotic cytokinesis. May also modulate vesicle budding and uncoating within the Golgi apparatus. Involved in the regulation of dendritic spine development, contributing to the regulation of dendritic branching and filopodia extension (PubMed:16672654). Involved in epithelial polarization (By similarity).
ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). Arl1 subfamily. Arl1 (Arf-like 1) localizes to the Golgi complex, where it is believed to recruit effector proteins to the trans-Golgi network. Like most members of the Arf family, Arl1 is myristoylated at its N-terminal helix and mutation of the myristoylation site disrupts Golgi targeting. In humans, the Golgi-localized proteins golgin-97 and golgin-245 have been identified as Arl1 effectors. Golgins are large coiled-coil proteins found in the Golgi, and these golgins contain a C-terminal GRIP domain, which is the site of Arl1 binding. Additional Arl1 effectors include the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein)/VFT (Vps53) vesicle-tethering complex and Arfaptin 2. Arl1 is not required for exocytosis, but appears necessary for trafficking from the endosomes to the Golgi. In Drosophila zygotes, mutation of Arl1 is lethal, and in the host-bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei, Arl1 is essential for viability. ...
BFA induces the ADP-ribosylation of BARS-50 and GAPDH in permeabilized cells. (A) RBL cells were permeabilized with 3 U/ml SLO and exposed to 10 μg/ml BFA
Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with the GTPase ARF. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase ...
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Arfgef1 (untagged) - Mouse ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1(brefeldin A-inhibited) (Arfgef1), (10ug), 10 µg.
We recently reported that brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins 3 (BIG3) binds Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) in cytoplasm, thereby leading to a reduction of function of the PHB2 growth suppressor in the nuclei of breasts tumor cells. PHB2 nuclear transfer may offer restorative strategies for managing Elizabeth2/Emergency room signs in breasts tumor cells. Introduction Prohibitin 1 and 2 (PHB and buy 808118-40-3 PHB2) proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and exhibit diverse subcellular localization with different functions [1C3]. These molecules are primarily observed in inner mitochondrial membranes via their buy 808118-40-3 N-terminal transmembrane domain but are also present in several other localizations such as the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and plasma membrane [1]. Both proteins form hetero-oligomeric ring structures in the inner mitochondrial membrane and function as chaperones buy 808118-40-3 that maintain mitochondrial integrity and stabilize ...
FUNCTION: Guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) required for the formation or budding of transport vesicles from the ER. This function involves the cytoplasmic domain of the protein, which is thought to interact with the small GTP-binding protein SAR1. Required for autophagy. MISCELLANEOUS: In the process of transport, SEC12 itself may migrate to the Golgi apparatus and function in subsequent transport events. MISCELLANEOUS: Present with 6160 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium ...
The small GTP-binding proteins of the ARF family play a central role in membrane dynamics and protein transport in eukaryotic cells. The GEFs that catalyze GDP/GTP exchange on ARF are of critical importance to ARF function, as they determine when and where ARF proteins will be activated within the cell (reviewed by Jackson and Casanova, 2000). We present here an in vivo characterization of the Gea1p and Gea2p ARF GEFs in the secretory pathway of S. cerevisiae. The Gea1p and Gea2p proteins are members of a subfamily of ARF GEFs with members in plants and animals, as well as in yeast ( Claude et al., 1999; Steinmann et al., 1999). This subfamily is distinct from that of Sec7p and its mammalian orthologues BIG1 and BIG2 ( Mansour et al., 1999; Morinaga et al., 1997; Togawa et al., 1999).. The Gea1p and Gea2p proteins are functionally redundant, but at least one is necessary for viability in yeast. We have generated three temperature-sensitive gea mutants and have examined their phenotypes. The ...
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Arginine adenosine-5′-diphosphoribosylation (ADP-ribosylation) is an enzyme-catalyzed potentially reversible posttranslational changes where the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ towards the guanidino CHR2797 moiety of arginine. proteins with binding companions e.g. toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin at R177 blocks actin polymerization sterically. In case there is the nucleotide-gated P2X7 ion route ADP-ribosylation at R125 near the ligand-binding site causes route Rabbit Polyclonal to SF3B3. gating. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) bring a quality R-S-EXE theme that distinguishes these enzymes from structurally related enzymes which catalyze ADP-ribosylation of additional amino acid part chains DNA or little substances. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosylation could be inhibited by little molecule arginine analogues such as for example CHR2797 agmatine or meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) which themselves can serve as focuses on for arginine-specific ARTs. ...
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ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of Coat Proteins with Organelle Membranes in the early Secretory Pathway. It is a component of Coat Protein Complex I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5C (ARL5C) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
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Microinjection of the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue GTP(gamma)S or the ectopic expression of a GTP restricted mutant of the small GTPase arf1 (arf1[Q71L]) leads to the rapid accumulation of COPI coated vesicles and buds in living cells. This effect is blocked at 15 degrees C and by microinjection of antibodies against (beta)-COP. Anterograde and retrograde membrane protein transport markers, which have been previously shown to be incorporated into COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, are depleted from the GTP(gamma)S or arf1[Q71L] induced COPI coated vesicles and buds. In contrast, in control cells 30 to 60% of the COPI carriers co-localize with these markers. These in vivo data corroborate recent in vitro work, suggesting that GTP(gamma)S and arf1[Q71L] interfere with the sorting of membrane proteins into Golgi derived COPI vesicles, and provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of GTP hydrolysis by arf1 in the sorting of cargo into COPI coated vesicles and ...
ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that regulates dendritic differentiation possibly through the organization of actin cytoskeleton and membrane traffic. Here, we characterized IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Arf6, in the mouse brain. In vivo Arf pull …
CIN85 is a multidomain adaptor protein involved in Cbl-mediated down-regulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. CIN85 src homology 3 domains specifically bind to a proline-arginine (PxxxPR) motif in Cbl, and this association seems to be important for EGF receptor endocytosis. Here, we report identification of novel CIN85 effectors, all containing one or more PxxxPR motifs, that are indispensable for their mutual interactions. These effectors include phosphatidyl-inositol phosphatases SHIP-1 and synaptojanin 2B1, Arf GTPase-activating proteins ASAP1 and ARAP3, adaptor proteins Hip1R and STAP1, and a Rho exchange factor, p115Rho GEF. Acting as a molecular scaffold, CIN85 clusters its effectors and recruits them to high-molecular-weight complexes in cytosolic extracts of cells. Further characterization of CIN85 binding to ASAP1 revealed that formation of the complex is independent on cell stimulation. Overexpression of ASAP1 increased EGF receptor recycling, whereas ASAP1 containing ...
Small GTPases largely control membrane traffic, which is essential for the survival of all eukaryotes. Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. ARF1 has been shown to play a critical role in COPI (Coat Protein Complex I)-mediated retrograde trafficking in eukaryotic systems, whereas SAR1 GTPases are involved in intracellular COPII-mediated protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. This review offers a summary of vesicular trafficking with an emphasis on the ARF1 and SAR1 expression patterns at early growth stages and in the de-etiolation process.
Hong Xu wrote: , , Dear Colleagues: , , Our group is using the Clontech s HeLa cDNA library in a yeast , two-hybrid screening with the bait fused to the GAL4AD and the yeast , strain CG 1945. Many of the clones sequenced show one of the following , sequences, including ITBA2 (whatever it is, since almost no references , can be found in Medline), ribosomal s20, transketolase, Ring12 (probably , a proteasome subunit), ADP ribosylation factor, etc., with those listed , above showing up most frequently. We would like to know whether or not , these factors have also been found in somebody else two-hybrid , screenings using the same Clontech HeLa library. , , You are welcome to post your answer to our question in this newsgroup. , Or you can call me at 973-781-7987. , , Thank you very much. , , Richard Dear Richard, try this URL and you find an overview of the most common trash found in two hybrid screens: http://www.fccc.edu/research/labs/golemis/main_false.html Hope this helps, Ricky ...