A portion of nasal venous blood is indeed diverted to intracranial veins via direct communication between the ophthalmic veins, pterygoid plexus, and cavernous sinus, but the other portion of blood is drained extracranially by facial veins directly into the IJV. Stated differently, the cavernous sinus receives only a portion of xenon-enriched blood from the nasal space, but the IJV collects almost all the blood from it. Therefore, a steady concentration of xenon in the IJV 10 min after intranasal application in volunteers is more a reflection of saturation of the nasal mucosa and nasal (not cranial) venous vascular beds with xenon. The actual concentration of xenon in the cavernous sinus is probably less than 500 nl/ml because the latter collects only a portion of nasal venous blood. Furthermore, although the cavernous sinus does communicate with basilar and superficial cortical veins, it is a "blood collector" that is ultimately drained into the IJV, and retrograde flow of xenon-containing ...
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a fast effect is ...
Patient information for FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY 50 MICROGRAMS Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Patient information for BUDESONIDE 64 MICROGRAMS/ACTUATION AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT) in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)/poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL) and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat) MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG
The findings support the hypothesis that the frequency of severe adverse events following intranasal administration of NeuroEPO would be less than 10% since no severe events occurred. This is in accordance with the literature since the use of rHu-EPO in healthy subjects apparently does not affect physiological indexes and its use is safe for experimental purposes [34].. The current first NeuroEPO-in-human trial demonstrated the absence of hematopoietic activity according to the safety profile. This result is expected due to this EPO possesses a low content of sialic acid, a component that plays a key role in the preservation of EPO structure thereby avoiding its destruction by the liver. Low sialic acid content rHu-EPO molecules are rapidly metabolized by the liver and therefore eliminated without being able to exert their hematopoietic action [3]. This is the main expected safety benefit of NeuroEPO and has already been demonstrated in laboratory animals since the product did not modify ...
Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a prominent role in neuronal injury and ample evidence implicates Fas signaling in mediating cell death. In this study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of a Fas-blocking peptide (FBP) that by obstructing Fas signaling in cerebral ischemia inhibits apoptosis. Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. Intranasally delivered FBP might be a promising strategy for the treatment of
Central insulin resistance is common to both Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that investigated the effects of intranasally administered insulin, have highlighted the involvement of insulin in homeostatic, hedonic and to a lesser extent cognitive regulation of appetite control. This thesis documents a study that set out to explore the effects of intranasal insulin on brain function, using a pharmacological MRI protocol that probed the effects of insulin on resting state connectivity, resting state cerebral perfusion and the cerebral reward response to a food administration paradigm. This study was conducted in a group of healthy, male individuals, with normal and overweight participants. A drug delivery device optimised for efficient nasal delivery of insulin, was employed. A customised, long-label pseudo continuous arterial spin labelling sequence was employed. It was shown that intranasal insulin leads to decreases in cerebral blood flow in the left insula, ...
Influenza viruses have sporadically caused pandemics during the last century, with the most severe occurring in 1918 when the "Spanish flu", an A/H1N1 influenza virus, passed around the globe killing about 20-100 million people. Today 250 000-500 000 deaths occur annually due to influenza virus or secondary infection after influenza, e.g. pneumonia. Influenza viruses cause severe infections in susceptible age groups like children and elderly and in individuals with impaired immune response due to other medical conditions. The best way to prevent an influenza epidemic is by vaccination. Since the 1950´s we have vaccines against seasonal flu, but vaccine efficacy is not 100 % and there is a need to develop better and more effective vaccines, especially for the risk groups. Since the virus enters the host through the nasal cavity, nasal vaccination is a good approach. By stimulating a mucosal immune response already in the nasal cavity, the goal with nasal vaccination is to stop the virus before ...
One of the major challenges for the development of an HIV vaccine is to induce potent virus-specific immune responses at the mucosal surfaces where transmission of virus occurs. Intranasal delivery of classical vaccines has been shown to induce good mucosal antibody responses, but so far for genetic vaccines the success has been limited. This study shows that young individuals are sensitive to nasal immunization with a genetic vaccine delivered in a formulation of a lipid adjuvant, the Eurocine N3. Intranasal delivery of a multiclade/multigene HIV-1 genetic vaccine gave rise to vaginal and rectal IgA responses as well as systemic humoral and cellular responses. As electroporation might become the preferred means of delivering genetic vaccines for systemic HIV immunity, nasal delivery by droplet formulation in a lipid adjuvant might become a means of priming or boosting the mucosal immunity. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
8. Ellis, J., Gow, S., West, K., Waldner, C., Rhodes, C., Mutwiri, G., and Rosenberg, H.; Response of calves to challenge esposure with virulent bovine respiratory syncytial virus following intranasal administration of vaccines formulated for parenteral administraction. 2007. JAVMA. 230, 2:233-244 ...
... , RS Bhanushali1, MM Gatne2, RV Gaikwad3, AN Bajaj1, MA Morde1
Objective: Neural stem cells (NSC) have an inherent brain tumor tropism that can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to invasive gliomas. Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide gene (TK007) to intracerebrally growing human glioblastoma xenografts.. Method: Murine NSC were genetically modified to express the novel herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase variant (TK007). The biological activity of the NSC-mediated TK007/ganciclovir (GCV) system was assessed in cell survival and bystander assays using various human glioma cell lines. Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential combination of both was tested using an intracranial U87 human glioblastoma model in nude mice. All animals received 50 mg/kg GCV i.p. for five consecutive days. Two control groups received either NaCl instead of GCV or NSC containing the empty ...
Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. Collectively, these findings validate a novel approach to vaccination that emphasizes the route of delivery as a key determinant of ...
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Professor Len Harrison from the institutes Immunology division and Professor Peter Colman and Dr Spiros Fourlanos from the hospitals Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology have demonstrated that the nasal insulin vaccine desensitises the human immune system, suppressing its reaction against insulin. Their research was published in the April issue of the journal Diabetes.. Their research provides proof-of-principle for the type 1 diabetes prevention trial, also called the intranasal insulin trial II (INIT II), which is being conducted in Australia and New Zealand and soon in Germany.. Previous research by Professor Harrison showed in laboratory mice that a nasal insulin vaccine was successful in preventing type 1 diabetes.. "These latest results encourage us that we are on the right track to finding a vaccine for type 1 diabetes," Professor Harrison said.. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the bodys immune system attacks and kills beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
Because peptides are most often labile in the GI tract they are usually administered by injection. The principal fragment of interest, D-Leu-OB-3, has been shown to induce significant weight loss upon i.p injection, nasal administration and oral administration. A non-invasive format is preferred in terms of patient compliance, convenience, ease of self administration, and avoidance of needle stick injuries for patients or care givers. While intranasal administration of protein and peptide drugs has shown some limited success with small peptides such as desmopressin and calcitonin, Aegis Intravail® absorption enhancement agents provide unmatched bioavailabilities - bioavailabilities comparable to injection for small as well as much larger proteins. Our studies have shown that OB-3 peptide formulated with Intravail® excipients induces significant weight loss upon nasal administration with bioavailability comparable to injection approaching or exceeding 100% compared to s.c. injection. Intravail ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q A, 270K A and 271G A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
GHRP-2 is one of the few peptides that offer intranasal application. It is known for its extreme effects on human growth hormone making it one of the most effective peptides to date.
Pneumonia can be produced in mice, which have not been previously prepared, by intranasal inoculation of broth cultures of certain strains of pneumococci.. Lesions which are quantitatively different can be produced in different breeds of mice by inoculation of the same type of pneumococcus. Similar inoculation of different types of pneumococci into one breed of mice results in lesions which are qualitatively different.. In general, these lesions are as follows: a diffuse pneumonia and an acute glomerular nephritis in unselected mice receiving Type I strains; a confluent pneumonia and a tubular nephritis in the case of Type II strains; and as result of Type III strains, an interstitial pneumonia with extensive gelatinous pleurisy, together with necrosis and abscess formation in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes. Resistant strains of mice with Type III pneumococci show slight changes in the lungs, but marked lesions in the spleen and cervical nodes, while susceptible mice with the same type of ...
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This study is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study designed to assess the safety of intranasally (IN) delivered glulisine versus placebo in patients with DS. Subjects will be randomized into this cross-over study and within subject comparisons conducted between single treatment of intranasal insulin glulisine and single treatment of intranasal placebo. All subjects will also receive a single treatment of placebo prior to randomization to ensure adherence to study procedures ...
The city health director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases Dr. Michael Parry said.|br/||br/|
City Health Director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases, Dr. Michael Parry, said.|br/||br/|
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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SHERMAN, TX -- The Grayson County Health Department will provide Flu Mist, the 2009 H1N1 influenza live, attenuated intranasal vaccine (LAIV/the nasal spray vaccine) to people 2 through 49 years of age who are not pregnant and do not have certain health conditions listed below.
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1999 - Flu-Avert™ developed in conjunction with Heska provided an intranasal vaccine for equine subtype 2 influenza virus. The modified-live virus vaccine was licensed in 1999 by the USDA. Work on maternal antibody interference by researchers in the department led to new recommendations for foal vaccination schedules by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Tuamie laced a hypnotic production for MCs Boog Brown and Yasin Selami to get off on, dropping slick witticisms while trading bars on their lyrical supremacy. Selami uses his nasal delivery to slide across the elegant xylophone loop, imploring a generation of snap backers to "act your age not your fitted size.". Boog "never slips in the second spot," complimenting Selami with her quick-tongued delivery and assonant rhymes. Selami finishes the track off with dope scratches.. The track is tagged "#howtorap" on Soundcloud. I suppose there wasnt enough space for "-overafreshassbeat." You can listen to "Orange." below.. ...
Proveris helps pharmaceutical companies developing orally inhaled & nasal drug products (OINDPs) reach the market sooner, saving significant time & money.
Correction of the deficiency of early meal-time insulin secretion, using intravenous insulin in patients with Type 2 diabetes causes substantial improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. The present study was designed to determine whether similar benefit would result from physiological supplementation using intranasal insulin delivery. Six patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied twice during a standard mixed meal. At the start of the meal they received a single intranasal spray containing either 15 units of insulin in 1% sodium glycocholate (adjuvant agent) or glycocholate alone (placebo) in a single-blind fashion. Intranasal insulin delivery resulted in rapid absorption of insulin with peak levels (92 +/- 8 (+/- SE) mU l-1) within 5-10 min. Peak insulin levels were at least equal to those in non-diabetic subjects, though occurring at an earlier time-point. However, no significant improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen (peak blood glucose increment 4.9 +/- 0.6 vs 5.4 +/- 0.5 mmol l-1
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of nasally applied xenon on intraoperative and postoperative opioid requirement and postoperative evaluated pain scores. Because there were only two treatment arms (air, xenon) with an a priori fixed number of patients (20 per each arm), a simple randomization scheme was used with a vector of random numbers to generate an a priori list for randomized treatment assignments. According to this randomization list, patients received either xenon or air. The study supervisor, who did not participate in the assessment, prepared an unlabeled gas reservoir filled with either the colorless and odorless xenon or air as placebo. The anesthetists who provided the anesthesia and the intensive care unit (ICU) staff participating in the pain assessments were blinded for individual treatments. Patients were also blinded for group assignment and both blindings were maintained until the end of the study. The patients ...
The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermosensitive gel containing chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM)-loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of...
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The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
Pertussis disease remains an important public health issue given the global rise of pertussis cases during the past decades (2). There is therefore a critical need for improved pertussis vaccines with high efficacy and low reactogenicity. The live BPZE1 vaccine has been tested in different animal models and demonstrated mucosal and systemic immune responses, long-lasting protection, and blocking of nasal colonization upon infection (20, 22). In human clinical trials, BPZE1 showed excellent safety profiles (24). In this study, we performed multiple assays to obtain mechanistic insight into the immune responses in humans generated by BPZE1 as compared with aPV. We found that a single intranasal administration of BPZE1 was able to induce well-detectable plasmablasts, activated cTfh1 cells, vaccine-specific CD4+ cells, memory B cells and, ultimately, robust levels of Th1-type antibodies with potent bacterial opsonizing activity. We observed a much wider range of antigen specificities recognized by ...
To assess the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in the management of NAR compared with no therapy, placebo or other topical or systemic medications, or two or more of the above therapies in combination, or different intranasal corticosteroids regimens.. ...
A concentrated DDAVP intranasal spray is available for outpatient use. Its effectiveness is similar to that of the intravenous preparation, although its peak effect is observed later, at 60-90 minutes... more
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Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T. gondii tachyzoites. rTgADF was prepared, purified, and combined with mouse anti-His antibody and rabbit anti-T. gondii serum. After intranasal immunization with 10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg, or 40 μg of rTgADF, the 30-μg group elicited high levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) in nasal, intestinal, and vesical washes, raised IgG titres in the sera, strong proliferation of splenocytes, and increased secretion of IL-2 and IFN
A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. The composition comprises an effective amount of the pharmaceutically active substance, glycyrrhetinic acid, in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of the active substance across the nasal membrane, and a basic salt of an amino acid as an adjuvant. The composition may be administered to the nasal cavity in the form of a spray by using an atomizer, nebulizer, spayer, dropper or other device which ensures contact of the composition with the nasal mucus membrane.
Purpose: Antipsychotics are versatile drugs. Intranasal route could provide efficient delivery for certain therapeutic agents; however, studies on intranasal antipsychotics are limited. Moreover, the systemic and central nervous system (CNS) dispositions of active metabolites after intranasal drug administration are seldom investigated. The current project aims to 1) identify the antipsychotics that are more suitable to be developed into intranasal medications; and 2) characterize the CNS pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of the selected antipsychotic delivered by intranasal route, with a special attention to the role of drug metabolism in PK and PD outcomes.. Methods: To select an antipsychotic with greater potential for intranasal delivery, a systematic approach was adopted to screen antipsychotic candidates with in silico evaluations and then in vitro permeability assays. The systemic and CNS PK and PD profiles of the selected antipsychotic would be investigated in ...