Our study elucidates the distinct links among birth weight adjusted for length, postnatal weight gain during the first 2 years of life, childhood adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in young adolescents who were born at term and who have at least 1 obese parent. With the exception of diastolic BP, we found no evidence of direct effects of early growth (at birth or in the first 2 years of life) on cardiovascular risk factors in early adolescence once childhood adiposity was accounted for. Rate of postnatal weight gain, however, was positively associated with childhood adiposity, which in turn predicted unfavorable lipid and BP outcomes in early adolescence.. The absence of a direct association between birth weight for length and plasma lipid levels is consistent with findings reported elsewhere.17, 39, 40, 41, 42 A systematic review by Huxley et al called into question previous reports of associations between birth weight and cholesterol levels, stating that these associations are likely ...
Although loss in body fat is common in patients with clinical PD,24,25⇓ reported findings have been limited to cross-sectional and case-control studies with uncertain recall and timing of anthropometric histories. Rarely are different adiposity measures (BMI, SSF, and TSF) available for the assessment of their effects on future disease. We are not aware of another study that has been able to prospectively examine the association between midlife adiposity and the future risk of PD. A major strength of the current report also includes the measurement of adiposity following a standardized protocol well before the development of PD. Because subjects did not have PD when follow-up began, effects of medication for PD on patterns of adiposity are also absent.. These findings suggest that adiposity in middle-adulthood is related to an increased risk of PD in later life. Although PD risk was consistently less in men in the bottom vs higher quartiles of each adiposity measure, associations were ...
Summary: Researchers explored whether the types of fats in a mothers pregnancy diet influence body composition of her developing baby. Among 1250 mother/child pairs from Massachusetts, higher omega-3 levels in moms diets from fish were associated with lower adiposity in their children at age 3 years.. ...
Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that circulates in proportion to body fat. Placenta also produces leptin suggesting a specific role during pregnancy, maybe contributing to pregnancy-induced insulin resistance.. Objective: To determine the associations between maternal levels of leptin, glucose and insulin and weight/adiposity measures in newborns.. Methods: A population-based cohort of pregnant women in the region of Sherbrooke, Canada was recruited in early pregnancy (n=1040 at 1st trimester). Maternal anthropometry was measured and blood samples were collected at the 1st and 2nd trimesters to measure glucose (hexokinase), leptin and insulin (ELISA Luminex, Millipore Canada). Birth weights were recorded from the medical records in 783 newborns (full term ,36 weeks). We measured skinfolds in 199 newborns within 72h after birth, using a standardized caliper. We measured triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds was used for analysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity in children. AU - Yin, Zenong. AU - Moore, Justin B.. AU - Johnson, Maribeth H. AU - Vernon, Marlo M Cavnar. AU - Grimstvedt, Megan. AU - Gutin, Bernard. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - CONTEXT: Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). OBJECTIVE: To examine race and sex differences in adiposity measured by DXA in a large sample of young children and to identify both micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Elementary school children (N = 495) from the southeastern United States ...
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine which components of youths diets were related to adiposity while controlling for potential often-neglected confounders such as moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and dietary reporting error. Secondary goals of this study were to determine the extent to which MVPA confounded the associations between diet and adiposity and whether associations between diet and adiposity would differ depending on reporting error. METHODS: An ethnically diverse urban sample of 342 children aged 9-10 years and 323 adolescents aged 17-18 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the school; dietary assessment included three 24-hour recalls via telephone in the evenings, and MVPA assessment included 5 days of accelerometry. Over (n = 68), under (n = 250), or plausible (n = 347) dietary intake reporters were identified with the Huang calculation method. Linear regression assessed the ...
CDC, Early Child Feeding Patterns and Risk of Childhood Obesity: Longitudinal Analyses of Project Viva, PI: Elsie M. Taveras, MD, MPH, To 1) examine the longitudinal relationship between parental control of infant feeding, in particular restriction and pressure to eat, with measures of overweight and adiposity at age 3 years, and 2) examine if maternal prenatal concern about her childs future weight and eating is associated with the use of controlling and restrictive feeding practices in early childhood and with obesity and adiposity at age 3 years ...
To the Editor:. Tankó et al1 observed that peripheral adiposity in elderly women may be associated with a relatively reduced risk of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and vascular calcification. They suggested that this benefit reflects an antiatherogenic effect of peripheral fat. However, we believe their findings support the concept that subtly increased glucocorticoid activity may exert dysmetabolic and atherogenic effects. It is well known, for example, that supraphysiologic levels of glucocorticoids, as seen in Cushing syndrome, increase central adiposity at the expense of peripheral adiposity and muscle mass. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that connects physiologically elevated endogenous glucocorticoid activity with visceral obesity-a phenomenon that may be mediated at the central level via increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and at the peripheral level via increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol by ...
Obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance which is a risk factor for cardiovascular risk. However, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not usually performed in patients with normal fasting glycaemia, thus offering false reassurance to patients with overweight or obesity who may have post-prandial hyperglycaemia. As an alternative to resource demanding OGTTs, we aimed to examine the predictive value of anthropometric measures of total and central fat distribution for post-prandial hyperglycaemia in patients with overweight and obesity with normal fasting glycaemia enrolled in the DICAMANO study. We studied 447 subjects with overweight/obesity with a fasting glucose value ≤ 5.5 mmol l−1 (99 mg dl−1) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who underwent a 75-g OGTT. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia was defined as a glucose level ≥ 7.8 mmol l−1 (140 mg dl−1) 2-h after the OGTT. The anthropometric measurements included body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference, neck circumference,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abdominal adiposity by ultrasonography. T2 - A "pocket" database for reference standard in Italian people. AU - Bazzocchi, Alberto. AU - Ponti, Federico. AU - Diano, Danila. AU - Moio, Antonio. AU - Albisinni, Ugo. AU - Pasquali, Renato. AU - Battista, Giuseppe. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Aims To provide a reference standard database of ultrasonographic parameters of abdominal adiposity in healthy people.Methods Italian non-obese volunteers among blood donors were enrolled in 5 age bands (from 18 to 70 year-old) to reach the threshold of 25 males and 25 females per single band (total: 250). All subjects were measured for weight, height and waist circumference and underwent ultrasonography (US) by an expert radiologist for the assessment of several abdominal fat thicknesses (minimum and maximum subcutaneous fat thickness, maximum preperitoneal fat thickness, intrabdominal fat thickness, aorto-mesenteric thickness, and mesenteric fat thickness). In addition, US data were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenovirus 36, adiposity, and bone strength in late-adolescent females. AU - Laing, Emma M.. AU - Tripp, Ralph A.. AU - Pollock, Norman K.. AU - Baile, Clifton A.. AU - Della-Fera, Mary Anne. AU - Rayalam, Srujana. AU - Tompkins, Stephen M.. AU - Keys, Deborah A.. AU - Lewis, Richard D.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is the only adenovirus to date that has been linked with obesity in humans. Our previous studies in late-adolescent females suggest that excess weight in the form of fat mass is associated with lower cortical bone strength. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between Ad36-specific antibodies, adiposity, and bone strength in our sample of late-adolescent females. A cross-sectional study of 115 females aged 18 to 19 years was performed. Participants were classified according to adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (body fat percentage as normal-fat [ , 32% body fat; n = 93] or high-fat [ ≥ 32% body fat; n = ...
Design and methods Relationships between a direct measure of adiposity (fat mass index from bioimpedance) and a proxy measure (waist circumference), and a generic (KIDSCREEN-27) and a weight-specific measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids)) were examined in a longitudinal population-based cohort of young adolescents aged 12 years (n=519). The effects of change in adiposity over time (from 7 years and 9 years) were also examined (n=331-445 in longitudinal analyses). ...
Results Maternal TNFα in early pregnancy was associated with neonatal anthropometry including biceps [p = 0.048], triceps [p = 0.027] and subscapular [p = 0.002] skinfold thicknesses. TNFα in early and late pregnancy correlated with general adiposity in the neonate [SS + TR p = 0.003, p = 0.008 respectively; Sum of skinfolds p = 0.011, p = 0.002 respectively] [Table 1]. Maternal early and late pregnancy TNFα was also associated with 6-month-old central adiposity [SS/TR ratio p = 0.002, p = 0.030, respectively]. Fetal TNFα did not exert a significant influence on neonatal anthropometry but was associated with infant triceps skinfold at 6 months.. While fetal IL-6 was associated with birth length and waist:height ratio, maternal IL-6 was not significantly associated with adiposity.. ...
Higher SBP per standard deviation of each adiposity measure among men. The differences in SBP per 1 SD of each adiposity measure were calculated, with SBP regre
Weighing New Options to Measure Obesity Researchers have identified a new way of determining whether or not a person is obese, according to a study published online March 3, 2011, in the journal Obesity. The scale is called the "body adiposity index," or BAI, and relies on a ratio of hip and height measurements rather than body weight.. Lead author Richard Bergman, PhD, professor and chair of physiology and biophysics at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, said the new index proved "a useful measure of percent fat" that can be calculated without using a scale-a major benefit for clinics in remote areas without access to reliable measuring devices.. Although the BAI measures body fat accurately, researchers wrote that more studies are needed to determine whether it is a better indicator of overall health and wellness than body mass index (BMI). Still, Dr. Bergman noted, the results show promise for more precise alternatives to BMI, which he said is "known to be of ...
Aim: To examine the relationship between birth weight (BW) and abdominal adiposity in adolescents.. Research Design and Methods: A total of 284 adolescents (49.3% females) aged 14.9±1.2 years were included in the study. BW and gestational age were obtained from parental records. Abdominal adiposity (in three regions: R1, R2, and R3), trunk and total body fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. Regional FM indexes (FMI=FM/height2) were thereafter calculated (Trunk FMI and abdominal FMI R1, R2, and R3).. Results: BW was negatively associated with abdominal FMI R1, R2 and R3 independently of total FM, gestational age, gender, breastfeeding duration, pubertal stage, physical activity and socioeconomic status (all P,0.01).. Conclusions: Our study shows an inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adolescents, independently of total FM and other potential confounders. These findings suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have a programming effect on abdominal adiposity ...
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Tratwal, Josefine ; Labella, Rossella ; Bravenboer, Nathalie ; Kerckhofs, Greet ; Douni, Eleni ; Scheller, Erica L. ; Badr, Sammy ; Karampinos, Dimitrios C. ; Beck-Cormier, Sarah ; Palmisano, Biagio ; Poloni, Antonella ; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J. ; Fretz, Jackie ; Rodeheffer, Matthew S. ; Boroumand, Parastoo ; Rosen, Clifford J. ; Horowitz, Mark C. ; van der Eerden, Bram C. J. ; Veldhuis-Vlug, Annegreet G. ; Naveiras, Olaia. Reporting Guidelines, Review of Methodological Standards, and Challenges Toward Harmonization in Bone Marrow Adiposity Research. Report of the Methodologies Working Group of the International Bone Marrow Adiposity Society. In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 11, no.-, p. - (2020). doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.00065. http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/227854. ...
We found that adiposity and suboptimal-25(OH)D have independent effects on IR at puberty-onset. It is well accepted that obesity is associated with a decrease in peripheral glucose uptake that predisposes to IR condition.33 In this same cohort, we have previously shown that excessive gain in BMI predicted a higher cardio-metabolic risk.22,34 Our work demonstrates that prepubertal adiposity (whole body or central distribution) predicts higher HOMA-IR levels at puberty-onset.. Additionally, our data show that low serum-25(OH)D concentrations may be considered as an additional stressor of the physiologic IR that accompanies pubertal progression. Those children with suboptimal-25(OH)D showed higher IR in comparison with their counterparts even after adjusting by covariates. The biological mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D influenced the IR in children and adolescents remains to be unraveled. The evidence suggests that 1,25(OH)2D might improve peripheral uptake of glucose through the regulation of ...
Wormser, D., Di Angelantonio, E., Sattar, N. , Collins, R., Thompson, S. and Danesh, J. (2011) Body-mass index, abdominal adiposity, and cardiovascular risk - Authors reply. Lancet, 378(9787), p. 228. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61122-7) ...
2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Background/Objectives:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition.Subjects/Methods:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed ...
Calcium (Ca(2+)) intake may play a role in the regulation of body weight. Increased Ca(2+) intake has been associated with lower body weight, BMI, and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies. We examined the association between Ca(2+) intake, d
In a large community-based population of adults, we identify circulating ex-RNAs that are associated with markers of IR and adiposity, independent of age, sex, and BMI. Specifically, miR-122 was consistently related to dysfunctional adiposity phenotypes previously demonstrated to influence downstream cardiometabolic risk, including visceral and hepatic fat and selected adipokines and inflammatory mediators. In a separate cohort of 90 overweight/obese youth without diabetes, we demonstrated that miR-122 was associated with IR independent of metabolite profile (via metabolomics), age, sex, or BMI, suggesting that ex-RNAs may have a role in IR independent of emerging metabolic markers of IR. Based on in silico pathway analyses for the 16 miRNAs found in FHS (of total 18 ex-RNAs), we found that the identified miRNAs targeted several key pathways previously implicated in IR (including mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin signaling, and AMPK), with significant cross-targeting of multiple IR-related ...
Wright, M.E., Chang, S.C., Schatzkin, A., Albanes, D., Kipnis, V., Mouw, T., et al. (2007) Prospective Study of Adiposity and Weight Change in Relation to Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Cancer, 109, 675-684. PubMed PMID 17211863.
Ожирение или лишний вес - бич современного общества. Люди, страдающие ожирением и лишним весом, сталкиваются с эстетическими, психологическими, и главное различными проблемами со здоровьем.. Для лечения от ожирения в настоящее время наибольшее распространение получили различные диеты и пищевые добавки для похудения. Такие добавки для похудения способствуют быстрому заполнению желудка, подавляют чувство голода, усиливают сжигание жира.. Попытки похудеть таким способом обычно приносят лишь временные результаты, при этом проблема лишнего веса ...
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown a positive correlation between obesity and viral infections with a particular emphasis on the human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). Ad-36 is the first human virus that may increase adiposity in animals, and it is considered as a possible risk factor for obesity in humans; however, the results were not consistent across all the studies. The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Ad-36 infection on obesity in a rat model. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 170-240 gram (g), were randomly divided into two groups, infection group (48 rats) and a control group (12 rats ...
This study utilizes an F16 AIL segregated by diet to map gene-by-diet interactions in previously identified adiposity QTLs. Of the previously identified adiposity QTLs, five of the original eight replicated at the 5% level or better. Two of the previously identified adiposity QTLs did not replicate. However, the lack of replication may be explained by discrepancies in the genetic maps used for each study. The 2001 study relied on recombinational mapping to determine marker position (22), and markers were chosen for the genome-wide scan on the basis of F10 recombinational data (data not shown). Subsequent examination of the Ensembl physical database (www.ensembl.org) reveals that the marker chosen to replicate Adip1, D1Mit178, is actually centromeric of its original apparent map position. Examination of other experimental samples derived from the same parental cross by our group has replicated Adip1 (data not shown). Similarly, the markers chosen to replicate Adip4, D8Mit56 and D8Mit324, are ...
Increasing evidence supports the role of adipose tissue in the development of a systemic inflammatory state, which contributes to obesity-associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular risk. In addition t
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Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P , 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the ,55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a ...
Among Hispanics, young-adult and current body mass index (BMI) were inversely associated with both ER+PR+ and ER−PR− breast cancer. For ER+PR+ disease, risk was substantially reduced among those with elevated BMI throughout adulthood (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.19-0.62). Height and height-to-waist ratio were positively associated with ER−PR− breast cancer. After adjustment for current BMI, two-fold increased risks were seen for large waist and hip circumferences, regardless of tumor receptor status. Genetic ancestry appeared to modify some of the associations with overall and abdominal adiposity. Among NHWs, findings for overall adiposity were similar to those for Hispanics, but there was no evidence of associations with abdominal adiposity ...
Krzeczkowski JE, Boylan K, Arbuckle TE, Dodds L, Muckle G, Fraser WD, Favotto LA, Van Lieshout RJ, on behalf of The MIREC Study Group. Early Human Development. 2018 Oct;125:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.08.005.. Pre-pregnancy obesity (adiposity) or maternal high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) have been linked to altered brain development in infants. A babys brain is rapidly developing both during pregnancy and in early life. Thus, maternal adiposity or hyperglycemia during pregnancy may impact the childs cognition (IQ) and behavior. This study was designed to look at the associations between pre-pregnancy adiposity or hyperglycemia and child IQ and behavior at around 3 years of age.. Data from 808 mother-child pairs from the MIREC-CD Plus study were analysed. Pre-pregnancy adiposity was assessed by calculating the womans body mass index (BMI: weight in kg/height in m2). If the women had gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (measures of high blood glucose), they were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex and area differences in the association between adiposity and lipid profile in Malawi. AU - Soares, Ana Luiza G.. AU - Banda, Louis. AU - Amberbir, Alemayehu. AU - Jaffar, Shabbar. AU - Musicha, Crispin. AU - Price, Alison. AU - Nyirenda, Moffat J.. AU - Lawlor, Debbie A.. AU - Crampin, Amelia. PY - 2019/9/11. Y1 - 2019/9/11. N2 - Background: Evidence from high-income countries shows that higher adiposity results in an adverse lipid profile, but it is unclear whether this association is similar in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. This study aimed to assess the association between total and central adiposity measures and lipid profile in Malawi, exploring differences by sex and area of residence (rural/urban). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 12,096 rural and 12,847 urban Malawian residents were used. The associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine putative mediators and moderators in the association between adiposity and anxiety in a sample of overweight and obese youth. In addition, anxiety was examined as a potential moderator between adiposity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were youth (N = 137) between 8 and 17 years old (M = 13.09, SD = 2.61) and their legal caregivers recruited from four medical clinics affiliated with the University of South Florida. Youth were primarily overweight (28.5%) or obese (64.2%) and ethnically diverse. Data were analyzed by path analysis. Weight-related teasing significantly mediated the association between adiposity and child reported anxiety, but competency-related teasing and peer victimization were not significant mediators. Internalization of appearance ideals significantly moderated the association between adiposity and anxiety by child report; however, no significant moderations were found for parent report. Additionally,
This dissertation project describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) women and mens association between adiposity and the development of hypertension and Lifestyle Education for Activity and Nutrition (LEAN) Study primary outcomes with the SenseWearTM Armband. The ACLS was used for studies 1 and 2 in this dissertation project. General obesity is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension (HTN). However, it is not well-studied whether central obesity and fat distribution are also related to the future HTN. 13,897men and 5,296 women healthy normotensive aged 20-100 years completed a baseline examination during 1976-2004 and were followed for HTN incidence. Incident HTN was identified via follow-up mail-back surveys. Obesity was defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ≥ 102 cm, or percent body fat ≥ 25%. In a subgroup of women (n = 3,189) with complete data on all the five adiposity measures, significant positive associations with HTN were seen
Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15-18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes,
An increasing dissatisfaction with the use of Body Mass Index (BMI) for measuring obesity has led scientists to develop a new way to measure obesity without having people step on the scale.. The new measure, called the Body Adiposity Index, or BAI, relies on height and hip measurements whereas BMI relies on a ratio of height and weight.. Richard Bergman of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and colleagues have published their findings on the new BAI in the journal Obesity.. Obesity is a growing problem in the United States and throughout the world. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. BMI is used in many schools to assess at risk children for obesity.. BMI was invented by Lambert Adolphe Quetelet more than 200 years ago. His Body Mass Index (also called the Quetelet Index) which remains the current "simple" measurement for obesity to this day. BMI is not without its flaws. Many believe it is only valid for people over the age of 20. It often puts professional ...
Several anthropometric measures, indices and other techniques have been used in the literature on associations between adiposity and MC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ability of different measures of adiposity to discriminate between low/high motor coordination (MC). Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 596 Portuguese childrens, aged 9- 12 years during the 2009/2010 academic year. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were objectively measured by standardized protocols. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectric impedance. Body mass index (weight/hight2) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were computed. MC was assessed with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (Kiphard & Schiling, 1974). Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery (Welk & Meredith, 2008). A questionnaire was used for assess mothers educational level. Receiver operating characteristic ...
SILVA, Diego Augusto S. et al. Differences and similarities in stages of behavioral change related to physical activity in adolescents from two regions of Brazil. Rev. paul. pediatr. [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.2, pp.193-201. ISSN 0103-0582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822011000200010.. OBJECTIVE: To establish differences and similarities in stages of behavioral change related to physical activity and associated factors in adolescents from two regions of Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on public school students aged 14 to 17 years, including 601 from the mid-west of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil) and 464 from the north of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil). Stages of behavioral change related to physical activity were identified using a standard questionnaire. Sociodemographic data, body adiposity indexes and nutritional status were collected. The following were used for data analysis: chi-square test, Fishers exact test, comparison of proportions and multivariable analysis using ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The present study was designed to investigate the impact and to identify potential mechanisms for dietary energy balance effects on prostate cancer progression in an established mouse model of prostate cancer (i.e., Hi-Myc mice; ref. 21). Diets of varying caloric density, which have been used in numerous studies to evaluate the effects of dietary energy balance on chronic disease (including cancer), were used and the resulting body weights and adiposity levels corresponded with previously published data using the same diets (32, 33). These previous reports classified mouse adiposity levels and provide a corresponding body phenotype as a function of both human body fat content and BMI classification. As such, the mice in the current study correspond to lean, overweight, and obese phenotypes. The DIO regimen used has consistently been shown to effectively induce an obese state in mice, enabling evaluation of the direct effects of obesity on prostate cancer as well as comparisons among obese, ...
Background: The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age-and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we ...
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and characterized by sleep disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, mental retardation, and obesity in teens and adults. Rai1+/- mice are obese after 20 weeks. Dup(17)(p11.2) syndrome is a complex disorder associated with overexpression of RAI1. A transgenic mouse model of dup(17)(p11.2) syndrome overexpresses Rai1 and results in a mouse that is growth delayed. In order to characterize the obese phenotypes of mouse models of SMS and the role of RAI1 in obesity, daily food intake and serum levels of insulin, glucose, PPY, and leptin were measured; adiposity was studied by characterizing fat deposition; and gene expression was studied in the hypothalamus. These studies show that Rai1+/- mice are hyperphagic, consume more during the inactive light phase, and have altered satiety genes in the hypothalamus. Adiposity studies have shown WT females have a higher body fat content and visceral fat proportion than males,
Site of the Professor Professor Omar Al Attas: Professor of Biochemistry / Director, Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research related to Faculties Websites at King Saud University
Background: Some reports suggest that body mass index (BMI) is not strongly associated with mortality in Hispanic populations. Objective: To assess the causal relevance of adiposity to mortality in Mexican adults, avoiding reverse causality biases. Design: Prospective study. Setting: 2 Mexico City districts. Participants: 159 755 adults aged 35 years and older at recruitment, followed for up to 14 years. Participants with a hemoglobin A1c level of 7% or greater, diabetes, or other chronic diseases were excluded. Measurements: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, and cause-specific mortality. Cox regression, adjusted for confounders, yielded mortality hazard ratios (HRs) after at least 5 years of follow-up and before age 75 years. Results: Among 115 400 participants aged 35 to |75 years at recruitment, mean BMI was 28.0 kg/m2 (SD, 4.1 kg/m2) in men and 29.6 kg/m2 (SD, 5.1 kg/m2) in women. The association of BMI at recruitment with all-cause mortality was J-shaped, with the minimum at 25 to |27.5
Background: Some reports suggest that body mass index (BMI) is not strongly associated with mortality in Hispanic populations. Objective: To assess the causal relevance of adiposity to mortality in Mexican adults, avoiding reverse causality biases. Design: Prospective study. Setting: 2 Mexico City districts. Participants: 159 755 adults aged 35 years and older at recruitment, followed for up to 14 years. Participants with a hemoglobin A1c level of 7% or greater, diabetes, or other chronic diseases were excluded. Measurements: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, and cause-specific mortality. Cox regression, adjusted for confounders, yielded mortality hazard ratios (HRs) after at least 5 years of follow-up and before age 75 years. Results: Among 115 400 participants aged 35 to |75 years at recruitment, mean BMI was 28.0 kg/m2 (SD, 4.1 kg/m2) in men and 29.6 kg/m2 (SD, 5.1 kg/m2) in women. The association of BMI at recruitment with all-cause mortality was J-shaped, with the minimum at 25 to |27.5
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
Groups of obese subjects and those with central adiposity consumed higher proportions of energy as fat and lower as carbohydrate than those without obesity and central adiposity (p,0.05). Stratifying by generation, second-generation was shown to take more energy as fat than the first-generation (p,0.05). In the regression models, protein intake was the only variable significantly associated with body mass index. Replacing body mass index by the waist circumference, male sex and protein intake were shown to be independent predictors of central adiposity. When second-generation was taken, total energy intake and all macronutrient intakes became significantly associated with body mass index (p,0.05) but only protein intake predicted waist circumference. We speculate that Japanese-Brazilians, genetically prone to insulin resistance, when exposed to unfavorable environment will express a number of metabolic disturbances. A deleterious dietary pattern may contribute to weight gain, was associated with ...
Background: Changes in body weight and adiposity levels can follow breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment, which could result in poor long-term BC outcomes. The factors associated with these changes and the biological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Aims, methods, sample and data analysis: A longitudinal retrospective study was conducted to explore weight change post- diagnosis and its association with BC treatment, disease characteristics and biological and behavioural factors. A second aim was to examine factors associated with adiposity and metabolic parameters measured at the end of the follow up. 239 women diagnosed with BC one to seven years prior to study entry attending a specialist BC centre were recruited. Weight from BC diagnosis to the study entry, BC treatments received, disease characteristics, menopausal status, smoking status and age were collected from medical notes. Genetic profile (FTO, Mc4R), body fat and fat free mass, waist circumference and fasting glucose ...
Houghton D, Thoma C, Hallsworth K, Cassidy S, Hardy T, Burt AD, Tiniakos D, Hollingsworth KG, Taylor R, Day CP, McPherson S, Anstee QM, Trenell ...